canopy (vine)
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In
viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

viticulture
, the
canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religion and ceremonies * Baldachin or canopy of state, typically placed over an ...
of a
grapevine ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the ...

grapevine
includes the parts of the vine visible aboveground - the trunk,
cordon Cordon may refer to: Basic meanings * Cordon (fashion), a cord (sewing) or braid used as a fastening or ornament * Cordon (plant), the descriptive term for a particular style of pruning woody plants * a strip of clay added around the outside of a ...

cordon
,
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...

stem
s,
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
,
flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flowers
, and
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
. The canopy plays a key role in light energy capture via
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
, water use as regulated by
transpiration Transpiration is the process of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Eart ...

transpiration
, and
microclimate A microclimate (or micro-climate) is a local set of atmospheric An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of ...
of ripening grapes.
Canopy management In viticulture, the Canopy (biology), canopy of a Vitis, grapevine includes the parts of the vine visible aboveground - the trunk (botany), trunk, canopy (vine)#Cordon, cordon, Plant stem, stems, Leaf, leaves, flowers, and grape, fruit. The canopy ...
is an important aspect of viticulture due to its effect on grape
yield Yield may refer to: Measures of output/function Computer science * Yield (multithreading) is an action that occurs in a computer program during multithreading * See generator (computer programming) Physics/chemistry * Yield (chemistry), the amou ...
s, quality, vigor, and the prevention of
grape disease This is a list of diseases of grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist ...
s. Various viticulture problems, such as uneven grape ripening, sunburn, and frost damage, can be addressed by skillful canopy management.Weiss, S.B., D.C. Luth, and B. Guerra. 2003. Potential solar radiation in a VSP trellis at 38°N latitude. ''Practical Winery and Vineyard'' 25:16-27. In addition to
pruning Pruning is a horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as wel ...

pruning
and leaf trim, the canopy is often
trained Image:Christer Fuglesang underwater EVA simulation for STS-116.jpg, An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth. Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any ...
on trellis systems to guide its growth and assist in access for ongoing management and harvest.J. Robinson (ed) ''"The Oxford Companion to Wine"'' Third Edition pg 134-135 Oxford University Press 2006


Vine

The vine is the main part of the grapevine, extending from the
root system In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
in the ground up to the cordons, or arms, of the vine. When the grape is young the trunk is very
pliable {{Short pages monitor