least weasel
   HOME

TheInfoList



The least weasel (''Mustela nivalis''), little weasel, common weasel, or simply weasel is the smallest member of the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In the hierarchy of biolog ...
'' Mustela,''
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politics, ...
Mustelidae The Mustelidae (; from Latin ''mustela'', weasel) are a family of carnivora, carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, minks and wolverines, among others. Mustelids () are a diverse group and form the largest famil ...
and
order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of achieving a ...
Carnivora Carnivora is an order of placental mammals that have specialized in primarily eating flesh. Its members are formally referred to as carnivorans, though some species are omnivorous, such as raccoons and bears, and quite a few species such as pand ...
. It is native to
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as contin ...

Eurasia
,
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
and
North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's ...

North Africa
, and has been introduced to
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia ...

Malta
,
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology i ...

Crete
, the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região A ...

Azores
, and
São Tomé São Tomé is the capital city, capital and largest city of the Central Africa, Central African island country of São Tomé and Príncipe. Its name is Portuguese language, Portuguese for "Thomas (Apostle), Saint Thomas". Founded in the 15th centu ...
. It is classified as
least concern A least-concern species is a species that has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ...
by the
IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journ ...
, due to its wide distribution and large population throughout the
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of s ...

Northern Hemisphere
. Least weasels from various parts of its range vary greatly in size. The body is slender and elongated, and the legs and tail are relatively short. The colour varies geographically, as does the
pelage Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many different animals. It is a defining characteristic of mammals. It consists of a combination of oily #Guard hair, guard hair on top and thick #Down hair, underfur beneath. The guard hair ...

pelage
type and length of tail. The dorsal surface, flanks, limbs and tail of the animal are usually some shade of brown while the underparts are white. The line delineating the boundary between the two colours is usually straight. At high altitudes and in the northern part of its range, the coat becomes pure white in winter. Eighteen subspecies are recognised. Small rodents form the largest part of the least weasel's diet, but it also kills and eats rabbits, other mammals, and occasionally birds, birds' eggs, fish and frogs. Males mark their territories with olfactory signals and have exclusive home ranges which may intersect with or include several female ranges. Least weasels use pre-existing holes to sleep, store food and raise their young. Breeding takes place in the spring and summer, and there is a single litter of about six kits which are reared exclusively by the female. Due to its small size and fierce nature, the least weasel plays an important part in the mythology and legend of various cultures.


Taxonomy and evolution

The least weasel was given its scientific name ''Mustela nivalis'' by Carl Linnaeus in his 12th edition of Systema Naturae in 1766. The type locality was
Västerbotten Västerbotten (), known in English as West Bothnia or Westrobothnia, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major ...

Västerbotten
in Sweden. As an animal with a very wide distribution, the morphology of the least weasel varies geographically. The species was reviewed by Reichstein in 1957 and again by van Zyll de Jong in 1992 and Reig in 1997. Youngman (1982) placed it in the subgenus ''Mustela'' while Abramov (1999) considered it should be included in the subgenus ''Gale''. Based on skull characteristics, Reig (1997) proposed that the
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
should be split into four species, ''M. subpalmata'', ''M. rixosa'', ''M. vulgaris'' and ''M. eskimo''. Abrimov and Baryshinikov (2000) disagreed, recognising only ''M. subpalmata'' (the
Egyptian weasel The Egyptian weasel (''Mustela subpalmata'') is a weasel Weasels are mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by th ...
) as a separate species. However, Rodrigues ''et al''. (2016) recognized ''M. subpalmata'' as a distinct population of ''nivalis'' rather than a distinct species. Within the genus ''Mustela'', the least weasel is a relatively unspecialised form, as evidenced by its pedomorphic skull, which occurs even in large subspecies. Its direct ancestor was ''Mustela praenivalis'', which lived in Europe during the
Middle Pleistocene The Chibanian, widely known by its previous designation of Middle Pleistocene, is an Age (geology), age in the international geologic timescale or a Stage (stratigraphy), stage in chronostratigraphy, being a division of the Pleistocene Epoch within ...
and
Villafranchian Villafranchian age ( ) is a period of geologic time (3.5–1.0 Ma) overlapping the end of the Pliocene and the beginning of the Pleistocene used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages. Named by Italian geologist Lorenzo ParetoFossil Mamm ...
. ''M. praenivalis'' itself was probably preceded by ''M. pliocaenica'' of the
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) epoch (geology), Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58Late Pleistocene The Late Pleistocene is an unofficial age in the international geologic timescale The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, ...
. The least weasel is the product of a process begun 5–7 million years ago, when northern forests were replaced by open grassland, thus prompting an explosive evolution of small, burrowing rodents. The weasel's ancestors were larger than the current form, and underwent a reduction in size to exploit the new food source. The least weasel thrived during the
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...

