HOME
The Info List - Zohar





The Zohar
Zohar
(Hebrew: זֹהַר‬, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.[1] It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology. The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash, which elaborates on the Torah. The Zohar
Zohar
is mostly written in what has been described as a cryptic, obscure style of Aramaic.[2] Aramaic, the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(539 BCE – 70 CE), was the original language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and is the main language of the Talmud.[3] The Zohar
Zohar
first appeared in Spain
Spain
in the 13th century, and was published by a Jewish writer named Moses
Moses
de León. De León ascribed the work to Shimon bar Yochai
Shimon bar Yochai
("Rashbi"), a rabbi of the 2nd century during the Roman persecution[4] who, according to Jewish legend,[5][6] hid in a cave for thirteen years studying the Torah
Torah
and was inspired by the Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
to write the Zohar. This accords with the traditional claim by adherents that Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is the concealed part of the Oral Torah. While the traditional majority view in religious Judaism
Judaism
has been that the teachings of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(lit. "tradition") were revealed by God
God
to Biblical figures such as Abraham
Abraham
and Moses
Moses
and were then transmitted orally from the Biblical era until their redaction by Shimon bar Yochai, modern academic analysis of the Zohar, such as that by the 20th century religious historian Gershom Scholem, has theorized that de León was the actual author. The view of some Orthodox Jews
Jews
and Orthodox groups, as well as non-Orthodox Jewish denominations, generally conforms to this latter view, and as such, most such groups have long viewed the Zohar
Zohar
as pseudepigraphy and apocrypha, while sometimes accepting that its contents may have meaning for modern Judaism. Jewish prayerbooks edited by non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
may therefore contain excerpts from the Zohar
Zohar
and other kabbalistic works,[7] even if the editors do not literally believe that they are oral traditions from the time of Moses. There are people of religions besides Judaism, or even those without religious affiliation, who delve in the Zohar
Zohar
out of curiosity, or as a technology for seeking meaningful and practical answers about the meaning of their lives, the purpose of creation and existence and their relationships with the laws of nature,[8][9] and so forth; however from the perspective of traditional, rabbinic Judaism,[10][11] and by the Zohar's own statements,[12] the purpose of the Zohar
Zohar
is to help the Jewish people through and out of the Exile
Exile
and to infuse the Torah
Torah
and mitzvot (Judaic commandments) with the wisdom of Moses
Moses
de León's Kabbalah
Kabbalah
for its Jewish readers.[13]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Authorship

2.1 Initial view 2.2 Late Middle Ages 2.3 Enlightenment period 2.4 Contemporary religious view 2.5 Modern critical views

3 Contents

3.1 Zohar 3.2 Zohar
Zohar
Chadash/The New Zohar
Zohar
(זוהר חדש) 3.3 Tikunei haZohar/Rectifications of the Zohar
Zohar
(תיקוני הזוהר) 3.4 Parts of the Zohar: summary of Rabbinic view 3.5 Viewpoint and exegesis: Rabbinic view 3.6 Academic views

4 Commentaries 5 Influence

5.1 Judaism 5.2 Neo-Platonism 5.3 Christian mysticism

6 Zohar
Zohar
study (Jewish view) 7 English translations 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] In the Bible, the word "Zohar" appears in the vision of Ezekiel 8:2 and is usually translated as meaning radiance or light. It appears again in Daniel 12:3, "Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens".[14][15] Authorship[edit] Initial view[edit]

Representation of the Five Worlds
Five Worlds
with the 10 Sephirot
Sephirot
in each, as successively smaller concentric circles, derived from the light of the Kav after the Tzimtzum

Suspicions aroused by the facts that the Zohar
Zohar
was discovered by one person and that it refers to historical events of the post-Talmudic period while purporting to be from an earlier time, caused the authorship to be questioned from the outset.[4] Joseph Jacobs and Isaac Broyde, in their article on the Zohar
Zohar
for the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, cite a story involving the Kabbalist Isaac of Acco, who is supposed to have heard directly from the widow of de León that her husband proclaimed authorship by Shimon bar Yochai
Shimon bar Yochai
for profit:

A story tells that after the death of Moses
Moses
de Leon, a rich man of Avila named Joseph offered Moses' widow (who had been left without any means of supporting herself) a large sum of money for the original from which her husband had made the copy. She confessed that her husband himself was the author of the work. She had asked him several times, she said, why he had chosen to credit his own teachings to another, and he had always answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the miracle-working Shimon bar Yochai
Shimon bar Yochai
would be a rich source of profit. The story indicates that shortly after its appearance the work was believed by some to have been written by Moses
Moses
de Leon.[4]

