fibrocyte
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A fibrocyte is an inactive
mesenchymal Mesenchyme () is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the embryonic development of Bilateria, bilateral triploblast animals. Vertebrates Structure Mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground substance matrix (biol ...
cell, that is, a cell showing minimal cytoplasm, limited amounts of rough
endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding. It is a type of organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or ...
and lacks biochemical evidence of
protein synthesis Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside Cell (biology), cells, homeostasis, balancing the loss of cellular proteins (via Proteolysis, degradation or Protein targeting, export) through the producti ...

protein synthesis
. The term ''fibrocyte'' contrasts with the term ''fibroblast''.
Fibroblast A fibroblast is a type of biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the smallest units of life, and hence are often referred ...

Fibroblast
s are activated
connective tissue Connective tissue is one of the many basic types of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consum ...
cells characterized by synthesis of proteins of the fibrous matrix, particularly the
collagen Collagen () is the main structural in the found in the body's various s. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen consists of ...

collagen
s. When tissue is injured, the predominant mesenchymal cells, the fibroblast, have been believed to be derived from the fibrocyte or possibly from
smooth muscle Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two subgroups; the single-unit smooth muscle, single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. Within single-unit cells, the whole bundle or sheet Muscle contraction, contra ...

smooth muscle
cells lining vessels and glands. Commonly, fibroblasts express smooth muscle
actin Actin is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-be ...
, a form of actin first found in smooth muscle cells and not found in resting fibrocytes. Fibroblasts expressing this form of actin are usually called "myo-fibroblasts." Recently, the term "fibrocyte" has also been applied to a bloodborne cell able to leave the blood, enter tissue and become a fibroblast. As part of the more general topic of stem cell biology, a number of studies have suggested that the blood contains marrow derived cells that can differentiate into fibroblasts. These cells have been reported to express the
hematopoietic cell A blood cell, also called a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a Cell (biology), cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood. Major types of blood cells include red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cell ...
surface markers CD34+, PTPRC, CD45+, as well as
collagen Collagen () is the main structural in the found in the body's various s. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen consists of ...

collagen
. These cells can migrate to wound sites, suggesting a role in wound healing. There are several studies suggesting that fibrocytes mediate wound healing and fibrotic tissue repair.


See also

*List of human cell types derived from the germ layers


References

{{Authority control Eukaryotic cells