Ice Age
, as its small size and long body allowed it to easily operate beneath snow, as well as hunt in burrows. It probably crossed to North America through the
Bering land bridge Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It i ...
200,000 years ago.


Subspecies

The least weasel has a high geographic variation, a fact which has historically led to numerous disagreements among biologists studying its systematics. The least weasel's subspecies are divided into three categories: * The ''pygmaea–rixosa'' group (small least weasels): Tiny weasels with short tails, skulls, and pelts that turn pure white in winter. They inhabit northern
European Russia European Russia (russian: Европейская Россия), is the western and historical portion of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia ...

European Russia
,
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
, the
Russian Far East Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in Northeast Asia. It is the easternmost part of Russia and the A ...

Russian Far East
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of Bo ...

Finland
, the northern
Scandinavian Peninsula The Scandinavian Peninsula ( sv, Skandinaviska halvön; no, Den skandinaviske halvøy (Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred writ ...
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
, northeastern
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...

China
,
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
and
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
. * The ''boccamela'' group (large least weasels): Very large weasels with large skulls, relatively long tails and lighter coloured pelts. Locally, they either do not turn white or only partially change colour in winter. They inhabit
Transcaucasia The South Caucasus, also known as Transcaucasia, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term ...
, from western
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
to
Semirechye Zhetysu or Jeti-Suu ( kk, , Жетісу, pronounced ; ky, ''Jeti-Suu'', (), meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed ''Zhetisu'', ''Jetisuw'', ''Jetysu'', ''Jeti-su'', ''Jity-su'', ''Жетысу'',, United States National Geospatial-Inte ...

Semirechye
and in the flat deserts of Middle Asia. They are also found in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. * The ''nivalis'' group (medium-sized least weasels): Medium-sized weasels, with tails of moderate length, representing a transitional form between the former two groups. They inhabit the middle and southern regions of European Russia, Crimea, the Ciscaucasus, western Kazakhstan, the southern and middle Urals and the montane parts of Middle Asia, save for Koppet Dag.


Description

The least weasel has a thin, greatly elongated and extremely flexible body with a small, yet elongated, blunt-muzzled head which is no thicker than the neck. The eyes are small in relation to their head size and are bulging and dark colored. The legs and tail are relatively short, the latter constituting less than half the body length. The feet have sharp, dark-coloured claws, and the sole (foot), soles are heavily haired. The skull, especially that of the small ''rixosa'' group, has an infantile appearance when compared with that of other members of the genus ''Mustela'' (in particular, the stoat and Siberian weasel, kolonok). This is expressed in the relatively large size of the cranium and shortened facial region. The skull is, overall, similar to that of the stoat, but smaller, though the skulls of large male weasels tend to overlap in size with those of small female stoats. There are usually four pairs of nipples but these are only visible in females. The baculum is short, , with a thick, straight shaft. Fat is deposited along the spine, kidneys, gut mesentries and around the limbs. The least weasel has muscular anal glands under the tail, which measure , and contain sulphurous volatiles, including thietanes and dithiacyclopentanes. The smell and chemical composition of these chemicals are distinct from those of the stoat. The least weasel moves by jumping, the distance between the tracks of the fore and hind limbs being . Dimensions vary geographically, to an extent rarely found among other mammals. Least weasels of the ''boccamela'' group, for example, may outweigh the smaller races by almost four times. In some large subspecies, the male may be 1.5 times longer than the female. Variations in tail length are also variable, constituting 13 to 30 percent of the length of the body. Average body length in males is , while females average . The tail measures in males and in females. Males weigh , while females weigh . The winter fur is dense, but short and closely fitting. In northern subspecies, the fur is soft and silky, but coarse in southern forms. The summer fur is very short, sparser and rougher. The upper parts in the summer fur are dark, but vary geographically from dark-tawny or dark-chocolate to light pale tawny or sandy. The lower parts, including the Mandible#Other vertebrates, lower jaw and inner sides of the legs, are white. There is often a brown spot at the corner of the mouth. The dividing line between the dark upper and light lower parts is usually straight but sometimes forms an irregular line. The tail is brown, and sometimes the tip is a little darker but it is never black. In the northern part of its range and at high altitudes, the least weasel changes colour in the winter, the coat becoming pure white and exhibiting a few black hairs in rare circumstances.


Behaviour and ecology


Reproduction and development

The least weasel mates in April–July and there is a 34- to 37-day gestation period. In the
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of s ...

