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Zwickau
Zwickau
(German pronunciation: [ˈtsvɪkaʊ]; Sorbian (hist.): Šwikawa, Czech Cvikov, is a town in Saxony, Germany, it is the capital of the district of Zwickau. Zwickau
Zwickau
is situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge
Erzgebirge
mountains and is within the Saxon triangle, an area including Leipzig-Halle, Dresden
Dresden
and Chemnitz. The town has approximately 100,000 inhabitants, but has a regional catchment area of over 480,000 people.[2] From 1834 until 1952 Zwickau
Zwickau
was the seat of the government of the south-western region of Saxony. Zwickau, known as the city of automobiles,[3] is the centre of the Saxon automotive industry, with a tradition over one hundred years old. Well known beyond Germany's borders are car makers such as Horch, Audi, Auto Union
Auto Union
(silver arrows Type A, B, C, D), Trabant
Trabant
and Volkswagen. Since 2000 its history has been presented in the August- Horch
Horch
Museum,[4] inside the former Audi
Audi
Works. The University of Applied Sciences Zwickau
Zwickau
(Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau) trains automotive engineers. The valley of the 166 kilometres (103 miles) long Zwickauer Mulde river stretches from the Vogtland to Colditz Castle
Colditz Castle
at the other end. The Silver Road, Saxony's longest tourist route, connects Dresden
Dresden
with Zwickau. The ADAC
ADAC
City Guide 2005 wrote: "The town of Zwickau
Zwickau
has transformed itself over the years from a traditional mining town into an elegant Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
town, which is well worth discovering."[5] Zwickau
Zwickau
can be reached by car via the nearby Autobahns A4 and A72, the main railway station ( Zwickau
Zwickau
Hauptbahnhof) and is also reachable via a public airfield which takes light aircraft.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Economic history

1.1.1 Coal mining 1.1.2 Automotive industry 1.1.3 Uranium mining

2 Boundaries 3 Incorporations 4 Population 5 Economy 6 Education 7 Transport 8 Museums 9 Historical mayors 10 Notable people

10.1 Born Before 1900 10.2 Born after 1900

11 Twin towns—sister cities 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

The main market of Zwickau

Town hall, main façade from 1866–67 and earlier.

The river Zwickauer Mulde
Zwickauer Mulde
in Zwickau

St. Marys church, at dusk.

St. Catharine's church

The region around Zwickau
Zwickau
was settled by Slavs as early as the 7th century. The name Zwickau
Zwickau
is probably a Germanisation of the Sorbian toponym Šwikawa, which derives from Svarozič, the Slavic Sun and fire god.[6] In the 10th century, German settlers began arriving and the native Slavs were Christianized. A trading place known as terretorio Zcwickaw was mentioned in 1118. The settlement received a town charter in 1212 and hosted Franciscans
Franciscans
and Cistercians
Cistercians
during the 13th century. Zwickau
Zwickau
was a free imperial city from 1290–1323, but was subsequently granted to the Margraviate of Meissen. Although regional mining began in 1316, extensive mining increased with the discovery of silver in the Schneeberg in 1470. Because of the silver ore deposits in the Erzgebirge, Zwickau
Zwickau
developed in the 15th and 16th centuries and grew to be an important economic and cultural centre of Saxony. Its nine churches include the Gothic church of St. Mary (1451–1536), with a spire 285 ft. high and a bell weighing 51 tons. The church contains an altar with wood carvings, eight paintings by Michael Wohlgemuth
Michael Wohlgemuth
and a pietà in carved and painted wood by Peter Breuer. The late Gothic church of St. Catharine has an altar piece ascribed to Lucas Cranach the elder, and is remembered because Thomas Müntzer was once pastor there (1520–22). The town hall was begun in 1404 and rebuilt many times since. The municipal archives include documents dating back to the 13th century. Early printed books from the Middle Ages, historical documents, letters and books are kept in the Town Archives (e.g. Meister Singer volumes by Hans Sachs
Hans Sachs
(1494–1576)), and in the School Library founded by scholars and by the town clerk Stephan Roth during the Reformation. In 1520 Martin Luther
Martin Luther
dedicated his treatise "On the Freedom of the Christian Man" to his friend Hermann Muehlpfort, the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Zwickau. The Anabaptist
Anabaptist
movement of 1525 began at Zwickau
Zwickau
under the inspiration of the " Zwickau
Zwickau
prophets".[7] After Wittenberg, it became the first city in Europe to join the Lutheran Reformation. The late Gothic Gewandhaus (cloth merchants' hall), was built in 1522–24 and is now converted into a theatre. The city was seriously damaged during the Thirty Years' War. The old city of Zwickau, perched on a hill, is surrounded by heights with extensive forests and a municipal park. Near the toen are the Hartenstein area, for example, with Stein and Wolfsbrunn castles and the Prinzenhöhle cav, as well as the Auersberg peak (1019 meters) and the winter sports areas around Johanngeorgenstadt and the Vogtland. In the Old Town the Cathedral and the Gewandhaus (cloth merchants' hall) originate in the 16th century and when Schneeberg silver was traded. In the 19th century the city's economy was driven by industrial coal mining and later by automobile manufacturing. On 17 April 1945, US troops entered the city. They withdrew on 30 June 1945 and handed Zwickau
Zwickau
to the Soviet
Soviet
Red Army. Between 1944 and 2003, the city had a population of over 100,000. A major employer is Volkswagen
Volkswagen
which assembles its Golf, Passat and Phaeton models in the Zwickau-Mosel vehicle plant. Economic history[edit]

