In

Mathworld.wolfram.com

Answers.com

{{Mathematical logic Mathematical axioms, * Conceptual systems Formal systems Methods of proof

mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...

and logic
Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning
Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic
Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...

, an axiomatic system is any set of axiom
An axiom, postulate, or assumption is a Statement (logic), statement that is taken to be truth, true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek () 'that which is thought worthy or ...

s from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logic
Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning
Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic
Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...

ally derive theorem
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement (logic), statement that has been Mathematical proof, proved, or can be proved. The ''proof'' of a theorem is a logical argument that uses the inference rules of a deductive system to establish that the the ...

s. A theory
A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research ...

is a consistent
In classical deductive logic
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logical conclusion.
Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditiona ...

, relatively-self-contained body of knowledge which usually contains an axiomatic system and all its derived theorems. An axiomatic system that is completely described is a special kind of formal system
A formal system is an abstract structure used for inferring theorems from axioms according to a set of rules. These rules, which are used for carrying out the inference of theorems from axioms, are the logical calculus of the formal system.
A form ...

. A formal theory is an axiomatic system (usually formulated within model theory
In mathematical logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical p ...

) that describes a set of sentences that is closed under logical implication. A formal proof
In logic
Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning
Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic
Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label= ...

is a complete rendition of a mathematical proof
A mathematical proof is an Inference, inferential Argument-deduction-proof distinctions, argument for a Proposition, mathematical statement, showing that the stated assumptions logically guarantee the conclusion. The argument may use other previou ...

within a formal system.
Properties

An axiomatic system is said to be ''consistent
In classical deductive logic
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logical conclusion.
Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditiona ...

'' if it lacks contradiction
In traditional logicIn philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philo ...

. That is, it is impossible to derive both a statement and its negation from the system's axioms. Consistency is a key requirement for most axiomatic systems, as the presence of contradiction would allow any statement to be proven (principle of explosion
In classical logic, intuitionistic logic and similar logical systems, the principle of explosion (, 'from falsehood, anything [follows]'; or ), or the principle of Pseudo-Scotus, is the law according to which any statement can be proven from a c ...

).
In an axiomatic system, an axiom is called ''Independence (mathematical logic), independent'' if it is not a theorem that can be derived from other axioms in the system. A system is called independent if each of its underlying axioms is independent. Unlike consistency, independence is not a necessary requirement for a functioning axiomatic system — though it is usually sought after to minimize the number of axioms in the system.
An axiomatic system is called ''Completeness (logic), complete'' if for every statement, either itself or its negation is derivable from the system's axioms (equivalently, every statement is capable of being proven true or false).
Relative consistency

Beyond consistency, relative consistency is also the mark of a worthwhile axiom system. This describes the scenario where the undefined terms of a first axiom system are provided definitions from a second, such that the axioms of the first are theorems of the second. A good example is the relative consistency of absolute geometry with respect to the theory of the real number, real number system. Line (geometry), Lines and point (geometry), points are undefined terms (also called primitive notions) in absolute geometry, but assigned meanings in the theory of real numbers in a way that is consistent with both axiom systems.Models

A Model theory, model for an axiomatic system is a well-defined set, which assigns meaning for the undefined terms presented in the system, in a manner that is correct with the relations defined in the system. The existence of a concrete model proves the consistency proof, consistency of a system. A model is called concrete if the meanings assigned are objects and relations from the real world, as opposed to an abstract model which is based on other axiomatic systems. Models can also be used to show the independence of an axiom in the system. By constructing a valid model for a subsystem without a specific axiom, we show that the omitted axiom is independent if its correctness does not necessarily follow from the subsystem. Two models are said to be isomorphism, isomorphic if a one-to-one correspondence can be found between their elements, in a manner that preserves their relationship. An axiomatic system for which every model is isomorphic to another is called categorial (sometimes categorical). The property of categoriality (categoricity) ensures the completeness of a system, however the converse is not true: Completeness does not ensure the categoriality (categoricity) of a system, since two models can differ in properties that cannot be expressed by the semantics of the system.Example

As an example, observe the following axiomatic system, based on first-order logic with additional semantics of the following countably infinitely many axioms added (these can be easily formalized as an axiom schema): :$\backslash exist\; x\_1:\; \backslash exist\; x\_2:\; \backslash lnot\; (x\_1=x\_2)$ (informally, there exist two different items). :$\backslash exist\; x\_1:\; \backslash exist\; x\_2:\; \backslash exist\; x\_3:\; \backslash lnot\; (x\_1=x\_2)\; \backslash land\; \backslash lnot\; (x\_1=x\_3)\; \backslash land\; \backslash lnot\; (x\_2=x\_3)$ (informally, there exist three different items). :$...$ Informally, this infinite set of axioms states that there are infinitely many different items. However, the concept of an infinite set cannot be defined within the system — let alone the cardinality of such as set. The system has at least two different models – one is the natural numbers (isomorphic to any other countably infinite set), and another is the real numbers (isomorphic to any other set with the cardinality of the continuum). In fact, it has an infinite number of models, one for each cardinality of an infinite set. However, the property distinguishing these models is their cardinality — a property which cannot be defined within the system. Thus the system is not categorial. However it can be shown to be complete.Axiomatic method