However, Isaac evidently ignored[citation needed] the woman's alleged confession in favor of the testimony of Joseph ben Todros and of Jacob, a pupil of Moses
Moses
de León, both of whom assured him on oath that the work was not written by de León. Issac's testimony, which appeared in the first edition (1566) of Sefer Yuchasin, was censored from the second edition (1580)[16] and remained absent from all editions thereafter until its restoration nearly 300 years later in the 1857 edition.[17][18] Rabbi
Rabbi
Aryeh Kaplan notes that Isaac evidently did not believe her since Isaac quotes the Zohar
Zohar
was authored by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon bar Yohai in a manuscript in Rabbi
Rabbi
Kaplan's possession. This leads him to hypothesize that Moses
Moses
de León's wife sold the original manuscript, as parchment was very valuable, and was embarrassed by the realization of its high ancient worth, leading her to claim it was written by her husband. Rabbi
Rabbi
Kaplan concludes saying this was the probable series of events.[19] The Zohar
Zohar
spread among the Jews
Jews
with remarkable swiftness. Scarcely fifty years had passed since its appearance in Spain
Spain
before it was quoted by many Kabbalists, including the Italian mystical writer Menahem Recanati
Menahem Recanati
and by Todros Abulafia. Certain Jewish communities, however, such as the Dor Daim, Andalusian (Western Sefardic or Spanish and Portuguese Jews), and some Italian communities, never accepted it as authentic.[4] Late Middle Ages[edit] By the 15th century, its authority in the Spanish Jewish community was such that Joseph ibn Shem-Tov drew from it arguments in his attacks against Maimonides, and even representatives of non-mystical Jewish thought began to assert its sacredness and invoke its authority in the decision of some ritual questions. In Jacobs' and Broyde's view, they were attracted by its glorification of man, its doctrine of immortality, and its ethical principles, which they saw as more in keeping with the spirit of Talmudic
Talmudic
Judaism
Judaism
than are those taught by the philosophers, and which was held in contrast to the view of Maimonides
Maimonides
and his followers, who regarded man as a fragment of the universe whose immortality is dependent upon the degree of development of his active intellect. The Zohar
Zohar
instead declared Man to be the lord of the creation, whose immortality is solely dependent upon his morality.[4] Conversely, Elijah
Elijah
Delmedigo (c.1458 – c.1493), in his Bechinat ha-Dat endeavored to show that the Zohar
Zohar
could not be attributed to Shimon bar Yochai, by a number of arguments. He claims that if it were his work, the Zohar
Zohar
would have been mentioned by the Talmud, as has been the case with other works of the Talmudic
Talmudic
period; he claims that had bar Yochai known by divine revelation the hidden meaning of the precepts, his decisions on Jewish law from the Talmudic
Talmudic
period would have been adopted by the Talmud, that it would not contain the names of rabbis who lived at a later period than that of bar Yochai; he claims that if the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
was a revealed doctrine, there would have been no divergence of opinion among the Kabbalists concerning the mystic interpretation of the precepts.[4][20] Believers in the authenticity of the Zohar
Zohar
countered that the lack of references to the work in Jewish literature was because bar Yohai did not commit his teachings to writing but transmitted them orally to his disciples over generations until finally the doctrines were embodied in the Zohar. They found it unsurprising that bar Yochai should have foretold future happenings or made references to historical events of the post- Talmudic
Talmudic
period.[4] The authenticity of the Zohar
Zohar
was accepted by such 16th century Jewish luminaries as R' Yosef Karo
Yosef Karo
(d.1575), R' Moses
Moses
Isserles (d. 1572), and R' Solomon Luria
Solomon Luria
(d.1574), who wrote that Jewish law (Halacha) follows the Zohar, except where the Zohar
Zohar
is contradicted by the Babylonian Talmud.[21] However, R Soloman Luria admits in response 98 that the Zohar
Zohar
can't override a minhag.[citation needed] Enlightenment period[edit] Debate continued over the generations; Delmedigo's arguments were echoed by Leon of Modena
Leon of Modena
(d.1648) in his Ari Nohem, and a work devoted to the criticism of the Zohar, Mitpachas Sefarim, was written by Jacob Emden (d.1776), who, waging war against the remaining adherents of the Sabbatai Zevi
Sabbatai Zevi
movement (in which Zevi, a false messiah and Jewish apostate, cited Messianic prophecies from the Zohar
Zohar
as proof of his legitimacy), endeavored to show that the book on which Zevi based his doctrines was a forgery. Emden argued that the Zohar
Zohar
misquotes passages of Scripture; misunderstands the Talmud; contains some ritual observances that were ordained by later rabbinical authorities; mentions The Crusades
The Crusades
against Muslims (who did not exist in the 2nd century); uses the expression "esnoga", a Portuguese term for "synagogue"; and gives a mystical explanation of the Hebrew
Hebrew
vowel points, which were not introduced until long after the Talmudic period.[4] In the Ashkenazi community of Eastern Europe, religious authorities including the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
(d.1797) and Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi (d.1812) (The Baal HaTanya) believed in the authenticity of the Zohar. The influence of the Zohar
Zohar
and the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
in Yemen, where it was introduced in the 17th century, contributed to the formation of the Dor Deah movement, led by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yiḥyeh Qafeḥ in the later part of the 19th century, whose adherents believed that the core beliefs of Judaism
Judaism
were rapidly diminishing in favor of the mysticism of the Kabbalah. Among its objects was the opposition of the influence of the Zohar
Zohar
and subsequent developments in modern Kabbalah, which were then pervasive in Yemenite Jewish life, restoration of what they believed to be a rationalistic approach to Judaism
Judaism
rooted in authentic sources, and safeguardal of the older ("Baladi") tradition of Yemenite Jewish observance that preceded the Kabbalah. Especially controversial were the views of the Dor Daim on the Zohar, as presented in Milhamoth Hashem
Hashem
(Wars of the Lord),[22] written by Rabbi
Rabbi
Qafeḥ. A group of Jerusalem rabbis published an attack on Rabbi
Rabbi
Qafeḥ under the title of Emunat Hashem
Hashem
(Faith of the Lord), taking measures to ostracize members of the movement;[23] notwithstanding, not even the Yemenite rabbis who opposed the dardaim heeded this ostracization. Instead, they intermarried, sat together in batei midrash, and continued to sit with Rabbi
Rabbi
Qafeḥ in beth din.[24] Contemporary religious view[edit]