The Brückenberg I Hard coal
Hard coal
mine (later named Karl-Marx), here in 1948

Production of the last Trabant
Trabant
in 1990

Coal mining[edit] Coal mining is mentioned as early as 1348.[7] However, mining on an industrial scale first started in the early 19th century. The coal mines of Zwickau
Zwickau
and the neighbouring Oelsnitz-Lugau coalfield contributed significantly to the industrialisation of the region and the town. In 1885 Carl Wolf invented an improved gas-detecting safety mining-lamp. He held the first world patent for it. Together with his business partner Friemann he founded the "Friemann & Wolf" factory. Coal mining ceased in 1978. About 230 million tonnes had been mined to a depth of over 1,000 metres. In 1992 Zwickau's last coke oven plant was closed. Many industrial branches developed in the town in the wake of the coal mining industry: mining equipment, iron and steel works, textile, machinery in addition to chemical, porcelain, paper, glass, dyestuffs, wire goods, tinware, stockings, and curtains. There were also steam saw-mills, diamond and glass polishing works, iron-foundries, and breweries. Automotive industry[edit] In 1904 the Horch
Horch
automobile plant was founded, followed by the Audi factory in 1909. In 1932 both brands were incorporated into Auto Union but retained their independent trademarks. The Auto Union
Auto Union
racing cars, developed by Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche
and Robert Eberan von Eberhorst, driven by Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck, Tazio Nuvolari, Ernst von Delius, became well known all over the world. During World War II, the Nazi government operated a satellite camp of the Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
concentration camp in Zwickau
Zwickau
which was sited near the Horch
Horch
Auto Union
Auto Union
plant. The Nazi administration built a hard labour prison camp at Osterstein Castle. Both camps were liberated by the US Army in 1945. On 1 August 1945 military administration was handed over to the Soviet
Soviet
Army. The Auto Union
Auto Union
factories of Horch
Horch
and Audi
Audi
were dismantled by the Soviets; Auto Union
Auto Union
relocated to Ingolstadt, Bavaria, evolving into the present day Audi
Audi
company. In 1948 all large companies were seized by the East German government. With the founding of the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
in 1949 in East Germany, post-war reconstruction began. In 1958 the Horch
Horch
and Audi factories were merged into the Sachsenring
Sachsenring
plant. At the Sachsenring automotive plant the compact Trabant
Trabant
cars were manufactured. These small cars had a two-cylinder, two-stroke engine. The car was the first vehicle in the world to be industrially manufactured with a plastic car body. The former VEB Sachsenring
Sachsenring
manufacturing site was acquired by Volkswagen
Volkswagen
in 1990 and has since been redeveloped as an engine and transmission manufacturing facility. Audi-AG together with the city of Zwickau
Zwickau
operates the August Horch Museum in the former Audi
Audi
works. Uranium mining[edit] Two major industrial facilities of the Soviet
Soviet
SDAG Wismut were situated in the city: the uranium mill in Zwickau-Crossen, producing uranium concentrate (known as "yellow cake") from ores mined in the Erzgebirge
Erzgebirge
and Thuringia, and the machine building plant in Zwickau-Cainsdorf producing equipment for the uranium mines and mills of East Germany. Uranium milling ended in 1989, and after the reunification the Wismut machine building plant was sold to a private investor. Boundaries[edit] Zwickau
Zwickau
is bounded by Mülsen, Reinsdorf, Wilkau-Hasslau, Hirschfeld (Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Kirchberg), Lichtentanne, Werdau, Neukirchen, Crimmitschau, Dennheritz
Dennheritz
(Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Crimmitschau) and the city of Glauchau. Incorporations[edit]

1895: Pölbitz 1902: Marienthal 1905: Eckersbach 1922: Weissenborn 1923: Schedewitz 1939: Brand and Bockwa 1944: Oberhohndorf and Planitz 1953: Auerbach, Pöhlau and Niederhohndorf 1993: Hartmannsdorf 1996: Rottmannsdorf 1996: Crossen (with 4 municipalities on January 1, 1994 Schneppendorf) 1999: Cainsdorf, Mosel, Oberrothenbach
Oberrothenbach
and Schlunzig along with Hüttelsgrün (Lichtentanne) and Freiheitssiedlung

