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Information technology (IT) is the use of
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

computer
s to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of
data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing quantity, quality, fact, statistics, other basic units of meaning, or simply sequences of symbols that may be further interp ...
. and
information Information is an Abstraction, abstract concept that refers to that which has the power to Communication, inform. At the most fundamental level information pertains to the Interpretation (logic), interpretation of that which may be sensed. ...

information
. IT forms part of
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of Data (computing), data . ...
(ICT). An information technology system (IT system) is generally an
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, peopl ...
, a
communications system A communications system or communication system is a collection of individual telecommunications networks, transmission Transmission may refer to: Medicine, science and technology * Power transmission ** Electric power transmission ** Pr ...
, or, more specifically speaking, a
computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as C ...

computer system
— including all
hardware
hardware
,
software Software is a set of computer programs and associated software documentation, documentation and data (computing), data. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and which actually performs the work. ...

software
, and
peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an auxiliary device used to put information into and get information out of a computer. The term ''peripheral device'' refers to all hardware components that are attached to a computer and are controlled by the ...
equipment — operated by a limited group of IT users. Although humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the earliest writing systems were developed, the term ''information technology'' in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the ''
Harvard Business Review ''Harvard Business Review'' (''HBR'') is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University. ''HBR'' is published six times a year and is headquartered in Brighton, Massach ...
''; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of
statistical Statistics (from German language, German: ''wikt:Statistik#German, Statistik'', "description of a State (polity), state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of ...

statistical
and mathematical methods to
decision-making In psychology Psychology is the science, scientific study of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts. It is an academic dis ...
, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.. The term is commonly used as a
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase In syntax and grammar, a phrase is a group of words or singular word acting as a grammatical unit. For instance, the English language, English expression "the very happy squirrel" is a noun phrase whi ...
for computers and
computer networks A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by Node (networking), network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections to communicate with each ot ...
, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound. The term can refer to a television set, or the medium of Transmission (telecommunications), television transmission. Television ...

television
and
telephones A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be easily heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into ele ...
. Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including
computer hardware Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the computer case, case, central processing unit (CPU), Random-access memory, random access memory (RAM), Computer monitor, monitor, Computer mouse, mouse, Computer keyboard, ...

computer hardware
,
software Software is a set of computer programs and associated software documentation, documentation and data (computing), data. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and which actually performs the work. ...

software
, electronics, semiconductors,
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a '' network of networks'' that consists of private, p ...

internet
, telecom equipment, and
e-commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically buying or selling of Product (business), products on online services or over the Internet. E-commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, su ...

e-commerce
.. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC — 1450 AD),
mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Machine (mechanical), a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement * Mechanical calculator, a device used to perform the basic operations of ...

mechanical
(1450—1840),
electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad ran ...
(1840—1940), and electronic (1940 to present). Information technology is also a branch of
computer science Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to Applied science, practical discipli ...
, which can be defined as the overall study of procedure, structure, and the processing of various types of data. As this field continues to evolve across the world, the overall priority and importance has also grown, which is where we begin to see the introduction of computer science-related courses in K-12 education.


History of Computer Technology

Ideas of computer science were first mentioned before the 1950s under the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has played a key role in the development of modern t ...
(MIT) and
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
, where they had discussed and began thinking of computer circuits and numerical calculations. As time went on, the field of information technology and computer science became more complex and was able to handle the processing of more data. Scholarly articles began to be published from different organizations. Looking at early computing,
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical ...

