hyperbolic angle
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geometry Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is ca ...
, hyperbolic angle is a
real number In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measurement, measure a ''continuous'' one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, time, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small var ...
determined by the
area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while ''surface area'' refers to the area of an o ...
of the corresponding hyperbolic sector of ''xy'' = 1 in Quadrant I of the Cartesian plane. The hyperbolic angle parametrises the unit hyperbola, which has hyperbolic functions as coordinates. In mathematics, hyperbolic angle is an invariant measure as it is preserved under hyperbolic rotation. The hyperbola ''xy'' = 1 is rectangular with a semi-major axis of \sqrt 2, analogous to the magnitude of a circular
angle In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two Ray (geometry), rays, called the ''Side (plane geometry), sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the ''vertex (geometry), vertex'' of the angle. Angles formed by two ...
corresponding to the area of a circular sector in a circle with radius \sqrt 2. Hyperbolic angle is used as the independent variable for the hyperbolic functions sinh, cosh, and tanh, because these functions may be premised on hyperbolic analogies to the corresponding circular trigonometric functions by regarding a hyperbolic angle as defining a hyperbolic triangle. The parameter thus becomes one of the most useful in the
calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizati ...
of real variables.


Definition

Consider the rectangular hyperbola \textstyle\, and (by convention) pay particular attention to the ''branch'' x > 1. First define: * The hyperbolic angle in ''standard position'' is the
angle In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two Ray (geometry), rays, called the ''Side (plane geometry), sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the ''vertex (geometry), vertex'' of the angle. Angles formed by two ...
at (0, 0) between the ray to (1, 1) and the ray to \textstyle(x, \frac 1 x), where x > 1. * The magnitude of this angle is the
area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while ''surface area'' refers to the area of an o ...
of the corresponding hyperbolic sector, which turns out to be \operatornamex. Note that, because of the role played by the
natural logarithm The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base (exponentiation), base of the mathematical constant , which is an Irrational number, irrational and Transcendental number, transcendental number approximately equal to . The natur ...
: * Unlike the circular angle, the hyperbolic angle is ''unbounded'' (because \operatornamex is unbounded); this is related to the fact that the harmonic series is unbounded. * The formula for the magnitude of the angle suggests that, for 0 < x < 1, the hyperbolic angle should be negative. This reflects the fact that, as defined, the angle is ''directed''. Finally, extend the definition of ''hyperbolic angle'' to that subtended by any interval on the hyperbola. Suppose a, b, c, d are positive real numbers such that ab = cd = 1 and c > a > 1, so that (a, b) and (c, d) are points on the hyperbola xy=1 and determine an interval on it. Then the squeeze mapping \textstyle f:(x, y)\to(bx, ay) maps the angle \angle\!\left ((a, b), (0,0), (c, d)\right) to the ''standard position'' angle \angle\!\left ((1, 1), (0,0), (bc, ad)\right). By the result of Gregoire de Saint-Vincent, the hyperbolic sectors determined by these angles have the same area, which is taken to be the magnitude of the angle. This magnitude is \operatorname=\operatorname(c/a) =\operatornamec-\operatornamea.