Northern Hemisphere
, the average litter size consists of 6 kits and these reach sexual maturity in 3 to 4 months. Males may mate during their first year of life, though this is usually unsuccessful. They are fecund in February–October, though the early stages of spermatogenesis do occur throughout the winter months. Estrous cycle#Anestrus, Anestrus in females lasts from September until February. The female raises its kits without help from the male. They are in weight at birth. Newborn kits are born pink, naked, blind and deaf, but gain a white coat of downy fur at the age of 4 days. At 10 days, the margin between the dark upper parts and light under parts becomes visible. The milk teeth erupt at 2 to 3 weeks of age, at which point the young start to eat solid food, though lactation can last 12 weeks. The eyes and ears open at 3 to 4 weeks of age, and by 8 weeks, killing behaviour is developed. The family breaks up after 9 to 12 weeks. There is a single litter each year and least weasels can live for 7 or 8 years.


Territorial and social behaviours

The least weasel has a typical mustelid territorial pattern, consisting of exclusive male ranges encompassing multiple female ranges. The population density of each territory depends greatly on food supply and reproductive success, thus the social structure and population density of any given territory is unstable and flexible. Like the stoat, the male least weasel extends its range during spring or during food shortages. Its scent marking behaviour is similar to that of the stoat; it uses faeces, urine and anal and dermal gland secretions, the latter two of which are deposited by anal dragging and body rubbing. The least weasel does not dig its own den, but nests in the abandoned burrow of another species such as a mole or rat. The burrow entrance measures about across and leads to the nest chamber located up to below ground. The nest chamber (which is used for sleeping, rearing kits and storing food) measures in diameter, and is lined with straw and the skins of the weasel's prey. The least weasel has four basic vocalisations; a guttural hiss emitted when alarmed, which is interspersed with short screaming barks and shrieks when provoked. When defensive, it emits a shrill wail or squeal. During encounters between males and females or between a mother and kits, the least weasel emits a high-pitched trilling. The least weasel's way of expressing aggression is similar to that of the stoat. Dominant weasels exhibit lunges and shrieks during aggressive encounters, while subdominant weasels will emit submissive squeals.


Diet

The least weasel feeds predominantly on mouse-like rodents, including mice, hamsters, Gerbillinae, gerbils and others. It usually does not attack adult hamsters and rats. Frogs, fish, small birds and bird eggs are rarely eaten. It can deal with adult pikas and gerbils, but usually cannot overcome brown rats and sousliks. Exceptional cases are known of least weasels killing prey far larger than themselves, such as capercaillie, Hazel grouse, hazel hen and hares. In England, a favoured prey item is the field vole (''Microtus agrestis''). These have fluctuations in population size, and in years of abundance may form up to 54% of the weasel's diet. In years of scarcity, birds form a greater proportion of the diet and female least weasels may fail to breed. Despite its small size, the least weasel is a fierce hunter, capable of killing a rabbit five to 10 times its own weight. Although they are commonly taken, the rabbits are usually young specimens, and become an important food source during the spring, when small rodents are scarce and rabbit kits are plentiful. Male least weasels take a higher proportion of rabbits than females, as well as an overall greater variety of prey. This is linked to the fact that being larger, and having vaster territorial ranges than females, males have more opportunities to hunt a greater diversity of prey. The least weasel forages undercover, to avoid being seen by foxes and birds of prey. It is adapted for pursuing its prey down tunnels, though it may also bolt prey from a burrow and kill it in the open. The least weasel kills small prey, such as voles, with a bite to the occiput, occipital region of the skull or the neck, dislocating the cervical vertebrae. Large prey typically dies of blood loss or Shock (circulatory), circulatory shock. When food is abundant, only a small portion of the prey is eaten, usually the brain. The average daily food intake is , which is equivalent to 30–35% of the animal's body weight.


Predators and competitors

The least weasel is small enough to be preyed upon by a range of other predators. Least weasel remains have been found in the excrement of red foxes, sables, steppe polecat, steppe and European polecat, forest polecat, stoats, eagle owls and buzzards. The owls most efficient at capturing least weasels are barn owl, barn, barred owl, barred, and great horned owls. Other birds of prey threatening to the least weasel include Broad-winged hawk, broad-winged and rough-legged buzzards. Some snake species may prey on the least weasel, including the black rat snake and Agkistrodon contortrix, copperhead. Aside from its smaller size, the least weasel is more vulnerable to predation than the stoat because it lacks a black predator deflection mark on the tail. In areas where the least weasel is Sympatry, sympatric with the stoat, the two species compete with each other for rodent prey. The weasel manages to avoid too much competition by living in more upland areas, feeding on smaller prey and being capable of entering smaller holes. It actively avoids encounters with stoats, though female weasels are less likely to stop foraging in the presence of stoats, perhaps because their smaller size allows them to quickly escape into holes.


