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A model is a person with a
role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, moral obligation, obligations, beliefs, and social norm, norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation. It is an expected or free or continuously changing behavi ...
either to promote, display or
advertise Advertising is the practice and techniques employed to bring attention to a product or service. Advertising aims to put a product or service in the spotlight in hopes of drawing it attention from consumers. It is typically used to promote a ...
commercial products (notably
fashion Fashion is a form of Self-expression values, self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and ...

fashion
clothing in
fashion show A fashion show (French language, French ''défilé de mode'') is an event put on by a fashion designer to showcase their upcoming line of clothing and/or accessories during a fashion week. Fashion shows debut every season, particularly the Spri ...

fashion show
s) or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating
works of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics, is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and ...
or to pose for photography. Though models are predominantly female, there are also male models, especially to model clothing. Models may work professionally or casually. Modelling ("modeling" in
American English American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the Languages of the United States, most widely spoken lan ...
) is considered to be different from other types of public
performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place ...

performance
, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling". Similarly, appearing in a TV advertisement is generally not considered modelling. Modelling generally does not involve speaking. Personal opinions are generally not expressed and a model's reputation and image are considered critical. Types of modelling include:
fashion Fashion is a form of Self-expression values, self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and ...
, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and television. Fashion modelling as a profession is sometimes featured in films ('' Prêt-à-Porter'' and ''
Looker ''Looker'' is a 1981 American science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre that uses Speculative fiction, speculative, fictional science-based depictions of phenomena that are not fully accepted by mainstream science, suc ...

Looker
''),
reality TV Reality television is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category ...
shows (''
America's Next Top Model ''America's Next Top Model'' (abbreviated ''ANTM'' and ''Top Model'') is an American reality television series and interactive competition in which a number of aspiring models compete for the title of "America's Next Top Model" and a chance to b ...
'' and ''
The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency ''The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency'', or ''TJDMA'', was a reality television series that debuted on Oxygen Network, Oxygen on June 6, 2006. The show completed four seasons, through which it followed the self-proclaimed world's first supermodel ...
'') and music videos (" Freedom! '90", " Wicked Game", "
Daughters A daughter is a female Female (Venus symbol, symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-motile ovum, ova (egg cells), the type of gamete (sex cell) that fuses with the Sperm, male gamete during sexual reproduction ...
" and "
Blurred Lines "Blurred Lines" is a song by American singer Robin Thicke featuring American rappers T.I. and Pharrell Williams from the former's Blurred Lines (album), sixth studio album of the same name (2013). Solely produced by Williams, it was released a ...
").
Celebrities Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of a person or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. An individual may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth Wealth is the abundance o ...
, including actors, singers,
sports personalities
sports personalities
and reality TV stars, frequently participate in modelling contests, assignments as well as contracts in addition to their regular work. Often, modelling is not a full-time, main activity.


History


Early years

In 14th-century Europe, fashion had been displayed in miniature form to (often royal) clients by
fashion doll Fashion dolls are dolls primarily designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends. They are manufactured both as toys for children to play with and as collectibles for adults. The dolls are usually modeled after teen girls or adult women, though ...
s, before the clothes were made in human size. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by
Charles Frederick Worth Charles Frederick Worth (13 October 1825 – 10 March 1895) was an English fashion designer who founded the House of Worth, one of the foremost fashion houses of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He is considered by many fashion historians to ...

Charles Frederick Worth
, the "father of
haute couture ''Haute couture'' (; ; French for 'high sewing', 'high dressmaking') is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted high-end fashion design that is constructed by hand from start-to-finish. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, Paris became ...
", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "
house model A model is a person with a role either to Promotion (marketing), promote, display or advertise commercial product (business), products (notably fashion clothing in fashion shows) or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of ...

house model
" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their
designs A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product, or process. The verb ''to design'' ...
. With the development of
fashion photography Fashion photography is a genre of photography which is devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items, sometimes haute couture. It typically consists of a fashion photographer taking a picture of a dressed model (person), model in a photo ...

