barium chloride
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Barium chloride is an
inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a ...
with the
formula In , a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a . The informal use of the term ''formula'' in science refers to the . The plural of ''formula'' can be either ''formulas'' (from the mos ...
Ba
Ba
Cl2
Cl<sub>2</sub>
. It is one of the most common
water-soluble In chemistry, solubility is ability of a chemical substance, substance, the solute, to form a solution (chemistry), solution with another substance, the solvent. Insolubility is the opposite property, the inability of the solute to form such a ...
salts of
barium Barium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that cov ...

barium
. Like most other barium salts, it is white, toxic, and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also
hygroscopic Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption (chemistry), absorption or adsorption from the surrounding Natural environment, environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. If water m ...
, converting first to the dihydrate BaCl2(H2O)2. It has limited use in the laboratory and industry.


Structure and properties

BaCl2 crystallizes in two forms ( polymorphs). One form has the
cubic Cubic may refer to: Science and mathematics * Cube (algebra), "cubic" measurement * Cube, a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex ** Cubic crystal system 200px, A network ...
fluorite Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural scien ...

fluorite
(
CaF2
CaF<sub>2</sub>
) structure and the other the
orthorhombic In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Orthorhombic lattices result from stretching a cubic lattice along two of its orthogonal pairs by two different factors, resulting in a rectangular prism An ...
cotunnite Cotunnite is the natural mineral form of lead(II) chloride Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions. It is poorly soluble in water. Lead(II) chloride is one of the most important lead ...
(
PbCl2
PbCl<sub>2</sub>
) structure. Both polymorphs accommodate the preference of the large Ba2+ ion for
coordination numberIn chemistry, crystallography, and materials science, the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it. The ion/molecule/atom surrounding the central ion/m ...

coordination number
s greater than six. The coordination of Ba2+ is 8 in the fluorite structure and 9 in the cotunnite structure. When cotunnite-structure BaCl2 is subjected to pressures of 7–10 GPa, it transforms to a third structure, a
monoclinic In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek language, Greek words ''crystallon'' " ...
post-cotunnite phase. The coordination number of Ba2+ increases from 9 to 10. In aqueous solution BaCl2 behaves as a simple
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...
; in water it is a 1:2 electrolyte and the solution exhibits a neutral
pH
pH
. Its solutions react with
sulfate The sulfate or sulphate ion is a polyatomic anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having ...

sulfate
ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
to produce a thick white
precipitate Precipitation is the process of conversion of a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ever ...
of
barium sulfate Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter ...

barium sulfate
. :Ba2+ + SO42− → BaSO4
Oxalate Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is an anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. A ...
effects a similar reaction: :Ba2+ + C2O42−
BaC2O4
BaC<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>
When it is mixed with
sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching wood ashes, or a strong alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chem ...

sodium hydroxide
, it gives the dihydroxide, which is moderately soluble in water.


Preparation

On an industrial scale, it is prepared via a two step process from
barite Baryte, barite or barytes (, ) is a consisting of (4). Baryte is generally white or less, and is the main source of the element . The ''baryte group'' consists of baryte, (strontium sulfate), (lead sulfate), and (calcium sulfate). Baryte and c ...

barite
(
barium sulfate Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter ...

barium sulfate
): :BaSO4 + 4
C
C
→ BaS + 4
CO
CO
This first step requires high temperatures. :BaS + 2 HCl → BaCl2 + H2S In place of HCl, chlorine can be used. Barium chloride can in principle be prepared from
barium hydroxide Barium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x. The monohydrate (x =1), known as baryta or baryta-water, is one of the principal compounds of barium. This white granular Hydrate, monohydrate is the usual commercial ...
or
barium carbonate Barium carbonate is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, the distinction is not clearly defin ...

barium carbonate
. These basic salts react with
hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid +(aq) Cl−(aq) or H3O+ Cl− also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a salin ...

hydrochloric acid
to give hydrated barium chloride.


Uses

Although inexpensive, barium chloride finds limited applications in the laboratory and industry. In industry, barium chloride is mainly used in the purification of
brine Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (NaCl) in water (H2O). In different contexts, ''brine'' may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of solutions used for brining food ...

brine
solution in caustic chlorine plants and also in the manufacture of heat treatment salts, case hardening of
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

steel
. Its toxicity limits its applicability.


Safety

Barium chloride, along with other water-soluble barium salts, is highly toxic.''The Merck Index'', 7th edition, Merck & Co., Rahway, New Jersey, 1960.
Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compou ...

Sodium sulfate
and
magnesium sulfate Magnesium sulfate or magnesium sulphate (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...

magnesium sulfate
are potential antidotes because they form barium sulfate BaSO4, which is relatively non-toxic because of its insolubility.


References


External links


International Chemical Safety Card 0614
(''anhydrous'')

(''dihydrate'')



{{Authority control Chlorides Metal halides Barium compounds Inorganic compounds Pyrotechnic colorants