Alan Turing
, J. Presper Eckert, and
John Mauchly John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist who, along with J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC I, the first com ...
were considered to be some of the major pioneers of computer technology in the mid-1900s. Giving them such credit for their developments, most of their efforts were focused on designing the first digital computer. Along with that, topics such as
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence—perceiving, synthesizing, and inferring information—demonstrated by machines, as opposed to intelligence displayed by animal cognition, animals and human intelligence, humans. Example tasks in ...

artificial intelligence
began to be brought up as Turing was beginning to question such technology of the time period. have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a
tally stick A tally stick (or simply tally) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities and messages. Tally sticks first appear as animal bones carved with notches during the Upper Palaeolithic The Upper Paleolith ...
.. The
Antikythera mechanism The Antikythera mechanism ( ) is an Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek hand-powered orrery, described as the oldest example of an analogue computer used to predict astronomy, astronomical positions and eclipses decades in advance. It could also be ...

Antikythera mechanism
, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical
analog computer An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of Computation, computer that uses the continuous variation aspect of physical phenomena such as Electrical network, electrical, Mechanics, mechanical, or Hydraulics, hydraulic quantities (''a ...
, and the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in
Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also considered a Continent#Subcontinents, subcontinent of Eurasia ...

Europe
until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first
mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic Arithmetic () is an elementary part of mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topic ...
capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.
Electronic computers A computer is a machine A machine is a physical system using Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, movement to perform an action. The term is commonly applied to artificial devices, such as those employing eng ...
, using either
relay file:Delta Electronics DPS-350FB A - board 1 - OEG SDT-SS-112M - case removed-3045.jpg, A relay file:Kontakt.svg, Electromechanical relay schematic showing a control coil, four pairs of normally open and one pair of normally closed contacts file:R ...

relay
s or
valve A valve is a device or Heart valve, natural object that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technical ...

valve
s, began to appear in the early 1940s. The
electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad ran ...
Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computer, computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. ...

computing
machine. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, developed the first electronic digital computer to decrypt German messages. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. The first recognizably modern electronic digital
stored-program computer A stored-program computer is a computer that stores Instruction (computer science), program instructions in electronically or optically accessible memory. This contrasts with systems that stored the program instructions with plugboards or simila ...
was the
Manchester Baby The Manchester Baby, also called the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the first electronic stored-program computer. It was built at the University of Manchester by Frederic Calland Williams, Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Ge ...
, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948.. The development of
transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink). A ...

transistor
s in the late 1940s at
Bell Laboratories Nokia Bell Labs, originally named Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984), then AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), is an American industrial Research and development, research and scientific developm ...
allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison, the first transistorized computer developed at the
University of Manchester The University of Manchester is a public university, public research university in Manchester, England. The main campus is south of Manchester city centre, Manchester City Centre on Wilmslow Road, Oxford Road. The university owns and operates majo ...

University of Manchester
and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version. Several other breakthroughs in
semiconductor A semiconductor is a material which has an electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a electrical conductor, conductor, such as copper, and an insulator (electricity), insulator, such as glas ...
technology include the
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon. Large numbers of ti ...

integrated circuit
(IC) invented by
Jack Kilby Jack St. Clair Kilby (November 8, 1923 – June 20, 2005) was an American electrical engineer who took part (along with Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, Fairchild) in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texa ...
at
Texas Instruments Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) is an American technology company headquartered in Dallas, Texas, that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globall ...
and
Robert Noyce Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", was an American physicist and entrepreneur who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation Intel Corporation is an ...
at
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors and of ...
in 1959, the
metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor that uses an electric field to control the flow of Electric ...
(MOSFET) invented by
Mohamed Atalla Mohamed M. Atalla ( ar, محمد عطاالله; August 4, 1924 – December 30, 2009) was an Egyptian Americans, Egyptian-American engineer, physics, physicist, cryptographer, inventor and entrepreneur. He was a semiconductor pioneer who mad ...
and
Dawon Kahng Dawon Kahng ( ko, 강대원; May 4, 1931 – May 13, 1992) was a Korean-American electrical engineer and inventor, known for his work in solid-state electronics. He is best known for inventing the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effe ...