fashion photography
, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1940s, when the world's first three supermodels, Barbara Goalen, Bettina Graziani and
Lisa Fonssagrives Lisa or LISA may refer to: People People with the mononym * Lisa Lisa (born 1967), American actress and lead singer of the Cult Jam * Lisa (Japanese musician, born 1974), stylized "LISA", Japanese singer and producer * Lisa Komine (born 1978), J ...
began commanding very large sums. During the 1940s and 1950s, Graziani was the most photographed woman in France and the undisputed queen of couture, while Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 '' Vogue'' covers; her name recognition led to the importance of ''Vogue'' in shaping the careers of fashion models. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was
Jinx Falkenburg
Jinx Falkenburg
who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time; through the 1950s,
Wilhelmina Cooper Wilhelmina Gertrud Frieda Cooper (née Behmenburg; 1 May 1939 – 1 March 1980) was a Dutch-American model who began with Ford Models, and at the peak of her success, founded her own agency, Wilhelmina Models, in New York City in 1967. Retrieve ...
,
Jean Patchett Jean Ward Patchett Auer (February 16, 1926 – January 22, 2002) was a leading American fashion model A model is a person with a role either to Promotion (marketing), promote, display or advertise commercial product (business), products (not ...
,
Dovima Dorothy Virginia Margaret Juba (December 11, 1927 – May 3, 1990), known professionally as Dovima, was an American supermodel during the 1950s. Biography Dovima was born Dorothy Virginia Margaret Juba in Queens, New York to Stanley Juba, a P ...
, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp and Carmen Dell'Orefice also dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community.
Wilhelmina Cooper Wilhelmina Gertrud Frieda Cooper (née Behmenburg; 1 May 1939 – 1 March 1980) was a Dutch-American model who began with Ford Models, and at the peak of her success, founded her own agency, Wilhelmina Models, in New York City in 1967. Retrieve ...
's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas
Chanel Iman
Chanel Iman
's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In 1946,
Ford Models Ford Models, originally the Ford Modeling Agency, is an American international modeling agency A modeling agency is a company that represents fashion models, to work for the fashion industry. These agencies earn their income via commission, ...
was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York, making it one of the oldest model agencies in the world.


The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associa ...

customs
agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), ma ...

Paris
or the Arena in
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard language, Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4  ...

Milan
to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York. By the late 1960s,
London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...

London
was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models such as
Jean Shrimpton Jean Rosemary Shrimpton (born 7 November 1942) is an English model and actress. She was an icon of Swinging London and is considered to be one of the world's first supermodels. She appeared on numerous magazine covers including '' Vogue,'' '' ...
, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond,
Twiggy Dame Lesley Lawson (''née'' Hornby; born 19 September 1949) is an English model, actress, and singer, widely known by the nickname Twiggy. She was a Culture of the United Kingdom, British cultural icon and a prominent teenaged model during t ...

Twiggy
, and Penelope Tree dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model
Wilhelmina Cooper Wilhelmina Gertrud Frieda Cooper (née Behmenburg; 1 May 1939 – 1 March 1980) was a Dutch-American model who began with Ford Models, and at the peak of her success, founded her own agency, Wilhelmina Models, in New York City in 1967. Retrieve ...
opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called
Wilhelmina Models Wilhelmina International Inc. (NASDAQ: WHLM), formerly Wilhelmina Models, is a full service modeling and talent agency Talent has two principal meanings: * Talent (measurement), an ancient unit of mass and value * Talent (skill), a group of a ...
. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.


The 1970s and 1980s

The innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970s,
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sámi languages: /. ( ) is a subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' most commonly refers to Denmark, ...

Scandinavia
had many tall, leggy,
blond Blond (male) or blonde (female), also referred to as fair hair, is a Human hair color, hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The resultant visible hue depends on various factors, but always has some yellowish co ...

blond
e-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the
Ford Models Supermodel of the World Supermodel of the World (''Ford Supermodel of the Year'', formerly ''Face of the 80s'') is an international modeling contest established by Eileen Ford Eileen ( or ) is an Irish feminine given name anglicised from Eibhlín and may refer to: ...
competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the ''
Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue The ''Sports Illustrated'' Swimsuit Issue is published annually by American magazine ''Sports Illustrated'' and features female Model (people), fashion models, celebrities and athletes wearing swimwear in various locales around the world. The hi ...
'' debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of
supermodel A supermodel, also spelled super-model or super model, is a highly paid fashion model A model is a person with a role either to Promotion (marketing), promote, display or advertise commercial product (business), products (notably fashion ...
status. The 1970s marked numerous milestones in fashion.
Beverly Johnson Beverly Ann Johnson (born October 13, 1952) is an American model, actress, singer, and businesswoman. Johnson rose to fame when she became the first African-American model to appear on the cover of American ''Vogue (magazine), Vogue'' in August ...

Beverly Johnson
was the first
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorption of visible spectrum, visible light. It is an achromatic color, without hue, like white and grey. It is often used symbolically or fi ...
woman to appear on the cover of U.S. ''Vogue'' in 1974. Models, including ,
Grace Jones Grace Beverly Jones (born 19 May 1948) is a model, singer and actress. Born in Jamaica, she and her family moved to Syracuse, New York Syracuse ( ) is a City (New York), city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, Onondaga ...

Grace Jones
, Pat Cleveland, Alva Chinn, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975,
Margaux Hemingway Margaux Louise Hemingway (born Margot Louise Hemingway; February 16, 1954 – July 1, 1996) was an American fashion model and actress. She gained success as a supermodel in the mid-1970s, appearing on the covers of magazines including ''Cosmopol ...

Margaux Hemingway
landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of ''Time'' magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties", giving further name recognition to fashion models. Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970s and early 1980s. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...

Japan
. The next year Cal-Carries was established in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island country, island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Pen ...