Population[edit]

Year Population

1462 ca. 3,900

1530 ca. 7,677

1640 2,693

1723 3,753

1800 4,189

1840 9,740

1861 20,492

1871 27,322

December 1, 1875 ¹ 31,491

December 1, 1890 ¹ 44,198

December 1, 1900 ¹ 55,825

December 1, 1905 ¹ 68,502

December 1, 1910 ¹ 73,542

June 16, 1925 ¹ 80,358

June 16, 1933 ¹ 84,701

May 17, 1939 ¹ 85,198

October 29, 1946 122,862

August 31, 1950 138,844

December 1, 1960 129,138

December 31, 1972 124,796

June 30, 1981 121,800

1986 120,900

June 30, 1997 102,100

December 31, 2002 100,892

December 31, 2012 95,089

¹ Census data

Economy[edit] The production of the Trabant
Trabant
was discontinued after German reunification, but Volkswagen
Volkswagen
built a new factory, and Sachsenring
Sachsenring
is now a supplier for the automobile industry. Nowadays the headquarters of the Volkswagen- Saxony
Saxony
Ltd. (a VW subsidiary) is in the northern part of Zwickau. Education[edit] Zwickau
Zwickau
is home to the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau
Zwickau
with about 4700 students and two campuses within the boundaries of Zwickau. Transport[edit] The city is close to the A4 (Dresden-Erfurt) and A72 (Hof-Chemnitz) Autobahns. Zwickau
Zwickau
Hauptbahnhof is on the Dresden– Werdau
Werdau
line, part of the Saxon-Franconian trunk line, connecting Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Dresden. There are further railway connections to Leipzig
Leipzig
as well as Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary
and Cheb
Cheb
in the Czech Republic. The core element of Zwickau's urban public transport system is the Zwickau
Zwickau
tramway network; the system is also the prototype of the so-called Zwickau
Zwickau
Model for such systems. The closest airport is Leipzig-Altenburg, which has no scheduled commercial flights. The nearest major airports are Leipzig/Halle Airport and Dresden
Dresden
Airport, both of which offer a large number of national and international flights. Museums[edit]

House where Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
was born 1810, museum at Hauptmarkt 5

In the town centre there are three museums: an art museum from the 19th century and the houses of priests from 13th century, both located next to St. Mary's church. Just around the corner there is the Robert-Schumann museum. The museums offer different collections dedicated to the history of the town, as well as art and a mineralogical, palaeontological and geological collection with many specimens from the town and the nearby Erzgebirge
Erzgebirge
mountains. Zwickau
Zwickau
is the birthplace of the composer Robert Schumann. The house where he was born in 1810 still stands in the marketplace. This is now called Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
House and is a museum dedicated to him. The histories of the Audi
Audi
and Horch
Horch
automobile factories are presented at the August Horch
Horch
Museum Zwickau. The museum is an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage (EIRH). Historical mayors[edit]

1501 – 1518: Erasmus Stella 1518 – 1530: Hermann Mühlpfort 1800, 1802, 1804, 1806, 1808, 1810, 1812, 1814: Carl Wilhelm Ferber 1801, 1803, 1805, 1807, 1809, 1811, 1813, 1815, 1817, 1819: Tobias Hempel 1816, 1818, 1820, 1822: Christian Gottlieb Haugk 1821, 1823, 1825, 1826: Carl Heinrich Rappius 1824 – Christian Heinrich Pinther 1827 – 1830: Christian Heinrich Mühlmann, Stadtvogt 1830 – 1832: Franz Adolf Marbach 1832 – 1860: Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer 1860 – 1898: Lothar Streit, from 1874 Lord Mayor 1898 – 1919: Karl Keil 1919 – 1934: Richard Holz 1934 – 1945: Ewald Dost 1945: Fritz Weber (acting Lord Mayor) 1945: Georg Ulrich Handke
Georg Ulrich Handke
(1894-1962) (acting Lord Mayor) 1945 – 1949: Paul Müller 1949 – 1954: Otto Assmann (1901-1977) 1954 – 1958: Otto Schneider 1958 – 1969: Gustav Seifried 1969 – 1973: Liesbeth Windisch 1973 – 1977: Helmut Repmann 1977 – 1990: Heiner Fischer (1936-2016) 1990 – 2001: Rainer Eichhorn (born 1950) 2001 – 2008: Dietmar Vettermann (born 1957) 2008 – until now Pia Findeiss (born 1956)

Notable people[edit] Born Before 1900[edit]

