diaphragm pump
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A diaphragm pump (also known as a Membrane pump) is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds. Thailand, Malaysia, and ...
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thermoplastic A thermoplastic, or thermosoft plastic, is any plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling. Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight. The polymer chains associat ...
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teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. It is one of the best-known and widely applied Per-_and_polyfluoroalkyl_substances, PFAS. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-b ...
diaphragm and suitable valves on either side of the diaphragm (
check valve A check valve, non-return valve, reflux valve, retention valve, foot valve, or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have t ...
, butterfly valves, flap valves, or any other form of shut-off valves) to pump a
fluid In physics, a fluid is a liquid, gas, or other material that continuously Deformation (physics), deforms (''flows'') under an applied shear stress, or external force. They have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, are Matter, substances wh ...
. There are three main types of diaphragm pumps: * Those in which the diaphragm is sealed with one side in the fluid to be pumped, and the other in
air The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, known collectively as air, retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing fo ...
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hydraulic fluid A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. Common hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil or water. Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids are excavators and backhoes, ...
. The diaphragm is flexed, causing the volume of the pump chamber to increase and decrease. A pair of non-return check valves prevent reverse flow of the fluid. * Those employing volumetric positive displacement where the prime mover of the diaphragm is electro-mechanical, working through a crank or geared motor drive, or purely mechanical, such as with a lever or handle. This method flexes the diaphragm through simple mechanical action, and one side of the diaphragm is open to air. * Those employing one or more unsealed diaphragms with the fluid to be pumped on both sides. The diaphragm(s) again are flexed, causing the volume to change. When the volume of a chamber of either type of pump is increased (the diaphragm moving up), the pressure decreases, and fluid is drawn into the chamber. When the chamber pressure later increases from decreased volume (the diaphragm moving down), the fluid previously drawn in is forced out. Finally, the diaphragm moving up once again draws fluid into the chamber, completing the cycle. This action is similar to that of the cylinder in an
internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combust ...
. Diaphragm Pumps deliver a hermetic seal between the drive mechanism and the compression chamber, allowing the pump to transfer, compress, and evacuate the medium without a lubricant. An elastomeric diaphragm can be used as a versatile dynamic seal that removes many of the limitations found with other sealing methods. They do not leak, offer little friction, and can be constructed for low pressure sensitivity. With the right material consideration, diaphragms can seal over a wide range of pressures and temperatures without needing lubrication or maintenance.


Characteristics

Diaphragm pump characteristics: * have good suction lift characteristics, some are low pressure pumps with low flow rates; others are capable of higher flow rates, dependent on the effective working diameter of the diaphragm and its stroke length. They can handle
sludge Sludge is a semi-solid slurry that can be produced from a range of industrial processes, from water treatment, wastewater treatment or on-site sanitation systems. For example, it can be produced as a settled suspension obtained from conventional ...
s and slurries with a relatively high amount of grit and solid content. * pump design separates pump fluids from potentially sensitive internal pump parts *internal pump parts are often suspended and isolated within oil, to promote pump longevity *suitable for highly abrasive, corrosive solutions *suitable for discharge pressure up to 1,200 bar * have good dry running characteristics. * can be used to make artificial hearts. * are used to make air pumps for the filters on small fish tanks. * can be up to 97% efficient. * have good self priming capabilities. * can handle highly viscous liquids. A viscosity correction chart can be used as a tool to help prevent under-sizing AOD pumps File:DiaphragmPump.gif, CFD animation of a diaphragm pump File:Membrane pump on oil tanker deck.jpg, Double acting membrane pump on oil tanker deck File:Membraanpomp.svg, Membrane pump animation


Air compressors

Small mechanically activated diaphragm pumps are also used as
air compressor An air compressor is a Pneumatics, pneumatic device that energy conversion, converts power (using an electric motor, Diesel engine, diesel or gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air (i.e., compressed air). By one of ...
s and as a source of low-grade vacuum. Compared to other compressors, compressed ones are quiet, cheap and, most importantly, have no moving parts in the airstream. This allows them to be used without added lubrication in contact with the air, so the compressed air produced can be guaranteed clean.


References

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