Singapore
, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980s, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established. In October 1981, ''
Life Life is a quality that distinguishes matter that has biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining processes, from that which does not, and is defined by the capacity for Cell growth, growth, reaction to Stimu ...
'' cited
Shelley Hack Shelley Marie Hack (born July 6, 1947) is an American actress, model and producer. She is best known as the face of Revlon's Charlie (fragrance), Charlie perfume from the mid-1970s until the early 1980s, and for her role as Tiffany Welles in the ...
, Lauren Hutton and Iman for
Revlon Revlon, Inc. is an American multinational corporation, multinational company dealing in cosmetics, skin care, fragrance, and personal care. The headquarters of Revlon was established in New York City on March 1, 1932, where it still remains. Rev ...

Revlon
, Margaux Hemingway for Fabergé, Karen Graham for Estée Lauder, Cristina Ferrare for
Max Factor Max Factor is a line of cosmetics from Coty, Inc. It was founded in 1909 as Max Factor & Company by Maksymilian Faktorowicz. Max Factor specialized in movie make-up. Until its 1973 sale for US$500 million (approximately $ billion in 2017 dolla ...

Max Factor
, and Cheryl Tiegs for
CoverGirl CoverGirl is an American cosmetics brand founded in Maryland, United States, by the Noxzema Chemical Company. It was acquired by Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational Final good, consumer goods ...
by proclaiming them the "million dollar faces" of the beauty industry. These models negotiated previously unheard of lucrative and exclusive deals with giant cosmetics companies, were instantly recognizable, and their names became well known to the public. By the 1980s, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. , one of the top earning models in 1980, earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals; it was estimated that she earned about $300,000 a year in 1980. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the
Ford Models Supermodel of the World Supermodel of the World (''Ford Supermodel of the Year'', formerly ''Face of the 80s'') is an international modeling contest established by Eileen Ford Eileen ( or ) is an Irish feminine given name anglicised from Eibhlín and may refer to: ...
contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened
Elite Models Elite Model Management (MM) refers to two independent chain modeling agency, modeling agencies that originated as one in Paris, France in 1972 with subsequent locations in New York City, New York, Los Angeles, Miami, London and Toronto. In 2004, t ...
in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980s there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980s trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked
androgynous Androgyny is the possession of both masculine and feminine characteristics. Androgyny may be expressed with regard to Sex, biological sex, gender identity, or gender expression. When ''androgyny'' refers to mixed biological sex characteristics ...
. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980s, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950s and early 1970s were in style again.


1990s

The early 1990s were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980s. In 1990,
Linda Evangelista Linda Evangelista (; born May 10, 1965) is a Canadian fashion model. She is regarded as one of the most accomplished and influential models of all time, and has been featured on over 700 magazine covers. Evangelista is primarily known for being ...
famously said to ''Vogue'', "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries,
Naomi Campbell Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is an English model, actress, singer, and businesswoman. She began her career at the age of 15, and established herself amongst the most recognisable and in-demand models of the past four decades. Cam ...

Naomi Campbell
,
Cindy Crawford Cynthia Ann Crawford (born February 20, 1966) is an American model, actress and television personality. During the 1980s and 1990s, she was among the most popular supermodels and a ubiquitous presence on magazine covers, runways, as well as fash ...
,
Christy Turlington Christy Nicole Turlington Burns (born January 2, 1969) is an American model and humanitarian. She represented Calvin Klein's Eternity campaign in 1989 and again in 2014, and also represents Maybelline Maybelline New York (formerly The Mayb ...

Christy Turlington
,
Tatjana Patitz Tatjana Patitz (born 25 March 1966) is a German model and actress who achieved international prominence in the 1980s and 1990s representing fashion designers on runways and in magazines such as ''Elle magazine, Elle'', ''Harper's Bazaar'', and '' ...
,
Stephanie Seymour Stephanie Michelle Seymour (born July 23, 1968) is an American model and actress. During the 1980s and 1990s, she was one of the most popular supermodels, being featured in the ''Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue'' and the cover of ''Vogue'', ...

Stephanie Seymour
, and Yasmeen Ghauri became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "
supermodel A supermodel, also spelled super-model or super model, is a highly paid fashion model A model is a person with a role either to Promotion (marketing), promote, display or advertise commercial product (business), products (notably fashion ...
", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with
Maybelline Maybelline New York (formerly The Maybelline Company and Mabelline and Co.), trading as Maybelline ( ), is an American multinational corporation, multinational cosmetics, skin care, fragrance, and personal care company, based in New York City. I ...
that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year. By the mid‑1990s, the new " heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients.
Kate Moss Katherine Ann Moss (born 16 January 1974) is a British model. Arriving at the end of the "supermodel era", Moss rose to fame in the early 1990s as part of the heroin chic fashion trend. Her collaborations with Calvin Klein brought her to fash ...

Kate Moss
became its poster child through her ads for
Calvin Klein Calvin Richard Klein (born November 19, 1942) is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would later become Calvin Klein (fashion house), Calvin Klein Inc., in 1968. In addition to clothing, he also has given his name to a ra ...

