merchandise
   HOME

TheInfoList




Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of
products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
to a retail
consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily for personal, social, family, household and similar needs, not directly related to entrepreneurial or bu ...
. At a retail in-store level, merchandising refers to displaying products that are for sale in a creative way that entices customers to purchase more items or products. In
retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...

retail
commerce, visual display merchandising means merchandise
sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in ...

sales
using
product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
, selection,
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ...

packaging
,
pricing Pricing is the Business process, process whereby a business sets the price at which it will sell its products and services, and may be part of the business's marketing plan. In setting prices, the business will take into account the price at whi ...

pricing
, and display that stimulates consumers to spend more. This includes disciplines and
discounting Discounting is a financial mechanism in which a debtor obtains the right to delay payments to a creditor, for a defined period of time, in exchange for a charge or fee.See "Time Value", "Discount", "Discount Yield", "Compound Interest", "Efficient ...
, physical presentation of products and displays, and the decisions about which products should be presented to which customers at what time. Often in a retail setting, creatively tying in related products or accessories is a great way to entice consumers to purchase more. Merchandising helps to understand the ordinary dating notation for the terms of payment of an invoice. Codified discounting solves pricing problems including markups and markdowns. It helps to find the net price of an item after single or multiple trade discounts and can calculate a single discount rate that is equivalent to a series of multiple discounts. Further, it helps to calculate the amount of cash discount for which a payment qualifies.


Promotional merchandising

The annual cycle of merchandising differs between countries and even within them, particularly relating to cultural customs like holidays, and seasonal issues like climate and local sporting and recreation. Events such as Chinese festivals and
Japanese festivals Japanese festivals are traditional festive occasions. Some festivals have their roots in Traditional Chinese holidays, Chinese festivals centuries ago, but have undergone great changes as they mixed with local customs. Some are so different that ...
are incorporated in an annual cycle of shop decorations and merchandise promotion. In the United States, the basic retail cycle begins in early January with merchandise for
Valentine's Day Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14. It originated as a Christian feast day honoring one or two early Christian martyrs named Saint Valentine and, throu ...
, which is not until mid-February.
Presidents' Day Washington's Birthday is a federal holiday in the United States celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American political leader, military general, st ...
sales are held shortly thereafter. Following this,
Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'' and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel Pe ...

Easter
is the major holiday, while springtime clothing and garden-related merchandise is already arriving at stores, often as early as mid-winter (toward the beginning of this section, St. Patrick's Day merchandise, including green items and products pertaining to Irish culture, is also promoted).
Mother's Day Mother's Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March ...

Mother's Day
and
Father's Day Father's Day is a holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow individu ...
are next, with
graduation Graduation is the award of academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer d ...

graduation
gifts (typically small
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
like
digital camera A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...

digital camera
s) often being marketed as "dads and grads" in June (though most college semesters end in May; the grads portion usually refers to high school graduation, which ends one to two weeks after Father's Day in many U.S. states). Summer merchandise is next, including patriotic-themed products with the American flag, out by
Memorial Day Memorial Day (originally known as Decoration Day) is a federal holiday in the United States In the United States, a federal holiday is a calendar date that is recognized and designated by the federal government of the United States as a h ...
in preparation for
Independence Day An independence day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that ...
(with
Flag Day A flag day is a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term ''flag'' is also used to refe ...
in between). By July, back-to-school is on the shelves and autumn merchandise is already arriving, and at some
arts and crafts A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...

arts and crafts
stores,
Christmas decoration A Christmas decoration is any of several types of ornamentation used at Christmastime and the greater holiday season. The traditional colors of Christmas are pine A pine is any Pinophyta, conifer in the genus ''Pinus'' () of the family (b ...

Christmas decoration
s. (Often, a
Christmas in July Christmas (or the Feast of the Nativity) is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of N ...
celebration is held around this time.) The back-to-school market is promoted heavily in August, when there are no holidays to promote. By September, particularly after
Labor Day Labor Day is a federal holiday in the United States In the United States, a federal holiday is a calendar date that is recognized and designated by the federal government of the United States as a holiday. Every year on a U.S. federal holid ...

Labor Day
, summer merchandise is on final closeout and
overstock Overstock, excessive stock, excess2sell, B-stock, or excess inventory, is the result of poor management of stock demand or of material flow in process management. Excessive stock is also associated with loss of revenue owing to additional Financial ...
of school supplies is marked-down some as well, and
Halloween Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), less commonly known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast o ...

