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In accounting, book value is the value of an asset according to its
balance sheet In financial accounting, a balance sheet (also known as statement of financial position or statement of financial condition) is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a busine ...
account balance. For assets, the value is based on the original cost of the asset less any
depreciation In accountancy Accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has b ...
, amortization or impairment costs made against the asset. Traditionally, a company's book value is its minus intangible assets and liabilities. However, in practice, depending on the source of the calculation, book value may variably include goodwill, intangible assets, or both.Graham and Dodd's ''Security Analysis'', Fifth Edition, pp 318 – 319 The value inherent in its workforce, part of the intellectual capital of a company, is always ignored. When intangible assets and goodwill are explicitly excluded, the metric is often specified to be ''tangible book value''. In the United Kingdom, the term
net asset value Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's asset In financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (tangible or intangible) that can be used to produce positive e ...
may refer to the book value of a company.


Asset book value

An asset's initial book value is its actual cash value or its acquisition cost. Cash assets are recorded or "booked" at actual cash value. Assets such as buildings, land and equipment are valued based on their acquisition cost, which includes the actual cash cost of the asset plus certain costs tied to the purchase of the asset, such as broker fees. Not all purchased items are recorded as assets; incidental supplies are recorded as expenses. Some assets might be recorded as current expenses for tax purposes. An example of this is assets purchased and expensed under Section 179 of the U.S. tax code.


Depreciable, amortizable and depletable assets

Monthly or annual
depreciation In accountancy Accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has b ...
, amortization and depletion are used to reduce the book value of assets over time as they are "consumed" or used up in the process of obtaining revenue. These non-cash expenses are recorded in the accounting books ''after'' a trial balance is calculated to ensure that cash transactions have been recorded accurately. Depreciation is used to record the declining value of buildings and equipment over time. Land is not depreciated. Amortization is used to record the declining value of intangible assets such as patents. Depletion is used to record the consumption of natural resources. Depreciation, amortization and depletion are recorded as expenses against a contra account. Contra accounts are used in bookkeeping to record asset and liability valuation changes. ''Accumulated depreciation'' is a contra-asset account used to record asset depreciation. Sample general journal entry for depreciation * Depreciation expenses: building... debit = $150, under expenses in retained earnings * Accumulated depreciation: building... credit = $150, under assets The balance sheet valuation for an asset is the asset's cost basis minus accumulated depreciation. Similar bookkeeping transactions are used to record amortization and depletion. "Discount on notes payable" is a contra-liability account which decreases the balance sheet valuation of the liability. When a company sells (issues) bonds, this debt is a long-term liability on the company's balance sheet, recorded in the account Bonds Payable based on the contract amount. After the bonds are sold, the book value of Bonds Payable is increased or decreased to reflect the actual amount received in payment for the bonds. If the bonds sell for less than
face value The face value, sometimes called nominal value, is the value of a coin, bond, stamp or paper money as printed on the coin, stamp or bill itself by the issuing authority. The face value of coins, stamps, or bill is usually its legal value. H ...
, the contra account Discount on Bonds Payable is debited for the difference between the amount of cash received and the face value of the bonds.


Net asset value

In the United Kingdom, the term
net asset value Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's asset In financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (tangible or intangible) that can be used to produce positive e ...
may refer to book value. A mutual fund is an entity which primarily owns ''financial assets'' or capital assets such as bonds, stocks and commercial paper. The
net asset value Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's asset In financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (tangible or intangible) that can be used to produce positive e ...
of a mutual fund is the market value of assets owned by the fund minus the fund's liabilities. This is similar to shareholders' equity, except the asset valuation is market-based rather than based on acquisition cost. In financial news reporting, the reported net asset value of a mutual fund is the net asset value of a single share in the fund. In the mutual fund's accounting records, the financial assets are recorded at acquisition cost. When assets are sold, the fund records a capital gain or capital loss. Financial assets include stock shares and bonds owned by an individual or company. These may be reported on the individual or company balance sheet at cost or at market value.


Corporate book value

A company or corporation's book value, as an asset held by a separate economic entity, is the company or corporation's shareholders' equity, the acquisition cost of the shares, or the market value of the shares owned by the separate economic entity. A corporation's book value is used in fundamental financial analysis to help determine whether the market value of corporate shares is above or below the book value of corporate shares. Neither market value nor book value is an unbiased estimate of a corporation's value. The corporation's bookkeeping or accounting records do not generally reflect the market value of assets and liabilities, and the market or trade value of the corporation's stock is subject to variations.