Calvin Klein
. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model
Claudia Schiffer Claudia Maria Schiffer (; born 25 August 1970) is a German model and actress based in the United Kingdom. She rose to fame in the 1990s as one of the world's most successful models, attaining supermodel status. In her early career, she was compa ...

Claudia Schiffer
earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer
Victoria's Secret Victoria's Secret is an American lingerie, clothing, and beauty products, beauty retailer known for high visibility marketing and branding, starting with a popular catalog and followed by an annual Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, fashion show w ...

Victoria's Secret
, and the ''
Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue The ''Sports Illustrated'' Swimsuit Issue is published annually by American magazine ''Sports Illustrated'' and features female Model (people), fashion models, celebrities and athletes wearing swimwear in various locales around the world. The hi ...
'', there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as
Tyra Banks Tyra Lynne Banks (born December 4, 1973), also known as BanX, is an American television personality, model, producer, writer, and actress. Born in Inglewood, California, she began her career as a model at the age of 15, and was the first Africa ...
and
Heidi Klum Heidi Klum (; born 1 June 1973) is a German-American model, television host, producer, and businesswoman. She appeared on the cover of the '' Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue'' in 1998 and was the first German model to become a Victoria's Sec ...

Heidi Klum
to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990s also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies. By the late 1990s, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen
pop music Pop music is a Genre (music), genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms ''popular music'' and ''pop music'' are often used interchangeably, although the ...
was on the rise, and artists such as
Britney Spears Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is an American singer. Often referred to as the " Princess of Pop", she is credited with influencing the revival of teen pop during the late 1990s and early 2000s. After appearing in stage producti ...

Britney Spears
,
Aaliyah Aaliyah Dana Haughton (; January 16, 1979 – August 25, 2001) was an American singer and actress. She has been credited for helping to redefine contemporary R&B, pop music, pop and hip hop music, hip hop, earning her the Honorific nic ...
and
Christina Aguilera Christina María Aguilera (; ; born December 18, 1980) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and television personality. Known for her four-octave vocal range and ability to sustain high notes, she has been referred to as the "Honorific ...

Christina Aguilera
popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful
demographic Demography () is the statistics, statistical study of populations, especially human beings. Demographic analysis examines and measures the dimensions and Population dynamics, dynamics of populations; it can cover whole societies or groups ...

demographic
, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...

Brazil
ian models including and rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000s. Some have tied this increase in Brazilian models to the trend of magazines featuring celebrities instead of models on their covers.''Death of the Supermodels'' by C. L. Johnson, ''Urban Models'' 21 October 200
online
retrieved 13 July 2006


2000s and after

In the late 2000s, the Brazilians fell out of favour on the runways. Editorial clients were favouring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as and Lily Cole. During the 2000s, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models. However, the biggest controversy of the 2000s was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970s, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to
eating disorder An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating behaviors that negatively affect a person's health, physical or mental health, mental health. Only one eating disorder can be diagnosed at a given time. Types of eating disorders ...
s and
drug abuse Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, ...
. The
British Fashion Council The British Fashion Council (BFC) is a non-profit organization that aims to enable sustainable growth Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting Human development (economics), human development goals while also sustainin ...
subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, ''Vogue'' banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...

Spain
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region) ...

Italy
, and
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, ; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated ...

Israel
, which all enacted a minimum
body mass index Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (Mass versus weight, weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the human body weight, body mass divided by the square (algebra), square of the human height, body height, and is ...

body mass index
(BMI) requirement. In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the
child model {{unsourced, date=August 2020 A child model refers to a child who is employed to display, advertise and Promotion (marketing), promote commercial product (business), products or to serve as a subject of works of art, such as photography, painting a ...
's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.


Types


Fashion modelling


Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. Their height is generally over 5'11" (180 cm) for men and over 5'7" (170 cm) for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
,
London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
,
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), ma ...
, and
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard language, Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4  ...
. Second-tier international fashion center cities include
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus (Romulus and Remus, legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg ...

Rome
,
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.Bilancio demografico ...

Florence
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto Regions of Italy, region. It is built on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400  ...

Venice
,
Brescia Brescia (, locally ; lmo, link=no, label=Eastern Lombard, Lombard, Brèsa ; lat, Brixia; vec, Bressa) is a city and ''comune'' in the region of Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps, a few kilometers from the lakes ...

Brescia
,
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of ...

Los Angeles
,
Tokyo Tokyo (; ja, 東京, , ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis ( ja, 東京都, label=none, ), is the capital and List of cities in Japan, largest city of Japan. Formerly known as Edo, its metropolitan area () is the most populous in the world, ...

Tokyo
, and
Moscow Moscow ( , US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐskˈva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transco ...

Moscow
. The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting. The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between and tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a
plus-size model A plus-size model is an individual size 12 and above who is engaged primarily in Model (person), modeling plus-size clothing. Plus-size clothing worn by plus-size models is typically catering for and marketed to either Big & Tall or Tall or Overw ...
. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (188 cm), a waist of and a chest measurement of . Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned. Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients. Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of
Marilyn Monroe Marilyn Monroe (; born Norma Jeane Mortenson; 1 June 1926 4 August 1962) was an American actress. Famous for playing comedic "Blonde stereotype#Blonde bombshell, blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of ...