Comparison with circular angle

A unit circle x^2 + y^2 = 1 has a circular sector with an area half of the circular angle in radians. Analogously, a unit hyperbola x^2 - y^2 = 1 has a hyperbolic sector with an area half of the hyperbolic angle. There is also a projective resolution between circular and hyperbolic cases: both curves are conic sections, and hence are treated as projective ranges in projective geometry. Given an origin point on one of these ranges, other points correspond to angles. The idea of addition of angles, basic to science, corresponds to addition of points on one of these ranges as follows: Circular angles can be characterised geometrically by the property that if two chords ''P''0''P''1 and ''P''0''P''2 subtend angles ''L''1 and ''L''2 at the centre of a circle, their sum is the angle subtended by a chord ''PQ'', where ''PQ'' is required to be parallel to ''P''1''P''2. The same construction can also be applied to the hyperbola. If ''P''0 is taken to be the point , ''P''1 the point , and ''P''2 the point , then the parallel condition requires that ''Q'' be the point . It thus makes sense to define the hyperbolic angle from ''P''0 to an arbitrary point on the curve as a logarithmic function of the point's value of ''x''. Whereas in Euclidean geometry moving steadily in an orthogonal direction to a ray from the origin traces out a circle, in a pseudo-Euclidean plane steadily moving orthogonally to a ray from the origin traces out a hyperbola. In Euclidean space, the multiple of a given angle traces equal distances around a circle while it traces exponential distances upon the hyperbolic line. Both circular and hyperbolic angle provide instances of an invariant measure. Arcs with an angular magnitude on a circle generate a measure on certain measurable sets on the circle whose magnitude does not vary as the circle turns or rotates. For the hyperbola the turning is by squeeze mapping, and the hyperbolic angle magnitudes stay the same when the plane is squeezed by a mapping :(''x'', ''y'') ↦ (''rx'', ''y'' / ''r''), with ''r'' > 0 .


Relation To The Minkowski Line Element

There is also a curious relation to a hyperbolic angle and the metric defined on Minkowski space. Just as two dimensional Euclidean geometry defines its line element as :ds_^2 = dx^2 + dy^2, the line element on Minkowski space is :ds_^2 = dx^2 - dy^2. Consider a curve imbedded in two dimensional Euclidean space, :x = f(t), y=g(t). Where the parameter t is a real number that runs between a and b ( a\leqslant t). The arclength of this curve in Euclidean space is computed as: :S = \int_^ds_ = \int_^ \sqrtdt. If x^2 + y^2 = 1 defines a unit circle, a single parameterized solution set to this equation is x = \cos t and y = \sin t . Letting 0\leqslant t < \theta , computing the arclength S gives S = \theta . Now doing the same procedure, except replacing the Euclidean element with the Minkowski line element, :S = \int_^ds_ = \int_^ \sqrtdt, and defined a "unit" hyperbola as y^2 - x^2 = 1 with its corresponding parameterized solution set y = \cosh t and x = \sinh t , and by letting 0\leqslant t < \eta (the hyperbolic angle), we arrive at the result of S = \eta . In other words, this means just as how the circular angle can be defined as the arclength of an arc on the unit circle subtended by the same angle using the Euclidean defined metric, the hyperbolic angle is the arclength of the arc on the "unit" hyperbola subtended by the hyperbolic angle using the Minkowski defined metric.


History

The quadrature of the hyperbola is the evaluation of the area of a hyperbolic sector. It can be shown to be equal to the corresponding area against an asymptote. The quadrature was first accomplished by Gregoire de Saint-Vincent in 1647 in ''Opus geometricum quadrature circuli et sectionum coni''. As expressed by a historian, : e made thequadrature of a hyperbola to its asymptotes, and showed that as the
area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while ''surface area'' refers to the area of an o ...
increased in arithmetic series the abscissas increased in geometric series. A. A. de Sarasa interpreted the quadrature as a
logarithm In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a number  to the base  is the exponent to which must be raised, to produce . For example, since , the ''logarithm base'' 10 of ...
and thus the geometrically defined
natural logarithm The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base (exponentiation), base of the mathematical constant , which is an Irrational number, irrational and Transcendental number, transcendental number approximately equal to . The natur ...
(or "hyperbolic logarithm") is understood as the area under to the right of . As an example of a transcendental function, the logarithm is more familiar than its motivator, the hyperbolic angle. Nevertheless, the hyperbolic angle plays a role when the theorem of Saint-Vincent is advanced with squeeze mapping. Circular trigonometry was extended to the hyperbola by Augustus De Morgan in his textbook ''Trigonometry and Double Algebra''. In 1878 W.K. Clifford used the hyperbolic angle to parametrize a unit hyperbola, describing it as "quasi- harmonic motion". In 1894 Alexander Macfarlane circulated his essay "The Imaginary of Algebra", which used hyperbolic angles to generate hyperbolic versors, in his book ''Papers on Space Analysis''. The following year Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society published Mellen W. Haskell's outline of the hyperbolic functions. When Ludwik Silberstein penned his popular 1914 textbook on the new theory of relativity, he used the rapidity concept based on hyperbolic angle ''a'', where , the ratio of velocity ''v'' to the
speed of light The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted , is a universal physical constant that is important in many areas of physics. The speed of light is exactly equal to ). According to the special relativity, special theory of relativity, is ...
. He wrote: :It seems worth mentioning that to ''unit'' rapidity corresponds a huge velocity, amounting to 3/4 of the velocity of light; more accurately we have for . : ..the rapidity , ..consequently will represent the velocity .76 ''c'' which is a little above the velocity of light in water. Silberstein also uses Lobachevsky's concept of angle of parallelism Π(''a'') to obtain . Ludwik Silberstein (1914
The Theory of Relativity
pp. 180–1 via Internet Archive