Stating definitions and propositions in a way such that each new term can be formally eliminated by the priorly introduced terms requires primitive notions (axioms) to avoid infinite regress. This way of doing mathematics is called the axiomatic method. A common attitude towards the axiomatic method is logicism. In their book ''Principia Mathematica'', Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell attempted to show that all mathematical theory could be reduced to some collection of axioms. More generally, the reduction of a body of propositions to a particular collection of axioms underlies the mathematician's research program. This was very prominent in the mathematics of the twentieth century, in particular in subjects based around homological algebra. The explication of the particular axioms used in a theory can help to clarify a suitable level of abstraction that the mathematician would like to work with. For example, mathematicians opted that Ring (mathematics), rings need not be Commutative ring, commutative, which differed from Emmy Noether's original formulation. Mathematicians decided to consider topological spaces more generally without the separation axiom which Felix Hausdorff originally formulated. The Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms, the result of the axiomatic method applied to set theory, allowed the "proper" formulation of set-theory problems and helped avoid the paradoxes of Naive set theory, naïve set theory. One such problem was the continuum hypothesis. Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, with the historically controversial axiom of choice included, is commonly abbreviated ZFC, where "C" stands for "choice". Many authors use Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, ZF to refer to the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice excluded. Today ZFC is the standard form of axiomatic set theory and as such is the most common foundations of mathematics, foundation of mathematics.History

Mathematical methods developed to some degree of sophistication in ancient Egypt, Babylon, India, and China, apparently without employing the axiomatic method. Euclid of Alexandria authored the earliest extant axiomatic presentation of Euclidean geometry and number theory. Many axiomatic systems were developed in the nineteenth century, including non-Euclidean geometry, the foundations of real analysis, Georg Cantor, Cantor's set theory, Gottlob Frege, Frege's work on foundations, and David Hilbert, Hilbert's 'new' use of axiomatic method as a research tool. For example, group theory was first put on an axiomatic basis towards the end of that century. Once the axioms were clarified (that inverse elements should be required, for example), the subject could proceed autonomously, without reference to the transformation group origins of those studies.Issues

Not every consistent body of propositions can be captured by a describable collection of axioms. In recursion theory, a collection of axioms is called recursive set, recursive if a computer program can recognize whether a given proposition in the language is a theorem. Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Gödel's first incompleteness theorem then tells us that there are certain consistent bodies of propositions with no recursive axiomatization. Typically, the computer can recognize the axioms and logical rules for deriving theorems, and the computer can recognize whether a proof is valid, but to determine whether a proof exists for a statement is only soluble by "waiting" for the proof or disproof to be generated. The result is that one will not know which propositions are theorems and the axiomatic method breaks down. An example of such a body of propositions is the theory of the natural numbers, which is only partially axiomatized by the Peano axioms (described below). In practice, not every proof is traced back to the axioms. At times, it is not even clear which collection of axioms a proof appeals to. For example, a number-theoretic statement might be expressible in the language of arithmetic (i.e. the language of the Peano axioms) and a proof might be given that appeals to topology or complex analysis. It might not be immediately clear whether another proof can be found that derives itself solely from the Peano axioms. Any more-or-less arbitrarily chosen system of axioms is the basis of some mathematical theory, but such an arbitrary axiomatic system will not necessarily be free of contradictions, and even if it is, it is not likely to shed light on anything. Philosophers of mathematics sometimes assert that mathematicians choose axioms "arbitrarily", but it is possible that although they may appear arbitrary when viewed only from the point of view of the canons of deductive logic, that appearance is due to a limitation on the purposes that deductive logic serves.Example: The Peano axiomatization of natural numbers

The mathematical system of natural numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ... is based on an axiomatic system first devised by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1889. He chose the axioms, in the language of a single unary function symbol ''S'' (short for "Successor function, successor"), for the set of natural numbers to be: * There is a natural number 0. * Every natural number ''a'' has a successor, denoted by ''Sa''. * There is no natural number whose successor is 0. * Distinct natural numbers have distinct successors: if ''a'' ≠ ''b'', then ''Sa'' ≠ ''Sb''. * If a property is possessed by 0 and also by the successor of every natural number it is possessed by, then it is possessed by all natural numbers ("''Mathematical induction#Axiom of induction, Induction axiom''").Axiomatization

Inmathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...

, axiomatization is the process of taking a body of knowledge and working backwards towards its axioms. It is the formulation of a system of statements (i.e. axiom
An axiom, postulate, or assumption is a Statement (logic), statement that is taken to be truth, true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek () 'that which is thought worthy or ...

s) that relate a number of primitive terms — in order that a consistency proof, consistent body of Boolean-valued function, propositions may be derived deductive reasoning, deductively from these statements. Thereafter, the mathematical proof, proof of any proposition should be, in principle, traceable back to these axioms.
See also

* List of logic systems * Axiom schema *Formalism (philosophy of mathematics), Formalism * Gödel's incompleteness theorem * Hilbert-style deduction system * Logicism * Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, an axiomatic system for set theory and today's most common foundation for mathematics.References

* * Eric W. Weisstein, ''Axiomatic System'', From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web ResourceMathworld.wolfram.com

Answers.com

{{Mathematical logic Mathematical axioms, * Conceptual systems Formal systems Methods of proof