Marilyn Monroe
. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some – such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli – still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centres, a size 00 is more desirable than a size 0. The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls'
body image Body image is a person's thoughts, feelings and perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body. The concept of body image is used in a number of disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine, psychiatry, psy ...

body image
and encouraging
eating disorder An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating behaviors that negatively affect a person's health, physical or mental health, mental health. Only one eating disorder can be diagnosed at a given time. Types of eating disorders ...
s. Organisers of a fashion show in
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...
in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be
underweight An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy. A person who is underweight is malnourished. Assessment The body mass index, a ratio of a person's weight to their height, has traditionally been used t ...
by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007 a
Uruguay Uruguay (; ), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; while bordering ...

Uruguay
an model, Luisel Ramos, died from heart problems secondary to malnutrition. Her sister
Eliana Ramos Eliana "Elle" Ramos (December 23, 1988 – February 13, 2007) was a Uruguayan model (person), fashion model. Modeling Ramos was a fashion model in Latin America and was signed to Dotto Models, a prestigious modeling agency based in Argentin ...
also was a model and had died immediately after a runway show several months prior. They were amongst the three fashion models to die of
malnutrition Malnutrition occurs when an organism gets too few or too many nutrients, resulting in health problems. Specifically, it is "a Deficiency (medicine), deficiency, excess, or imbalance of energy, protein and Vitamin deficiency, other nutrients" wh ...
in a six month span. The other victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of
heart failure Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is a syndrome, a group of signs and symptoms caused by an impairment of the heart's blood pumping function. Symptoms typically include shortness of breath, Fatigue (medical), exc ...
caused by
anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by underweight, low weight, Calorie restriction, food restriction, body image disturbance, fear of gaining weight, and an overpowering desire to be thi ...

anorexia nervosa
just after stepping off the
catwalk A fashion show ( French ''défilé de mode'') is an event put on by a fashion designer Fashion is a form of Self-expression values, self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwea ...

catwalk
. In 2015,
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...

France
passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.


Magazine modeling

Fashion modeling also includes modeling clothing in fashion magazines. In Japan, there are different types of fashion magazine models. are models who regularly appear in a fashion magazine and model exclusively for it. On the other hand, street models, or , are amateur models who model part-time for fashion magazines in conjunction to school work and their main jobs. Unlike professional models, street models are meant to represent the average person in appearance and do not appear on runways. Street models are also not exclusively contracted to fashion magazines. If a street model is popular enough, some of them become exclusive models. Many fashion icons and musicians in Japan began their career as street models, including
Kaela Kimura is a Japanese pop rock singer, lyricist, fashion model and television presenter. Career Born in Adachi, Tokyo, Japan to a Japanese mother and British father, Kimura started working as a model in 2002 for the Japanese magazine ''Seventeen (Jap ...
and
Kyary Pamyu Pamyu Kiriko Takemura (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bo ...
.


Plus-size

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g.,
stock photography Stock photography is the supply of photographs which are often licensed for specific uses. The stock photo industry, which began to gain hold in the 1920s, has established models including traditional macrostock photography, midstock photography, ...
and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.


Normal-size

Also known as the "in-between" and "middle models", they are neither considered catalogue size (0–2) nor plus-size (10 up). There is criticism that these models have been left out of the conversation because fashion companies and brands opt to employ the extremes of the spectrum. Model Camille Kostek who was on a solo cover of ''Sports Illustrated'' Swimsuit Issue in 2019 has stated that she was told by a well-known international modeling agency "...that it was too bad that I wasn’t a size 10. That plus size is a big market right now and it’s too bad I wasn’t measuring bigger. My size (4/6) is considered an "in-between size," meaning I'm not a straight model nor plus model, I'm right in the middle. Actress
Mindy Kaling Vera Mindy Chokalingam (born June 24, 1979),Additional archive on June 25, 2015. known professionally as Mindy Kaling (), is an American actress, comedian, screenwriter and producer. She first gained recognition starring as Kelly Kapoor in the N ...

Mindy Kaling
has described this body type in her 2011 book ''Is Everybody Hanging Out Without Me?'' writing, "Since I am not model-skinny, but also not super-fat... I fall into that nebulous, 'Normal American Woman Size' that legions of fashion stylists detest... Many stylists hate that size because, I think, to them, I lack the self-discipline to be an aesthetic, or the sassy confidence to be a total fatty hedonist. They're like, 'Pick a lane.'"