Tangible common equity

A variation of book value, tangible common equity, has recently come into use by the U.S. federal government in the valuation of troubled banks."US Eyes Large Stake in Citi", ''The Wall Street Journal'', 23 February 2009,"''Stress Test for Banks Exposes Rift on Wall St.". ''The New York Times'', 24 February 2009, Tangible common equity is calculated as total book value minus intangible assets, goodwill, and preferred equity, and can thus be considered the most conservative valuation of a company and the best approximation of its value should it be forced to liquidate. Tangible Common Equity via Wikinvest Since tangible common equity subtracts preferred equity from the tangible book value, it does a better job estimating what the value of the company is to holders of specifically ''common'' stock compared to standard calculations of book value.


Stock pricing book value

To clearly distinguish the
market price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity of payment A payment is the voluntary tender of money or its equivalent or of things of value by one party (such as a person or company) to another in exchange for goods, or services pr ...
of shares from the core ownership equity or shareholders' equity, the term ''book value'' is often used since it focuses on the values that have been added and subtracted in the accounting books of a business (assets – liabilities). The term is also used to distinguish between the
market price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity of payment A payment is the voluntary tender of money or its equivalent or of things of value by one party (such as a person or company) to another in exchange for goods, or services pr ...
of any asset and its accounting value which depends more on historical cost and
depreciation In accountancy Accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has b ...
. It may be used interchangeably with carrying value. While it can be used to refer to the business' total equity, it is most often used: *As a ''per share value'': The balance sheet equity value is divided by the number of shares outstanding at the date of the balance sheet (not the average o/s in the period). *As a ''diluted per share value'': The equity is bumped up by the exercise price of the options, warrants or preferred shares. Then it is divided by the number of shares that has been increased by those added.


Uses of books

#Book value is used in the financial ratio price/book. It is a valuation metric that sets the floor for stock prices under a worst-case scenario. When a business is liquidated, the book value is what may be left over for the owners after all the debts are paid. Paying only a price/book = 1 means the investor will get all his investment back, assuming assets can be resold at their book value. Shares of capital intensive industries trade at lower price/book ratios because they generate lower earnings per dollar of assets. Business depending on human capital will generate higher earnings per dollar of assets, so will trade at higher price/book ratios. #Book value per share can be used to generate a measure of comprehensive earnings, when the opening and closing values are reconciled. BookValuePerShare, beginning of year – Dividends + ShareIssuePremium + Comprehensive EPS = BookValuePerShare, end of year.http://www.retailinvestor.org/earnings.html Use Book Value To Calculate Comprehensive EPS


Changes are caused by

#The sale of shares/units by the business increases the total book value. Book/sh will increase if the additional shares are issued at a price higher than the pre-existing book/sh. #The purchase of its own shares by the business will decrease total book value. Book/shares will decrease if more is paid for them than was received when originally issued (pre-existing book/sh). #Dividends paid out will decrease book value and book/sh. #Comprehensive earnings/losses will increase/decrease book value and book/sh. Comprehensive earnings, in this case, includes net income from the Income Statement, foreign exchange translation changes to Balance Sheet items, accounting changes applied retroactively, and the opportunity cost of options exercised.


New share issues and dilution

The issue of more shares does not necessarily decrease the value of the current owner. While it is correct that when the number of shares is doubled the EPS will be cut in half, it is too simple to be the full story. It all depends on how much was paid for the new shares and what return the new capital earns once invested. See the discussion at stock dilution.


Net book value of long term assets

Book value is often used interchangeably with ''net book value'' or ''carrying value'', which is the original acquisition cost less accumulated
depreciation In accountancy Accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has b ...
, depletion or amortization. Book value is the term which means the value of the firm as per the books of the company. It is the value at which the assets are valued in the balance sheet of the company as on the given date.


See also

* Capital formation * Fixed capital * List of accounting topics *
Market value Market value or OMV (Open Market Valuation) is the price at which an asset In financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (tangible or intangible) that can be used t ...
* Shareholders' equity * Stock dilution * Tangible common equity


References

{{Authority control Fundamental analysis Asset Valuation (finance)