Imaginary circular angle

The hyperbolic angle is often presented as if it were an
imaginary number An imaginary number is a real number multiplied by the imaginary unit , is usually used in engineering contexts where has other meanings (such as electrical current) which is defined by its property . The square (algebra), square of an imagina ...
, \cos ix = \cosh x and \sin ix = i \sinh x, so that the hyperbolic functions cosh and sinh can be presented through the circular functions. But in the Euclidean plane we might alternately consider circular angle measures to be imaginary and hyperbolic angle measures to be real scalars, \cosh ix = \cos x and \sinh ix = i \sin x. These relationships can be understood in terms of the
exponential function The exponential function is a mathematical Function (mathematics), function denoted by f(x)=\exp(x) or e^x (where the argument is written as an exponentiation, exponent). Unless otherwise specified, the term generally refers to the positiv ...
, which for a complex argument z can be broken into even and odd parts \cosh z = \tfrac12(e^z + e^) and \sinh z = \tfrac12(e^z - e^), respectively. Then e^z = \cosh z + \sinh z = \cos(iz) - i \sin(iz), or if the argument is separated into real and imaginary parts z = x + iy, the exponential can be split into the product of scaling e^ and rotation e^, e^ = e^e^ = (\cosh x + \sinh x)(\cos y + i \sin y). As infinite series, \begin e^z &= \,\,\sum_^\infty \frac && = 1 + z + \tfracz^2 + \tfrac16z^3 + \tfrac1z^4 + \dots \\ \cosh z &= \sum_ \frac && = 1 + \tfracz^2 + \tfrac1z^4 + \dots \\ \sinh z &= \,\sum_ \frac && = z + \tfracz^3 + \tfrac1z^5 + \dots \\ \cos z &= \sum_ \frac && = 1 - \tfracz^2 + \tfrac1z^4 - \dots \\ i \sin z &= \,\sum_ \frac && = i\left(z - \tfracz^3 + \tfrac1z^5 - \dots\right) \\ \end The infinite series for cosine is derived from cosh by turning it into an alternating series, and the series for sine comes from making sinh into an alternating series.


See also

* Transcendent angle


Notes


References

* Janet Heine Barnett (2004) "Enter, stage center: the early drama of the hyperbolic functions", available in (a) Mathematics Magazine 77(1):15–30 or (b) chapter 7 of ''Euler at 300'', RE Bradley, LA D'Antonio, CE Sandifer editors, Mathematical Association of America . *
Arthur Kennelly Arthur Edwin Kennelly (December 17, 1861 – June 18, 1939) was an American electrical engineer. Biography Kennelly was born December 17, 1861, in Colaba, in Bombay Presidency, British India, and was educated at University College School in Lond ...
(1912
Application of hyperbolic functions to electrical engineering problems
* William Mueller, ''Exploring Precalculus'', § The Number e

* John Stillwell (1998) ''Numbers and Geometry'' exercise 9.5.3, p. 298, Springer-Verlag . {{DEFAULTSORT:Hyperbolic Angle Angle Differential calculus Integral calculus