Halloween
(and often even more of the Christmas) merchandise is appearing. As the Halloween decorations and costumes dwindle in October, Christmas is already being pushed on consumers, and by the day after Halloween retailers are going full-force with advertising, even though the "official" season doesn't start until
the day after ''The Day After'' is an American television film that first aired on November 20, 1983, on the American Broadcasting Company, ABC television network. More than 100 million people, in nearly 39 million households, watched the program dur ...
Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow ...
. Christmas clearance sales begin even before Christmas at many retailers, though others begin on the day after Christmas and continue on at least until
New Year's Day New Year's Day is a festival observed in most of the world on 1 January, the first day of the year in the modern Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...

New Year's Day
but sometimes as far out as February. Merchandising also varies within
retail chain A chain store or retail chain is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distributi ...
s, where stores in places like
Buffalo
Buffalo
might carry
snow blower A snow blower or snow thrower is a machine for removing snow from an area where it is problematic, such as a driveway, sidewalk, roadway, railroad track, ice rink, or runway According to the International Civil Aviation Organization ...
s, while stores in
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
and
southern California Southern California (sometimes known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a in the . With over 39.3million resi ...

southern California
might instead carry beach clothing and barbecue grills all year. Coastal-area stores might carry
water skiing Water skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots ...

water skiing
equipment, while ones near
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
s would likely have
snow skiing Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo furthe ...

snow skiing
and
snowboarding Snowboarding is a recreational and competitive activity that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard Snowboards are boards where both feet are placed, and most times secured, to the same board, which are wider ...

snowboarding
gear if there are ski areas nearby.


Retail supply chain

In the
supply chain In commerce, a supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product (business), product or service (business), service to a consumer. Supply chain activities involve the transfo ...

supply chain
, merchandising is the practice of making products in retail outlets available to consumers, primarily by stocking shelves and displays. While this used to be done exclusively by the stores' employees, many retailers have found substantial savings in requiring it to be done by the manufacturer, vendor, or wholesaler that provides the products to the retail store. In the United Kingdom, there are a number of organizations that supply merchandising services to support retail outlets with general stock replenishment and merchandising support in new stores. By doing this, retail stores have been able to substantially reduce the number of employees needed to run the store. While stocking shelves and building displays is often done when the product is delivered, it is increasingly a separate activity from delivering the product. In grocery stores, for example, almost all products delivered directly to the store from a manufacturer or wholesaler will be stocked by the manufacturer's/wholesaler's employee who is a full-time merchandiser. Product categories where this is common are Beverage (all types, alcoholic and non-alcoholic), packaged baked goods (bread and pastries), magazines and books, and health and beauty products. For major food manufacturers in the beverage and baked goods industries, their merchandisers are often the single largest employee group within the company. For nationwide branded goods manufacturers such as
The Coca-Cola Company The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
and
PepsiCo PepsiCo, Inc. (commonly known as the Pepsi Company) is an American multinational corporation, multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Harrison, New York, in the hamlet of Purchase, New York, Purchase. PepsiCo's busi ...

PepsiCo
, their respective merchandiser work forces number in the thousands.


Licensing

In
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
, one of the definitions of merchandising is the practice in which the brand or image from one product or service is used to sell another.
Trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

Trademark
ed brand names, logos, or character images are licensed to manufacturers of products such as toys or clothing, which then make items in or emblazoned with the image of the license, hoping they'll sell better than the same item with no such image.ABC News: Coffins bearing baseball team logos.
(accessed 2007-01-06)
For the owners of the IP (
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
) in question, merchandising is a very popular source of revenue, due to the low cost of letting a third party manufacture the merchandise, while the IP owners collect the merchandising (royalty) fees.


Children

Merchandising for children is most prominently seen in connection with
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
s and
videogames A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface 300px, The Reactable, an example of a tangible user interface ">tangible_user_interface.html" ;"title="Reactable, an example of a tangible user interface">Re ...
, usually those in current release and with
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
shows oriented towards children. Merchandising, especially in connection with child-oriented films and TV shows, often consists of toys made in the likeness of the show's characters (action figures) or items which they use. However, sometimes it can be the other way around, with the show written to include the toys, as advertising for the merchandise. The first major example of this was the TV show "G.I. JOE A Real American Hero.," produced by Hasbro in the early 1980s, but this practice has been common in children's broadcasting ever since. Sometimes merchandising from a television show can grow far beyond the original show, even lasting decades after the show has largely disappeared from popularity. In other cases, large amounts of merchandise can be generated from a pitifully small amount of source material ( Mashimaro).