Dawon Kahng
at Bell Laboratories in 1959, and the
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circu ...

microprocessor
invented by Ted Hoff,
Federico Faggin Federico Faggin (, ; born 1 December 1941) is an Italian physicist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He is best known for designing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He led the Intel 4004, 4004 (MCS-4) project and the desi ...

Federico Faggin
,
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese Electronic engineering, electronics engineer. He was one of the architects of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. In 1968, Shima worked for Busicom in Japan, and did the logic design for a specialized CPU to be transl ...

Masatoshi Shima
, and Stanley Mazor at
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, Santa Clara, California. It is the world's largest semiconductor chip manufacturer by revenue, and is one of the devel ...

Intel
in 1971. These important inventions led to the development of the
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or techn ...
(PC) in the 1970s, and the emergence of
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of Data (computing), data . ...
(ICT). By the year of 1984, according to the ''National Westminster Bank Quarterly Review'', the term 'information technology' had been redefined as "The development of cable television was made possible by the convergence of telecommunications and computing technology (…generally known in Britain as information technology).” We then begin to see the appearance of the term in 1990 contained within documents for the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard development organization composed of representatives from the national standards organizations of member countries. Membership requirements are given in Art ...
(ISO). Innovations in technology have already revolutionized the world by the twenty-first century as people were able to access different online services. This has changed the workforce drastically as thirty percent of U.S. workers were already in careers in this profession. 136.9 million people were personally connected to the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a '' network of networks'' that consists of private, p ...

Internet
, which was equivalent to 51 million households. Along with the Internet, new types of technology were also being introduced across the globe, which has improved efficiency and made things easier across the globe. Along with technology revolutionizing society, millions of processes could be done in seconds. Innovations in communication were also crucial as people began to rely on the computer to communicate through telephone lines and cable. The introduction of the email was a really big thing as "companies in one part of the world could communicate by e-mail with suppliers and buyers in another part of the world..."Northrup, C.C. (2013). Computers. In C. Clark Northrup (Ed.), ''Encyclopedia of world trade: from ancient times to the present''. nline London: Routledge. Not only personally, computers and technology have also revolutionized the marketing industry, resulting in more buyers of their products. During the year of 2002, Americans exceeded $28 billion in goods just over the Internet alone while e-commerce a decade later resulted in $289 billion in sales. And as computers are rapidly becoming more sophisticated by the day, they are becoming more used as people are becoming more reliant on them during the twenty-first century.


Electronic Data Processing


Data Storage

Early electronic computers such as made use of
punched tape file:PaperTapes-5and8Hole.jpg, Five- and eight-hole punched paper tape file:Harwell-dekatron-witch-10.jpg, Paper tape reader on the Harwell computer with a small piece of five-hole tape connected in a circle – creating a physical program loop ...

punched tape
, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of
delay-line memory Delay-line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest Digital data, digital computers. Like many modern forms of electronic computer memory, delay-line memory was a memory refresh, refreshable memory, ...
was developed to remove the clutter from
radar Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, and radial velocity of objects relative to the site. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor v ...

radar
signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. The first random-access digital storage device was the
Williams tube The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube named after inventors Frederic Calland Williams, Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn, is an early form of computer memory. It was the first Random-access memory, random-access digital storage devic ...
, which was based on a standard
cathode ray tube A cathode-ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, which emit electron beams that are manipulated to display images on a Phosphorescence, phosphorescent screen. The images may represent electrical waveforms (osci ...

cathode ray tube
.. However, the information stored in it and delay-line memory was volatile in the fact that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the
magnetic drum Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria. Drums were widely used in the 1950s and into the 1960s as computer memory. For many early computers, drum memory formed the main working memory of ...
, invented in 1932. and used in the
Ferranti Mark 1 The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was produced by British electrical engineering firm Ferranti, Ferranti Ltd. It was the world's fir ...
, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.. introduced the first
hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device that stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage with one or more rigid rapidly rotating hard disk platter, platters ...

hard disk drive
in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a type of read-only memory consisting of a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains computer data storage, data. Computers can read—but not write or erase—CD-ROMs. Some CDs, called enhanced ...