Robert Schumann

Janus Cornarius

Martin Roman, (1432–1483), merchant, mine owner, knight, Nicholas Storch, (before 1500–after 1536), weaver and lay preacher ( Zwickau
Zwickau
Prophets) Janus Cornarius, (c. 1500–1558), philologist and physicians

Jacob Leupold

Gregor Haloander, (1501–1531), jurist David Köler, (1532–1565), musician, organist, choirmaster, composer Jacob Leupold, (1674–1727), German mechanic and instrument maker Robert Schumann, (1810–1856) composer of the romantic era Carl Wolf, (1838–1915), German industrialist, founder of the miner's lamp works Friemann & Wolf in Zwickau Kurt Sorge, (1855–1928), German industrialist and politician (DVP) Heinrich Schurtz, (1863–1903), German ethnologist and historian August Horch, (1868–1952), automotive engineer, honorary doctorate from the Technical University of Braunschweig Heinrich Waentig, (1870–1943), German economist and politician (SPD) Hans Dominik, (1872–1945), German writer, journalist and engineer Fritz Bleyl, (1880–1966) expressionist painter and architect Max Pechstein, (1881–1955) expressionist painter

Born after 1900[edit]

Gerhard Schürer
Gerhard Schürer
in 1982

Robert Eberan von Eberhorst, (1902–1982) Austrian automotive engineer, constructor of the 1938 Auto Union
Auto Union
racing car Typ D Gershom Schocken (1912–1990), Israeli journalist and politician Gert Fröbe, (1913–1988), actor in numerous film and stage roles, most notably the title-role in Goldfinger (1964) Gerhard Schürer, (1921–2010), German politician (SED) Rolf Hädrich, (1931–2000), German film director and screenwriter Dieter F. Uchtdorf, (born 1940), Second Counselor in the First Presidency The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, lived here following World War II Harald Fritzsch, (born 1943), German theoretical physicist (quantum theory) Volkmar Weiss, (born 1944), German geneticists, social historian and genealogist Jürgen Croy, (born 1946), Goalkeeper (football)
Goalkeeper (football)
at former BSG Sachsenring
Sachsenring
Zwickau, elected GDR Footballer of the Year in 1972, 1976, and 1978 Christoph Bergner, (born 1948), German politician (CDU), 1993-1994 Prime Minister of Saxony-Anhalt Eckart Viehweg, (1948–2010), German mathematician Hagen von Ortloff, (born 1949), German TV-journalist (Eisenbahn-Romantik) Werner Schulz, (born 1950), German politician (Alliance '90 / The Greens) Christoph Daum, (born 1953), football player and coach Lutz Dombrowski, (born 1959), German athlete and Olympic champion Lars Riedel, (born 1967), German discus thrower, a multiple world champion and Olympic champion in Atlanta in 1996 Olaf Schubert, (born 1967), comedian and musician Sven Günther, (born 1974), German footballer Cathleen Martini, (born 1982), world champion in bobsleigh in 2011 Kristin Gierisch, (born 1990), European Indoor triple jump champion in 2017

Twin towns—sister cities[edit]

Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic, since 1971 Zaanstad, Netherlands, since 1987 Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, since 1988

References[edit]

^ "Aktuelle Einwohnerzahlen nach Gemeinden 2016] (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen (in German). July 2016.  ^ Zwickau.de: Zwickau
Zwickau
in Zahlen ( Zwickau
Zwickau
in Numbers) ^ Zwickau.de: Industrie und Wirtschaft (Industry & Commerce) ^ Official Website of August Horch
Horch
Museum Zwickau
Zwickau
Archived November 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ ADAC
ADAC
Travel Guide, Towns and Cities from A to Z – City Guide Germany
Germany
Travel Information, first edition June 2005, 368 pages, ISBN 3-89905-233-1 ^ Zwickau
Zwickau
von Stadbaurat Ebersbach in: Deutschlands Städtebau (Germany's cities), Deutscher Architektur und Industrieverlag Berlin 1921 ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zwickau". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 1061. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zwickau.

Zwickau
Zwickau
Official website (in German) August- Horch
Horch
Museum at Audi
Audi
Works (in German)

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Zwickau
Zwickau
(district)

Bernsdorf Callenberg Crimmitschau Crinitzberg Dennheritz Fraureuth Gersdorf Glauchau Hartenstein Hartmannsdorf bei Kirchberg Hirschfeld Hohenstein-Ernstthal Kirchberg Langenbernsdorf Langenweißbach Lichtenstein Lichtentanne Limbach-Oberfrohna Meerane Mülsen Neukirchen Niederfrohna Oberlungwitz Oberrothenbach Oberwiera Reinsdorf Remse Sankt Egidien Schönberg Waldenburg Werdau Wildenfels Wilkau-Haßlau Zwickau

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132535661 GND: 4068262-6 BNF:

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