Black models

The arrival of black women modeling as a profession began in early postwar America. It began most notably from the need of advertisers and a rise of black photography magazines. The women who advanced in such careers were those in a middle-class system that emphasized the conservative value of marriage, motherhood, and domesticity. Originally titled the "Brownskin" model, black women refined the social, sexual, and racial realities confined in the gender expectations of the modeling world. There was a profound need for black women to partake in the advertising process for the new "Negro Market". With the help of Branford Models, the first black agency, 1946 was the beginning of the black modeling era. Branford Models’ was able to "overturn the barriers facing African American in the early postwar period" especially by lifting at least one economic freedom. In this postwar America, the demand for such presence in magazines advanced "as a stage for models to display consumer goods" while assisting "in constructing a new visual discourse of urban middle-class African America". While they represented diversity, a major gap in the fashion industry, it was only until the 1970s that black models had a substantial presence in the modeling world. Known as the "Black is Beautiful" movement, the 1970s became the era of the black model. With growing disenfranchisement and racial inequality, the United States recognized the urgency of opening the "doors of social access and visibility to black Americans". The world of fashion was the gateway for social change. "The world of fashion was similarly looked to as a place where the culture could find signs of racial progress. Expressions of beauty and glamour mattered. Good race relations required taking note of who was selling women lipsticks and mini skirts, which meant that advertisers began looking for black models" Black models were looked to as the vehicle of social change. They were given the opportunity to balance out the lack of presence of black individuals in the mainstream culture. Agencies were beginning to scout black models and focus on the social change they were contributing too.
Life Magazine ''Life'' was an American magazine published weekly from 1883 to 1972, as an intermittent "special" until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 until 2000. During its golden age from 1936 to 1972, ''Life'' was a wide-ranging weekly general-interest ma ...
in October 1969, covered their issue with Naomi Sims, one of the most influential black models in the industry. Her rise to fame led her to international magazine jobs and individual projects with designers across the globe. In the Life Magazine issue, Black Beauty, a new agency that represented black models, had a spread in the magazine that showcased 39 black models. Each one of the models had their own unique features, allowing black expression to progress through this historic magazine spread. With the movement's presence both in magazines and the runway, designers began to realize the need to include black models on their runways and advertisements. The battle of Versailles was one of the most notable moments in fashion history that put black models on the map.
Eleanor Lambert Eleanor Lambert (August 10, 1903 – October 7, 2003) was an American fashion publicist. She was instrumental in increasing the international prominence of the American fashion industry and in the emergence of New York City as a major fashion ca ...
, creator of Fashion Week and a major " ontrollerof the narrative of American fashion", set up a dinner and a fundraiser to both increase American fashion visibility and restore the palace of Versailles. Five French designers and five American designers battled it out on the runway, showing off the fashion, and for the Americans, black models as well.
Oscar de la Renta Óscar Arístides Renta Fiallo (22 July 1932 – 20 October 2014), known professionally as Oscar de la Renta, was a Dominican fashion designer. Born in Santo Domingo , total_type = Total , population_density_km2 = auto , timezone = Atlan ...
stated "it was the black models that had made the difference." Pat Cleveland, Bethann Hardiason, Billie Blair, Jennifer Brice, Alva Chinn, and Ramona Saunders, were among the many black models that helped Team America win and stun the French competition. This competition made the black model a worldwide phenomenon. The French were beginning to welcome diversity on the runway and in their advertising. With the recognition Versaillies had given, black presence in the modeling world carried out into the 1980s and the 1990s. The models were now known by name and the publicity that came with the designers they were modeling for. With the rise of the supermodel, models like
Naomi Campbell Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is an English model, actress, singer, and businesswoman. She began her career at the age of 15, and established herself amongst the most recognisable and in-demand models of the past four decades. Cam ...

Naomi Campbell
and
Tyra Banks Tyra Lynne Banks (born December 4, 1973), also known as BanX, is an American television personality, model, producer, writer, and actress. Born in Inglewood, California, she began her career as a model at the age of 15, and was the first Africa ...
paved the way for black success.
Naomi Campbell Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is an English model, actress, singer, and businesswoman. She began her career at the age of 15, and established herself amongst the most recognisable and in-demand models of the past four decades. Cam ...

Naomi Campbell
, born in London, was the first black model to cover American Vogue,
TIME magazine ''Time'' (stylized in all caps) is an American news magazine based in New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the Unite ...
, Russian Vogue, and the first British black model to cover British vogue. Brands like
Chanel Chanel ( , ) is a French high-end luxury fashion house Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by ...

Chanel
, , Balmain,
Prada Prada S.p.A. (, ; ) is an Italian luxury fashion house founded in 1913 in Milan by Mario Prada. It specializes in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, and other fashion accessories. Prada licenses its name and branding t ...

Prada
, and more have all featured Campbell in their campaigns. She used her remarkable success to achieve more than fashion excelience. By the mid-1990s, black presence in the modeling world had dramatically decreased. Designers began to favor a consistent aesthetic and elected for skinnier white models. This reality was paved by models such as
Kate Moss Katherine Ann Moss (born 16 January 1974) is a British model. Arriving at the end of the "supermodel era", Moss rose to fame in the early 1990s as part of the heroin chic fashion trend. Her collaborations with Calvin Klein brought her to fash ...