Diseases and parasites

Ectoparasites known to infest weasels include the louse ''Trichodectes mustelae'' and the mites ''Demodex'' and ''Psoregates mustela''. The species may catch fleas from the nests and burrows of its prey. Flea species known to infest weasels include ''Ctenophthalmus bisoctodentatus'' and ''Palaeopsylla m. minor'', which they get from moles, ''P. s. soricis'', which they get from shrews, ''Nosopsyllus fasciatus'', which they get from rodents and ''Dasypsyllus gallinulae'' which they get from birds. Helminths known to infest weasels include the trematode ''Alaria (trematode), Alaria'', the nematodes ''Capillaria (genus), Capillaria'', ''Filaroides'' and ''Trichinella'' and the cestode ''Taenia (genus), Taenia''. Least weasels are commonly infected with the nematode ''Skrjabingylus nasicola'', adults of which are found in the nasal sinuses and can damage the skull. There is no evidence that this has serious detrimental effects on even heavily infested animals.


Distribution and habitat

The least weasel has a circumboreal, Holarctic distribution, encompassing much of Europe and
North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's ...

North Africa
, Asia and parts of northern
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
, where it occurs mainly in places where the stoat is not found. It has been introduced in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia ...

Malta
,
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology i ...

Crete
, the Azore Islands and also
São Tomé São Tomé is the capital city, capital and largest city of the Central Africa, Central African island country of São Tomé and Príncipe. Its name is Portuguese language, Portuguese for "Thomas (Apostle), Saint Thomas". Founded in the 15th centu ...
off West Africa. It is found throughout Europe (but not Ireland) and on many islands, including the Azores, Great Britain, and all major Mediterranean islands. It also occurs on Honshu and Hokkaido Islands in
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
and on Kunashir, Iturup, and Sakhalin Islands in Russia. The least weasel occupies a similar type of habitat as the stoat, but it frequents wet places less often. It can be found in fields, open woodland, bushy or rocky areas, parks and gardens, and at altitudes of up to about .


Conservation status

The least weasel has a very wide circumboreal range and a large total population and is therefore listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of "
least concern A least-concern species is a species that has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ...
". Its chosen habitat is in areas of coarse vegetation and in some regions its numbers may be decreasing because of changes in agricultural practices, but altogether its population trend is thought to be steady. It is relatively common in Eurasia but less abundant in North America and is thought to be rare in the southeastern United States. It is subject to considerable variations in numbers in areas where its main rodent prey is liable to large population fluctuations. In years of rodent population booms, the least weasel numbers may rise by up to ten-fold, only to slump again as prey becomes scarce again in the following years.


In folklore and mythology


Macedonian and Greek culture

The Ancient Macedonians believed that to see a least weasel was a good omen. In some districts of Macedon, women who suffered from headaches after having washed their heads in water drawn overnight would assume that a weasel had previously used the water as a mirror, but they would refrain from mentioning the animal's name for fear that it would destroy their clothes. Similarly, a popular superstition in southern Greece had it that the least weasel had previously been a bride, who was transformed into a bitter animal which would destroy the wedding dresses of other brides out of jealousy. According to Pliny the Elder, the least weasel was the only animal that was capable of killing the basilisk:
To this dreadful monster the effluvium of the weasel is fatal, a thing that has been tried with success, for kings have often desired to see its body when killed; so true is it that it has pleased Nature that there should be nothing without its antidote. The animal is thrown into the hole of the basilisk, which is easily known from the soil around it being infected. The weasel destroys the basilisk by its odour, but dies itself in this struggle of nature against its own self.


Ojibwe and Inuit culture

The Ojibwe believed that the least weasel could kill the dreaded wendigo by rushing up its anus. In Inuit mythology, the least weasel is credited with both great wisdom and courage, and whenever a mythical Inuit hero wished to accomplish a valorous task, he would generally change himself into a least weasel.Dufresne, Frank (2005), ''Alaska's Animals and Fishes'', p. 109, Kessinger Publishing,


References


Bibliography

* * * * * *


Further reading

* * *


External links

* *
Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: ''Mustela nivalis''
{{Good article Arctic land animals, Weasel, least Carnivorans of Asia, Weasel, least Carnivorans of Europe, Weasel, least Carnivorans of North America, Weasel, least Holarctic fauna Mammals of the Arctic, Weasel, least Least concern biota of Asia Least concern biota of Europe Least concern biota of North America Mammals described in 1766 Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus Weasels Fur trade