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Zoilus I Dikaios (Greek: Ζωΐλος Α΄ ὁ Δίκαιος; epithet means "the Just") was an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king who ruled in Afghanistan and Pakistan and occupied the areas of the Paropamisade
Paropamisade
and Arachosia previously held by Menander I. He may have belonged to the dynasty of Euthydemus I.

Contents

1 Time of reign 2 Coin types of Zoilos I 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Time of reign[edit] Zoilos used to be dated after the death of Menander, c. 130–120 BCE (Bopearachchi). Two coins of Zoilus I were however overstruck by Menander I
Menander I
[1] so Zoilos came to power while Menander was still alive and was perhaps his enemy. R. C. Senior has suggested some time between 150–135 BCE. Coin types of Zoilos I[edit]

Coin of Zoilos I
Zoilos I
symbolizing on the reverse the victorious alliance of the Heraklean club and the Scythian
Scythian
bow.

Zoilos I
Zoilos I
uses a silver coin type similar to that of Euthydemus II, son of Demetrius: Crowned Herakles
Herakles
standing, holding a wreath or diadem in his right hand, and a club and the lion skin in his left hand. On some of the coins, which are of lower artistic quality, Herakles
Herakles
is crowned by a small Nike. Zoilos I
Zoilos I
also struck rare gold-plated silver coins with portrait and Heracles. The Indian-standard coins of Zoilos I
Zoilos I
also bear the Pali title "Dhramikasa" ("Follower of the Dharma"), probably related to Buddhism, appearing for the first time on Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage. A few monolingual Attic tetradrachms of Zoilos I
Zoilos I
have been found. Zoilos inherited (or took) several monograms from Menander I. His bronze coins are square and original in that they combine the club of Herakles
Herakles
with a Scythian-type bowcase (for a short recurve bow) inside a victory wreath, suggesting contacts or even an alliance with horse-mounted people originating from the steppes, possibly either the Scythians (future Indo-Scythians), or the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who had invaded Greco-Bactria. This bow can be contrasted to the traditional Hellenistic long bow depicted on the coins of the eastern Indo-Greek queen Agathokleia.

Zoilos I
Zoilos I
and Herakles.

Zoilos I
Zoilos I
and Herakles, with Nike on his shoulder crowning him.

Coin of Zoilos I. Profile of the ruler, with Greek legend BASILEOS DIKAIOU ZOILOU "Of King Zoilos the Just". Metropolitan Museum of Art

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, territories and chronology Based on Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
(1991)[2]

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kings Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings

Territories/ dates West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura[3]

326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in India Nanda Empire

312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire Creation of the Maurya Empire

305 BCE Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
after Mauryan war Maurya Empire

280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum

255–239 BCE Independence of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom Diodotus I Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
(268-232)

239–223 BCE Diodotus II

230–200 BCE Euthydemus I

200–190 BCE Demetrius I Sunga Empire

190-185 BCE Euthydemus II

190–180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon

185–170 BCE Antimachus I

180–160 BCE

Apollodotus I

175–170 BCE Demetrius II

160–155 BCE

Antimachus II

170–145 BCE Eucratides I

155–130 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation, loss of Ai-Khanoum Eucratides II Plato Heliocles
Heliocles
I Menander I

130–120 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation Zoilos I Agathokleia

Yavanarajya inscription

120–110 BCE

Lysias Strato I

110–100 BCE

Antialcidas Heliokles II

100 BCE

Polyxenos Demetrius III

100–95 BCE

Philoxenus

95–90 BCE

Diomedes Amyntas Epander

90 BCE

Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso

90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation Maues
Maues
(Indo-Scythian)

75–70 BCE

Vonones Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes I
Azes I
(Indo-Scythians) Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Vijayamitra/ Azilises Apollophanes

25 BCE – 10 CE

Gondophares Zeionises Kharahostes Strato II Strato III

Gondophares
Gondophares
(Indo-Parthian) Rajuvula
Rajuvula
(Indo-Scythian)

Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
(Kushan Empire) Bhadayasa (Indo-Scythian) Sodasa (Indo-Scythian)

See also[edit]

Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians

Notes[edit]

^ Senior R.C., MacDonald, D.: The Decline of the Indo-Greeks, Monographs of the Hellenic Numismatic Society, Athens (1998) ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453 ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.9 [1]

References[edit]

The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press

External links[edit]

Main coins of Zoilus I Catalog of the coins of Zoilus I

Preceded by: Heliocles Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king (Paropamisade, Arachosia) 130–120 BCE Succeeded by: Lysias

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles
Heliocles
I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates

.