CD-ROM
s. Until 2002 most information was stored on
analog device Analog devices are a combination of both analog machine and analog recording media, media that can together measurement, measure, analog recording, record, reproduce, receive or broadcasting, broadcast continuum (measurement), continuous informa ...
s, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007, almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally:. 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices, and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 
exabyte The byte is a units of information, unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character (computing), character of text in a computer and for this ...
s in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007,. doubling roughly every 3 years.


Databases

emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. An early such system was 's
Information Management System The IBM Information Management System (IMS) is a joint hierarchical database model, hierarchical database and information management system that supports transaction processing. History International Business Machines, IBM designed the IMS with ...
(IMS), which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later.. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on
set theory Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies Set (mathematics), sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, ...
and
predicate logic First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-order logic uses Quantifica ...
and the familiar concepts of tables, rows, and columns. In 1981, the first commercially available
relational database management system A relational database is a (most commonly digital) database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database management system (RDBMS). Many relation ...
(RDBMS) was released by
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions, most notably including precognition of the future, inspired by deities. As such, it is a form of divination. Description The wor ...
. All DMS consist of components, they allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. All databases are common in one point that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a
database schema The database schema is the structure of a database described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS). The term "wikt:schema, schema" refers to the organization of data as a blueprint of how the database is constru ...
. In recent years, the
extensible markup language Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...

extensible markup language
(XML) has become a popular format for data representation. Although XML data can be stored in normal
file system In computing, file system or filesystem (often abbreviated to fs) is a method and data structure that the operating system uses to control how data is Computer data storage, stored and retrieved. Without a file system, data placed in a storage me ...
s, it is commonly held in
relational database A relational database is a (most commonly digital) database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database management system (RDBMS). Many relation ...
s to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort." As an evolution of the
Standard Generalized Markup Language The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; International Organization for Standardization, ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 states that generalized markup is "based on t ...
(SGML), XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.


Data Retrieval

The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent SQL, Structured Query Language (SQL), based on relational algebra. The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Most of the world's digital data is unstructured and stored in a variety of different physical formats even within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).


Data Transmission

Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels. XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s, particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented communications protocol, protocols such as SOAP, describing "data-in-transit rather than... data-at-rest".


Data Manipulation

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years. Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analyzed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited". To address that issue, the field of data mining — "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data" — emerged in the late 1980s.


Database Problems

As technology is becoming more sophisticated by the day, there are increasing problems for security as everyone relies on storing information into
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

computer
s more than ever. With data and databases becoming more dependent in businesses and organizations, it is considered to be the "backbone" of those businesses and organizations, hence resulting in the development of different technological departments like IT departments and personnel. Along with IT Departments and personnel, there are also different types of agencies that "strengthen" the workforce. The United States Department of Homeland Security, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is one of those examples that do just that as they make sure all organizations have all of the different necessities to add infrastructure and security to protect them in the future from the different challenges that may lie head. Branching off of the DHS, many programs are in place as well to build cybersecurity awareness across the organization or workforce. * Identify and quantify your cybersecurity workforce * Understand workforce needs and skills gaps * Hire the right people for clearly defined roles * Enhance employee skills with training and professional development * Create programs and experiences to retain top talentNational Cybersecurity workforce framework. (2019). In I. Gonzales, K. Joaquin Jay & Roger L. (Eds.), ''Cybersecurity: current writings on threats and protection''. nline Jefferson: McFarland.