Title page of the first printed edition of the Zohar, Mantua, 1558. Library of Congress.

Most of Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
holds that the teachings of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
were transmitted from teacher to teacher, in a long and continuous chain, from the Biblical era until its redaction by Shimon ben Yochai. Some fully accept the claims that the Kabbalah's teachings are in essence a revelation from God
God
to the Biblical patriarch Abraham, Moses
Moses
and other ancient figures, but were never printed and made publicly available until the time of the Zohar's medieval publication.[citation needed] The greatest acceptance of this sequence of events is held within Haredi Judaism, especially Chasidic
Chasidic
groups. R' Yechiel Michel Epstein (d.1908), and R' Yisrael Meir Kagan
Yisrael Meir Kagan
(d.1933) both believed in the authenticity of the Zohar. Rabbis Eliyahu Dessler
Eliyahu Dessler
(d.1953) and Gedaliah Nadel
Gedaliah Nadel
(d.2004) maintained that it is acceptable to believe that the Zohar
Zohar
was not written by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon bar Yochai
Shimon bar Yochai
and that it had a late authorship.[25] Some[who?] claim the tradition that Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon wrote that the concealment of the Zohar
Zohar
would last for exactly 1200 years from the time of the destruction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 CE and so before revealing the Zohar
Zohar
in 1270, Moses
Moses
de León uncovered the manuscripts in a cave in Israel. Within Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
the traditional view that Shimon bar Yochai was the author is prevalent. R' Menachem Mendel Kasher in a 1958 article in the periodical Sinai argues against the claims of Gershom Scholem that the Zohar
Zohar
was written in the 13th Century by R' Moses
Moses
de León.[26] He writes:

