computer scientist
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A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application. Computer scientists typically work on the theoretical side of computer systems, as opposed to the
hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic component, device in an electronic system used to affect e ...

hardware
side on which
computer engineer Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and ...

computer engineer
s mainly focus (although there is overlap). Although computer scientists can also focus their work and research on specific areas (such as
algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications for performing s, , , and other ...

algorithm
and
data structure Image:Hash table 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 SP.svg, 315px, A data structure known as a hash table. In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. More precisely, a ...

data structure
development and design,
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering approaches to the software development, development of software. A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, tes ...
,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between ...
,
database theory Database theory encapsulates a broad range of topics related to the study and research of the theoretical realm of database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as th ...
,
computational complexity theory Computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problem In theoretical computer science An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are used to model general computing devices. Theoretical computer scien ...
,
numerical analysis (c. 1800–1600 BC) with annotations. The approximation of the square root of 2 The square root of 2 (approximately 1.4142) is a positive real number Real may refer to: * Reality, the state of things as they exist, rather than as they may appea ...
,
programming language theory Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their applica ...
,
computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...

computer graphics
, and
computer vision Computer vision is an interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ...
), their foundation is the theoretical study of computing from which these other fields derive. A primary goal of computer scientists is to develop or validate models, often mathematical, to describe the properties of computer-based systems (
processors A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just Processor (computing), processor, is the electronic circuitry that executes Instruction (computing), instructions comprising a computer program. The CPU per ...
, programs, computers interacting with people, computers interacting with other computers, etc.) with an overall objective of discovering designs that yield useful benefits (faster, smaller, cheaper, more precise, etc.).


Education

Most computer scientists are required to possess a
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
,
M.S. A Master of Science ( la, Magisterii Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completi ...
, or
B.S. A Bachelor of Science (BS, BSc, SB, or ScB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as L ...
in computer science, or other similar fields like
Information and Computer Science Information and computer science (ICS) or computer and information science (CIS) (plural forms, i.e., ''sciences'', may also be used) is a field that emphasizes ''both'' computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting fro ...
(CIS), or a closely related discipline such as
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...
or
physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of eve ...

physics
.


Areas of specialization

*
Theoretical computer science Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on mathematical aspects of computer science such as the theory of computation, lambda calculus, and type theory. It is difficult to circumsc ...

Theoretical computer science
– including data structures and algorithms,
theory of computation . Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing. In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an ...
,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between ...
and
coding theory Coding theory is the study of the properties of s and their respective fitness for specific applications. Codes are used for , , , and . Codes are studied by various scientific disciplines—such as , , , , and —for the purpose of designing e ...
,
programming language theory Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their applica ...
, and
formal methods In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorit ...
*Computer systems – including
computer architecture In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tun ...
and
computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and computer software, software. Computer engineers usually have t ...
,
computer performance In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common ...
analysis, concurrency, and
distributed computing Distributed computing is a field of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Comp ...
,
computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wire ...
s,
computer security Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations ...
and
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
, and
database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the that interacts with s, applications, and the data ...

database
s. *Computer applications – including
computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...
and visualization,
human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) studies the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people ( users) and computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or lo ...
,
scientific computing Computational science, also known as scientific computing or scientific computation (SC), is a field that uses advanced computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes th ...
, and
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, ...

artificial intelligence
. *
Software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering approaches to the software development, development of software. A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, tes ...
- the application of engineering to software development in a systematic method


Employment

Computer scientists are often hired by software publishing firms, scientific research and development organizations where they develop the theories that allow new technologies to be developed. Computer scientists are also employed by educational institutions such as
universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typi ...
. Computer scientists can follow more practical applications of their knowledge, doing things such as software engineering. They can also be found in the field of
information technology consulting In management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization a ...
, and may be seen as a type of
mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained ( ...

mathematician
, given how much of the field depends on mathematics. Computer scientists employed in industry may eventually advance into managerial or project leadership positions. Employment prospects for computer scientists are said to be excellent. Such prospects seem to be attributed, in part, to very rapid growth in computer systems design and related services industry, and the software publishing industry, which are projected to be among the fastest growing industries in the U.S. economy.


See also

*
Computational scientist A computational scientist is a person skilled in scientific computing. This person is usually a scientist, a statistician, an applied mathematician, or an engineer who applies high-performance computing and sometimes cloud computing in different way ...
*
Computer ethicsComputer ethics is a part of practical philosophy concerned with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Margaret Anne Pierce, a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Computers at Georgia ...
*
Software engineer A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions ...
*
List of computer scientists This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors. Some persons notable as programmers are included here because they work in research as well as program. A few of these people pr ...
* List of computing people *
List of pioneers in computer science This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical oper ...


References

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