Kate Moss
and
Stella Tennant Stella Tennant (17 December 1970 – 22 December 2020) was a British model and fashion designer, who rose to fame in the early 1990s and had a career that spanned almost 30 years. From an unconventional aristocratic family, she worked with Helm ...
who provided a more consistent look for the runway. At this time, "the number of working black models in high-profile runway presentation... became so dire that stories began appearing in the mainstream media about the whitewashing of the runway". In response, models like Campbell, Iman, and Bethann Hardison, joined forces throughout the"Diversity Coalition" in an attempt to "call out and accuse prominent fashion houses for snubbing Black and Asian models on the catwalk, editorial spreads, and campaigns". The lack of representation was, in part, due to the belief that "black girls don’t push products", which "encouraged people who work directly and indirectly in the industry to speak out on the injustices that go on within it". In the 1990s, it was quite clear that the top designers simply preferred a new aesthetic that excluded models of color, which resulted in only 6% of runway models to be women of color. Campbell's Diversity Coalition's main mission was to "expedite inclusion on the runway by deliberately calling out designers who have executed acts of racism on the runway". According to Campbell, it was their choice to not include black models on the runway and desire a uniformed runway that resulted in a racist act. Although such a dramatic effort to exclude black presence from the fashion world, models like
Tyra Banks Tyra Lynne Banks (born December 4, 1973), also known as BanX, is an American television personality, model, producer, writer, and actress. Born in Inglewood, California, she began her career as a model at the age of 15, and was the first Africa ...
and persisted. Banks not only dominated the runway as a teen, she took over countless pop culture platforms. Being the first black model to cover
Sports Illustrated ''Sports Illustrated'' (''SI'') is an American sports magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication, generally published on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), containing a variety of content (media), cont ...
, Banks was one of the most prominent models in the early 2000s. Covering
Sports Illustrated ''Sports Illustrated'' (''SI'') is an American sports magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication, generally published on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), containing a variety of content (media), cont ...
, Elle,
Essence Essence ( la, essentia) is a polysemic term, used in philosophy and theology as a designation for the property (philosophy), property or set of properties that make an entity or substance theory, substance what it fundamentally is, and which it ...
, Vogue, and walking for
Chanel Chanel ( , ) is a French high-end luxury fashion house Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by ...

Chanel
, Christian Dior (fashion house), Chrisitan Dior, and Claude Motnanta, Banks was truly dominating the fashion world. In addition, she acted in ''Fresh Prince of Bel Air'' and created her own reality competition show called
America's Next Top Model ''America's Next Top Model'' (abbreviated ''ANTM'' and ''Top Model'') is an American reality television series and interactive competition in which a number of aspiring models compete for the title of "America's Next Top Model" and a chance to b ...
. In conversation with Trebay of Los the New York Times, Banks stated that her first cover on Sport Illustrated "changed [her] life overnight.. You have to think back to remember what that did for an appreciation of black beauty to have a black girl, a girl next door type, on the cover of one of the most mass mainstream magazines of our lives. It was a societal statement, a political statement, and an economic one". Now, models like Joan Smalls, Winnie Harlow, Winne Harlow, Slick Woods, Jasmine Sanders and more are continuing the fight for black presence in the modeling world and using their successors as inspiration.


Fit models

A fit model (sometimes fitting model) is a person who is used by a fashion designer or clothing manufacturing, manufacturer to check the fit, drape and visual appearance of a design on a 'real' human being, effectively acting as a live mannequin.


Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. A study from 2014 that analyzed glamour model profiles estimated that the mean values of female models were 1.68m (height), 54kg (weight) and 0.73 (waist-to-hip ratio). There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as ''Playboy'', bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns. It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when ''The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sun'' established Page Three, Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which featured sexually suggestive images of ''Penthouse'' and ''Playboy'' models. From 1970 models appeared topless. In the 1980s, ''The Sun'' competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day. It was not until the 1990s that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for ''Playboy'' resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. ''Playboy'' was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her ''Playboy'' spreads that she was able to land roles on ''Home Improvement (TV series), Home Improvement'' and ''Baywatch''. In the mid-1990s, a series of men's magazines were established such as ''Maxim (magazine), Maxim'', ''FHM'', and ''Stuff (magazine), Stuff''. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's ''Slitz'' (formerly a music magazine) re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000s, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as ''Big Brother (UK), Big Brother'' to gain fame. Several ''Big Brother'' alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000s, and numerous men's magazines including ''Arena (magazine), Arena'', ''Stuff'' and ''FHM'' in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."


Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include Punk subculture, punk, Goth subculture, goth, fetish model, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry, including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.


Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail (anatomy), nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns. Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling. Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.


Petite models

Petite models are models that are under the typical height requirements that are expected of fashion models. Petite models typically work more often in commercial, and print modeling (rather than runway modeling) The height of models is typically above for women, and above for men. Models who are of heights such as fall under the category of petite models. Petite models typically model shoes because their feet are of more common sizes compared to the average fashion model.


Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is greater due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage and a higher degree of muscle definition. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising; they can also in some cases be certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, and Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. There are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modelling or getting fit and in shape.