Services


Email

The technology and services it provides for sending and receiving electronic messages (called "letters" or "electronic letters") over a distributed (including global) computer network. In terms of the composition of elements and the principle of operation, electronic mail practically repeats the system of regular (paper) mail, borrowing both terms (mail, letter, envelope, attachment, box, delivery, and others) and characteristic features — ease of use, message transmission delays, sufficient reliability and at the same time no guarantee of delivery. The advantages of e-mail are: easily perceived and remembered by a person addresses of the form user_name@domain_name (for example, somebody@example.com); the ability to transfer both plain text and formatted, as well as arbitrary files; independence of servers (in the general case, they address each other directly); sufficiently high reliability of message delivery; ease of use by humans and programs. Disadvantages of e-mail: the presence of such a phenomenon as spam (massive advertising and viral mailings); the theoretical impossibility of guaranteed delivery of a particular letter; possible delays in message delivery (up to several days); limits on the size of one message and on the total size of messages in the mailbox (personal for users).


Search System

A software and hardware complex with a web interface that provides the ability to search for information on the Internet. A search engine usually means a site that hosts the interface (front-end) of the system. The software part of a search engine is a search engine (search engine) — a set of programs that provides the functionality of a search engine and is usually a trade secret of the search engine developer company. Most search engines look for information on World Wide Web sites, but there are also systems that can look for files on FTP servers, items in online stores, and information on Usenet newsgroups. Improving search is one of the priorities of the modern Internet (see the Deep Web article about the main problems in the work of search engines). According to Statista, in October 2021, search engine usage was distributed as follows: * Google — 86,64%; * Bing — 7%; * Yahoo! — 2.75%. According to Statcounter Global Stats for August 2021, in Asia, the Chinese resource Baidu managed to take almost 3% of the Internet market. In turn, Yandex in the same region bypassed Yahoo, receiving a share of almost 2% and third place in the ranking.


Perspectives


Academic Perspective

In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines Information Technology as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations  IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users."The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 200
Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report
.
Undergraduate degrees in IT (B.S., A.S.) are similar to other computer science degrees. In fact, they oftentimes have the same foundational level courses. Computer science (CS) programs tend to focus more on theory and design, whereas Information Technology programs are structured to equip the graduate with expertise in the practical application of technology solutions to support modern business and user needs. However this not true in all cases. For example, in India an Engineer's degree, engineering degree in Information Technology (B.Tech IT) is a 4-year professional course and it is considered as an equivalent degree to a degree in Computer science and engineering, Computer Science and Engineering since they share strikingly similar syllabus across many universities in India. B.Tech IT degree focuses heavily on Discrete mathematics, mathematical foundations of computer science since students are taught calculus, linear algebra, graph theory and discrete mathematics in first two years. B.Tech. IT program also contains core computer science courses like Data structure, Data Structures, Analysis of algorithms, Algorithm Analysis And Design, Compiler Design, Automata theory, Automata Theory, Computer architecture, Computer Architecture, Operating Systems, Computer Networks etc. And the graduate level entrance examination which is required for masters in engineering in India-Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering, GATE-is common for both CS and IT undergraduates. Concerns have been raised about this fact that most schools are lacking advanced-placement courses in this field.


Commercial and Employment Perspective

Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry." These titles can be misleading at times and should not be mistaken for “tech companies;" which are generally large scale, for-profit corporations that sell consumer technology and software. It is also worth noting that from a business perspective, Information Technology departments are a “cost center” the majority of the time. A cost center is a department or staff which incurs expenses, or “costs," within a company rather than generating profits or revenue streams. Modern businesses rely heavily on technology for their day-to-day operations, so the expenses delegated to cover technology that facilitates business in a more efficient manner are usually seen as “just the cost of doing business." IT departments are allocated funds by senior leadership and must attempt to achieve the desired deliverables while staying within that budget. Government and the private sector might have different funding mechanisms, but the principles are more-or-less the same. This is an often overlooked reason for the rapid interest in automation and Artificial intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, but the constant pressure to do more with less is opening the door for automation to take control of at least some minor operations in large companies. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

computer
s, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses. Companies have also sought to integrate IT with business outcomes and decision-making through a BizOps or business operations department. In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems". The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded, and replaced.


