cell proliferation
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Cell proliferation is the process by which ''a cell grows and divides to produce two daughter cells''. Cell proliferation leads to an
exponential Exponential may refer to any of several mathematical topics related to exponentiation Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " raise ...

exponential
increase in cell number and is therefore a rapid mechanism of
tissue growth Tissue growth is the process by which ''a tissue increases its size''. In animals, tissue growth occurs during embryonic development ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock Experimental rock, also called avant-rock, is a ...
. Cell proliferation requires both
cell growth Cell growth refers to an ''increase in the total mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said ...
and
cell division Cell division is the process by which a parent cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious ...

cell division
to occur at the same time, such that the average size of cells remains constant in the population. Cell division can occur without cell growth, producing many progressively smaller cells (as in cleavage of the zygote), while cell growth can occur without cell division to produce a single larger cell (as in growth of
neurons A neuron or nerve cell is an membrane potential#Cell excitability, electrically excitable cell (biology), cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses. It is the main component of nervous tissue in all Anima ...

neurons
). Thus, cell proliferation is not synonymous with either cell growth or cell division, despite the fact that these terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
Stem cells In multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties o ...
undergo cell proliferation to produce proliferating "transit amplifying" daughter cells that later differentiate to construct tissues during normal
development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting *Development (music), the process thematic material i ...
and tissue growth, during tissue regeneration after
damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defined as "changes introduced into a system that adversely affect its current or future performance".Farrar, C.R., Sohn, H., ...
, or in
cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...

cancer
. The total number of cells in a population is determined by the rate of cell proliferation minus the rate of
cell death Cell death is the event of a biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the smallest units of life, and hence are often refe ...

cell death
. Cell size depends on both cell growth and cell division, with a disproportionate increase in the rate of cell growth leading to production of larger cells and a disproportionate increase in the rate of cell division leading to production of many smaller cells. Cell proliferation typically involves balanced cell growth and cell division rates that maintain a roughly constant cell size in the exponentially proliferating population of cells. Cell proliferation occurs by combining cell growth with regular "G1- S- M-G2"
cell cycle The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, ...

cell cycle
s to produce many
diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell (biology), cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for Autosome, autosomal and Pseudoautosomal region, pseudoautosomal genes. Sets of chromosomes refer to the number of mate ...
cell progeny. In single-celled organisms, cell proliferation is largely responsive to the availability of
nutrients A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
in the environment (or laboratory
growth medium A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of a population of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
). In
multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biolo ...

multicellular
organisms, the process of cell proliferation is tightly controlled by
gene regulatory
gene regulatory
networks Network and networking may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Network (1976 film), ''Network'' (1976 film), a 1976 American film * Network (2019 film), ''Network'' (2019 film), an Indian film * Network (album), ''Network'' (album), a 2004 ...

networks
encoded in the
genome In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is all genetic information of an organism. It consists of nucleotide sequences of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncodin ...

genome
and executed mainly by
transcription factors In molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecule, molecular basis of biological activity in and between Cell (biology), cells, including biomolecule, molecular synthesis, modification, me ...

transcription factors
including those regulated by
signal transduction Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation residue Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational m ...
pathways elicited by
growth factors A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cell proliferation, wound healing, and occasionally cellular differentiation. Usually it is a secreted protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that a ...
during cellcell communication in
development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting *Development (music), the process thematic material i ...
. In addition, intake of
nutrients A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
in animals can induce circulating hormones of the
Insulin Insulin (, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...

Insulin
/
IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a hormone A hormone (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, ...

IGF-1
family, which are also considered growth factors, and that function to promote cell proliferation in cells throughout the body that are capable of doing so. Uncontrolled cell proliferation, leading to an increased proliferation rate, or a failure of cells to arrest their proliferation at the normal time, is a cause of
cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...

cancer
.


References

{{Reflist Cellular processes