Gravure idols

In Japan, a , often abbreviated to , is a female model who primarily models for magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs. It is considered part of the overall Japanese idol, idol industry in Japan. is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio (printmaking), intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and Cardboard (paper product), cardboard product packaging. Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photographic styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure idols may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure idols may be as young as pre-teen age up to their early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular Japanese idol, female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.


Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location. There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.


Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience. Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in Retailing, stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. Promotional models may also be used as TV host/anchor for interviewing celebrities such as at film awards, sports events, etc. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.


Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.


Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floorspace or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.


Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.


Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform. They resemble live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting a fashion show when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.


Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art school, art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.


Instagram models

Instagram models have become popular due to the widespread use of social media. They are models who gain their success as a result of the large number of followers they have on Instagram and other social media. They should not be confused with established models such as Cara Delevingne and Gigi Hadid, who use Instagram to promote their traditional modelling careers, although some models, such as Playboy model Lindsey Pelas, begin their modelling careers conventionally and subsequently become Instagram models. Some models use Instagram success to develop their careers, such as Rosie Roff who worked as a fashion model before being discovered via Instagram and gaining work as a ring girl in American boxing. In some cases, Instagram provides unsigned models with a platform to attract the attention of agencies and talent scouts. American model Matthew Noszka entered the profession as a result of being discovered on Instagram by
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. The Instagram model concept originated in the late 2000s, when the boyfriends of fashion bloggers such as Rumi Neely and Chiara Ferragni began photographing their girlfriends in various outfits. Instagram models often attempt to become social media influencers and engage in influencer marketing, promoting products such as fashion brands and detox teas. High-profile influencers are able to earn thousands of US dollars for promoting commercial brands. When choosing whom to employ, brands have become less concerned with the number of followers an influencer has and more focussed on their engagement marketing strategy. Research indicates that 89 per cent of influencers use Instagram to promote themselves compared to 20 per cent using Twitter and 16 per cent using Facebook. Some Instagram models have gained high-profile modelling jobs and become celebrities. Fitness model Jen Selter had become an Internet celebrity by 2014 with nearly 2 million Instagram followers, gaining professional sports management work and modelling for ''Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair'' magazine. Cosplayer and model Anna Faith had acquired over 250,000 Instagram followers by 2014, gaining success from her ability to impersonate the The Walt Disney Company, Disney character Elsa (Disney), Elsa. With Facebook's continuing decrease in post reach, Instagram has increasingly become the favorite platform for cosplayers. American actress Caitlin O'Connor had almost 300,000 Instagram followers in 2016, earning most of her social media income from endorsing products on Instagram. Australian personal trainer Kayla Itsines acquired five-and-a-half million Instagram followers allowing her to build a business in the fitness industry. Brazilian model Claudia Alende had gained a following of 2.8 million people on Instagram by 2015 and developed a career as a lingerie model. Plus-size models Iskra Lawrence and Tess Holliday have used Instagram to demonstrate their potential as models. Yashika Aannand, an Indian teenage actress rose to prominence in the Tamil film industry after gaining popularity among the public as an Instagram model with over 145,000 followers on her account by 2017. Instagram model techniques and aesthetics have also been used in unconventional or parody profiles. Instagram model Lil Miquela has blurred the line between reality and social media, amassing more than 200,000 followers without it being revealed whether she is real or computer-generated. Australian comedian Celeste Barber had acquired 1.8 million Instagram followers by 2017, parodying celebrity fashion photographs with real-life reenactments. In 2016, French organization Addict Aide ran a campaign to raise awareness for alcohol abuse among young people in which a model posed as Louise Delage, a fictitious 25-year-old Parisian whose Instagram photos nearly always featured alcohol. The account amassed 65,000 followers in a month, after which a reveal video posted to it had over 160,000 views. Some reports suggest that a number of Instagram models obtain extra income by covertly working as prostitutes. Websites accusing various models of this, often without reliable evidence, have increased in popularity recently, sometimes with the unintended effect of increasing their earnings. However, false accusations on these sites can harm legitimate models' reputations, and some women in the industry consider them to be a way for men to exert power over women.


Earnings and demographics

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the median earnings for a model in the United States is $34,000 a year. There are approximately 3,200 men and women who work as models full-time in the United States.


See also

* Video vixen, Hip hop model * Instagram#Impact_on_people, Instagram's impact on people * List of models in music videos * Modeling agency * List of modeling agencies * Ring girl * Time for print


References


Further reading

* Gross, Michael. ''Model : the Ugly Business of Beautiful Women''. New York: IT Books, 2011. * Hix, Charles, and Michael Taylor. ''Male Model: the World Behind the Camera''. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979. * * Vogels, Josey, and Smee, Tracy. "Object of Desire: Idealized Male Bodies Sell Everything from Underwear to Appliances; Are We Creating a Male Beauty Myth?" ''Hour'' (Montréal), vol. 3, no. 46 (14-20 Dec. 1995), p. [1], 10–11. ''N.B''.: The caption title (on p. 10) is "Male Attention". {{Authority control Modeling (profession), Human appearance Models (profession),