Information services

Information services is a term somewhat loosely applied to a variety of IT-related services offered by commercial companies, as well as data brokers. File:ComputerSystemsEmployment distribution .png, U.S. Employment distribution of computer systems design and related services, 2011 File:EmploymentComputerSystems.png, U.S. Employment in the computer systems and design related services industry, in thousands, 1990-2011 File:ComputerSystemsOccupationalGrowthWages.png, U.S. Occupational growth and wages in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020 File:ProjectedEmploymentChangeComputerSystems.png, U.S. projected percent change in employment in selected occupations in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020 File:ProjectedAverageAnnualEmploymentChangeSelectedIndustries.png, U.S. projected average annual percent change in output and employment in selected industries, 2010-2020


Ethical Perspectives

The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the 1940s. Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include: * Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders * Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage * Spamming, Unsolicited emails * hacker (computer security), Hackers accessing online databases * Web sites installing HTTP cookie, cookies or spyware to monitor a user's online activities, which may be used by data brokers


The Need for Computer Security

When talking about computer security, most of us think about computers being hacked or taken over by cybercriminals. However, computer security doesn't only deal with protecting the internal components of a computer, but also protecting them from natural disasters like tornadoes, floods, fires, etc. Computer security basically is short for "protecting the computer from harm," meaning from natural disasters, cyber criminals, or pretty much anything that can hurt the computer internally or externally.Computer technology and information security issues. (2012). In R. Fischer, E. Halibozek & D. Walters, ''Introduction to security''. (9th ed.). nline Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology. Cybersecurity is a big topic under the computer security category as this basically deals with protecting technology from unwanted cyber criminals or trolls. It is a very important aspect to businesses and organizations and is critical to the overall health and well-being of the organization's structure. As technology is getting more sophisticated by the day, the rate of Cyberattack, cyber attacks and security breaches are also increasing, meaning that maintaining proper cybersecurity awareness in the work force is very important. With maintaining proper cyber security from around the workplace, there are people who have to have a special skill set to be able to "protect" the business or organization. There are several different categories that this can be broken down into, from Computer network, networking and databases to
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, peopl ...
s. With computer security, there comes a need for professionals, or people who have educational experience in the different fields of this profession to help protect networks, databases, and computer systems from internal and external threats that could potentially cause harm. With technology getting more sophisticated, there comes an increased threat for internal harm to computers and technology, meaning from ransomware, malware, spyware, and Phishing, phishing attacks. These are actually just some of the different issues that these professionals deal with as there is a wide variety of different types of attacks across the globe. Along with different issues and attacks, there are also a numerous amount of specialties under the profession. These contain everything from the general topic of
computer science Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to Applied science, practical discipli ...
, computer engineering, software engineering,
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, peopl ...
s, and computer systems.Computer science. (2003). In E.D. Reilly, A. Ralston & D. Hemmendinger (Eds.), ''Encyclopedia of computer science''. (4th ed.). nline Hoboken: Wiley. As the world continues to advance in technology, there is a desperate need for people in these professions to help "make" and "execute" those upgrades as they help make technology and software more secure and reliable worldwide.


See also

* Center for Minorities and People with Disabilities in Information Technology * Computing * Computer science * Cybernetics * Data processing * Health information technology * Information and communications technology (ICT) * Information management * ''Journal of Cases on Information Technology'' * Knowledge society * List of largest technology companies by revenue * Operational technology * Outline of information technology * World Information Technology and Services Alliance


References


Notes


Citations


Bibliography

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Further reading

* . * Gitta, Cosmas and South, David (2011).
Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 1: Mobile Phones and Information Technology
': United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. ISSN 2222—9280. * James Gleick, Gleick, James (2011).''The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood''. New York: Pantheon Books. * . * Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim. (1999). ''Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World''. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Course Technology. * Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. (1986). ''Information Technology — A Luddite Analysis''. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


External links

* * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Information Technology Information technology, Mass media technology Computers