Adult

The most common adult-oriented merchandising is that related to
professional sports Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have bro ...
teams (and their players). A smaller niche in merchandising is the marketing of more adult-oriented products in connection with similarly adult-oriented films and TV shows. This is common especially with the
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
and
horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horror film, a film genre *Horror comics, comic books focusing on h ...
genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, ...

genre
s. Occasionally, shows which were intended more for children find a following among adults (for example, ''
Gundam is a Japanese military fictionMilitary fiction is a genre of fiction, focusing on military activities, such as war, battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usua ...
''
model kit A model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do somet ...
s). An early example of this phenomenon was the cartoon character Little Lulu, who became licensed to products for adults, such as Kleenex facial tissue. Sometimes a
brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making one's living or making mon ...

brand
of non-media products can achieve enough recognition and respect that simply putting its name or images on a completely unrelated item can sell that item. An example is
Harley-Davidson Harley-Davidson, Inc., H-D, or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer founded in 1903 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Along with Indian (motorcycle), Indian, it was one of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depres ...

Harley-Davidson
branded clothing.


Idol goods

Idol goods or idol merchandise are various types of merchandise related to
celebrities Celebrity is a condition of wikt:fame, fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group, or occasionally a character or animal, as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a celebrity status from hav ...

celebrities
("idols"). Consumption of idol goods is a significant part of the idol fandom. Such goods create and reinforce a more physical connection between fans and celebrities. Examples of common idol goods include
stationery Stationery is a mass noun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
items,
compact discs#REDIRECT Compact disc#REDIRECT Compact disc {{redirect category shell, {{R move {{R from other capitalization, printworthy {{R yes print ...
{{redirect category shell, {{R move {{R from other capitalization, printworthy {{R yes print ...

compact discs
,
photo albums File:View_from_the_Window_at_Le_Gras_colorized_2020_new.png, 396x396px, ''View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Origina ...
, calendars, telephone cards, T-shirts (see also concert T-shirt), key chains, lapel pins, and various other goods. Virtual idols can be considered an idol good themselves as they can be bought and sold. An idol can have a tremendous effect on sales of merchandise, an example being
David Beckham David Robert Joseph Beckham (; born 2 May 1975) is an English former professional footballer A football player or footballer is a sportsperson, sport person who plays one of the different types of football. The main types of football are a ...

David Beckham
upon his arrival at Real Madrid in 2003, with an Adidas spokesman stating, "Put Beckham's name on any product and Real Madrid didn't stop selling". In the 1960s
The Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

The Beatles
were pioneers in conventional retailing in music, setting up their own retail store in London, Apple Boutique, that sold Beatles merchandise.


See also

*
Celebrity branding Celebrity branding or celebrity endorsement is a form of advertising campaign Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including se ...
*
Promotional merchandise Promotional merchandise are products branded with a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
*
Merchandization Merchandization is a critical term coined by the anti-globalization movement to designate the process of change in viewpoint of individuals or society towards an object, service or substance. Things that were formerly thought of as "simply being the ...
*
Visual merchandising Visual merchandising is the practice in the retail industry of optimizing the presentation of products and services to better highlight their features and benefits. The purpose of such visual merchandising is to attract, engage, and motivate the c ...

Visual merchandising
*
Gadget A gadget is a mechanical device or any ingenious article. Gadgets are sometimes referred to as ''wikt:gizmo, gizmos''. History The etymology of the word is disputed. The word first appears as reference to an 18th-century tool in glassmaking that ...
*
Tie-in A tie-in work is a work of fiction or other product based on a media property such as a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting ...
*
Shoplifting Shoplifting is the theft of goods from an open retail establishment, typically by concealing a store item on one's person, in pockets, under clothes, or in a bag, and leaving the store without paying. With clothing, shoplifters may put on items ...
*
List of highest-grossing media franchises This is a list of the highest-grossing media franchises. This includes media franchises that started as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers ...


References


Further reading

*


External links


Procter&Gamble merchandising standards
{{Authority control Promotion and marketing communications Marketing techniques Retail processes and techniques no:Spin-off#Salgsvarer