behavioral science
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Behavioral sciences explore the cognitive processes within
organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...

organism
s and the behavioral interactions between organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...

human
and
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow sphere of , the , during . Over 1.5 million animal have been —of which around 1 million are —b ...

animal
behavior through
naturalistic observation Naturalistic observation, sometimes referred to as fieldwork Field research, field studies, or fieldwork is the empirical research, collection of raw data outside a laboratory, library, or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in ...
, controlled scientific
experimentation File:Mirror baby.jpg, 160px, Even very young children perform rudimentary experiments to learn about the world and how things work. An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likeliho ...
and
mathematical modeling A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, ...
. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation.Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., and Kline, A. D., (1980), Introduction to the book in 'Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science': Buffalo, New York, Prometheus Books p 11-12 Examples of behavioral sciences include
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

psychology
,
psychobiology Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology,
,
anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including norms and values. studies how language influences social life. studi ...
, and
cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fie ...
. Generally, behavior science deals primarily with human action and often seeks to generalize about human behavior as it relates to society.


Categories

Behavioral sciences include two broad categories: neural — ''Information sciences'' and social — ''Relational sciences''. Information processing sciences deal with
information processing Information processing is the change (processing) of information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a resta ...
of stimuli from the social environment by cognitive entities in order to engage in decision making, social judgment and social perception for individual functioning and survival of organism in a social environment. These include
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

psychology
,
cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fie ...
,
behavior analysis Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex evoked by the pairing of certain antecedent (behavioral psychology), antecedent stimuli in the environmen ...
,
psychobiology Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology,
,
neural networks#REDIRECT Artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ ( ...
, social cognition,
social psychology Social psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern scienc ...

social psychology
,
semantic networks upExample of a semantic network A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to information storage, store complex structured data, structured and unstructured information used by a comput ...
,
ethology Ethology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...
, and
social neuroscience Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding the relationship between social experiences and biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological ...
. On the other hand, Relational sciences deal with relationships, interaction, communication networks, associations and relational strategies or dynamics between organisms or cognitive entities in a social system. These include fields like
sociological social psychology In sociology, social psychology (also known as sociological social psychology) studies the relationship between the individual and society. Although studying many of the same substantive topics as its Social psychology, counterpart in the field of ...
,
social networks A social networking service A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or ca ...

social networks
, dynamic network analysis,
agent-based model An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the s ...
, behavior analysis, and
microsimulation Microsimulation (from microanalytic simulation or microscopic simulation) is a category of computerized analytical tools that perform highly detailed analysis of activities such as highway traffic flowing through an intersection, financial transacti ...
.


Applications

Insights from several pure disciplines across behavioral sciences are explored by various applied disciplines and practiced in the context of everyday life and business. These applied disciplines of behavioral science include:
organizational behavior Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is the: "study of human behavior Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity (Energy (psychological), mentally, Physical activity, physically, and Social actions, socially ...
, operations research,
consumer behavior Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase Purchasing is the process a business or organization uses to acquire Good (economics), goods or Service (economics) ...
and
media psychologyMedia psychology is the branch and specialty field in psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior with media and technology. Media psychology is not limited to mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communi ...
. Consumer Behavior is the study of the decision making process consumers make when purchasing goods or services. It studies the way consumers recognize problems and discovery solutions. Behavioral Science is applied in this study by examining the patterns consumers make when making purchases, the factors that influenced that decision, and how to take advantage of these patterns. Organizational Behavior is the application of Behavioral Science in a business setting. It studies what motivates employees, how to make them work more effectively, what influences this behavior, and how to use these patterns in order to achieve the company's goals. Managers often use organizational behavior to better lead their employees.


Differentiation from social sciences

The terms ''behavioral sciences'' and ''social sciences'' are often used interchangeably. Though these two broad areas are connected and study systematic processes of behavior, they differ on their level of scientific analysis of various dimensions of behavior. Behavioral sciences abstract empirical data to investigate the decision processes and communication strategies within and between organisms in a social system. This involves fields like psychology, social neuroscience, ethology, and cognitive science. In contrast, social sciences provide a perceptive framework to study the processes of a social system through impacts of social organization on structural adjustment of the individual and of groups. They typically include fields like sociology, economics, public health,
anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including norms and values. studies how language influences social life. studi ...
, demography and political science. Many subfields of these disciplines cross the boundaries between behavioral and social sciences. For example, political psychology and behavioral economics use behavioral approaches, despite the predominant focus on systemic and institutional factors in the broader fields of political science and economics.


History

Behavioral Science began being studied predominately in the early 1900s. One of the pioneers of the study is John B Watson. He began teaching as a professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University in 1908. In 1915 he served as the president of the American Psychologist Association (APA). Some of his methods in studying behavioral science have been controversial. One of these instances was the "Little Albert" experiment. This experiment was to condition a child to fear a white rat. The fear also translated to other furry white things. This was done by associating the objects with a loud clanging noise. A point that drew controversy is that the child was never de-conditioned.


See also

* Behaviour ** Human behavior * List of academic disciplines * Science ** Fields of science *** Natural sciences *** Social sciences ** History of science ** History of technology


References


Selected bibliography

* George Devereux: ''From anxiety to method in the behavioral sciences'', The Hague, Paris. Mouton & Co, 1967 * * E.D. Klemke, R. Hollinger & A.D. Kline, (eds.) (1980). ''Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science''. Prometheus Books, New York. * Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, eds. (2001). ''International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences'', 26 v. Oxford: Elsevier.


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Behavioral Sciences Behavioural sciences, Cognitive science