Many statements in the works of the Rishonim (medieval commentors who preceded de León) refer to Medrashim that we are not aware of. He writes that these are in fact references to the Zohar. This has also been pointed out by R' David Luria in his work "Kadmus Sefer Ha'Zohar". The Zohar's major opponent Elijah
Elijah
Delmedigo refers to the Zohar
Zohar
as having existed for "only" 300 years. Even he agrees that it was extant at the time of R' Moses
Moses
de León. He cites a document from R' Yitchok M' Acco who was sent by the Ramban to investigate the Zohar. The document brings witnesses that attest to the existence of the manuscript. It is impossible to accept that R' Moshe de León managed to forge a work within the scope of the Zohar
Zohar
(1700 pages) within a period of six years as Scholem claims. A comparison between the Zohar
Zohar
and de León's other works show major stylistic differences. Although he made use of his manuscript of the Zohar, many ideas presented in his works contradict or ignore ideas mentioned in the Zohar. Luria also points this out. Many of the Midrashic works achieved their final redaction in the Geonic period. Some of the anachronistic terminologies of the Zohar may date from that time. Out of the thousands of words used in the Zohar, Scholem finds two anachronistic terms and nine cases of ungrammatical usage of words. This proves that the majority of the Zohar
Zohar
was written within the accepted time frame and only a small amount was added later (in the Geonic period as mentioned). Some hard to understand terms may be attributed to acronyms or codes. He finds corollaries to such a practice in other ancient manuscripts. The "borrowings" from medieval commentaries may be explained in a simple manner. It is not unheard of that a note written on the side of a text should on later copying be added to the main part of the text. The Talmud
Talmud
itself has Geonic additions from such a cause. Certainly, this would apply to the Zohar
Zohar
to which there did not exist other manuscripts to compare it with. He cites an ancient manuscript that refers to a book Sod Gadol that seems to in fact be the Zohar.

Concerning the Zohar's lack of knowledge of the land of Israel, Scholem bases this on the many references to a city Kaputkia (Cappadocia) which he states was situated in Turkey, not in Israel. A city by this name located in Israel does appear, however, in Targum Onkelos, Targum Yonatan, Mishnah, Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
and several Midrashim. Another theory as to the authorship of the Zohar
Zohar
is that it was transmitted like the Talmud
Talmud
before it was transcribed: as an oral tradition reapplied to changing conditions and eventually recorded. This view believes that the Zohar
Zohar
was not written by Shimon bar Yochai, but is a holy work because it consisted of his principles. Belief in the authenticity of the Zohar
Zohar
among Orthodox Jewish movements can be seen in various forms online today. Featured on Chabad.org is the multi-part article, The Zohar's Mysterious Origins[27] by Moshe Miller, which views the Zohar
Zohar
as the product of multiple generations of scholarship but defends the overall authenticity of the text and argues against many of the textual criticisms from Scholem and Tishby. The Zohar
Zohar
figures prominently in the mysticism of Chabad. Another leading Orthodox online outlet, Aish.com, also shows broad acceptance of the Zohar
Zohar
by referencing it in many of its articles.[original research?] Some[who?] in Modern Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
reject the above view as naive. Some Orthodox Jews
Jews
accept the earlier rabbinic position that the Zohar was a work written in the Middle Medieval Period by Moses
Moses
de León, but argue that since it is obviously based on earlier materials, it can still be held to be authentic, but not as authoritative or without error as others within Orthodoxy might hold.[citation needed] Jews
Jews
in non-Orthodox Jewish denominations accept the conclusions of historical academic studies on the Zohar
Zohar
and other kabbalistic texts. As such, most non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
have long viewed the Zohar
Zohar
as pseudepigraphy and apocrypha. Nonetheless, many accepted that some of its contents had meaning for modern Judaism. Siddurim edited by non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
often have excerpts from the Zohar
Zohar
and other kabbalistic works, e.g. Siddur
Siddur
Sim Shalom edited by Jules Harlow, even though the editors are not kabbalists. In recent years there has been a growing willingness of non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
to study the Zohar, and a growing minority have a position that is similar to the Modern Orthodox position described above. This seems pronounced among Jews
Jews
who follow the path of Jewish Renewal.[citation needed] Modern critical views[edit] The first systematic and critical academic proof for the authorship of Moses
Moses
de León was given by Adolf Jellinek in his 1851 monograph " Moses
Moses
ben Shem-tob de León und sein Verhältnis zum Sohar" and later adopted by the historian Heinrich Graetz
Heinrich Graetz
in his "History of the Jews", vol. 7. The young kabbalah scholar Gershom Scholem
Gershom Scholem
began his career at the Hebrew
Hebrew
University in Jerusalem with a famous lecture in which he promised to refute Graetz and Jellinek, but after years of strained research Gershom Scholem
Gershom Scholem
contended in 1941 that de León himself was the most likely author of the Zohar. Among other things, Scholem noticed the Zohar's frequent errors in Aramaic
Aramaic
grammar, its suspicious traces of Spanish words and sentence patterns, and its lack of knowledge of the land of Israel. Other Jewish scholars have also suggested the possibility that the Zohar
Zohar
was written by a group of people, including de León. This theory generally presents de León as having been the leader of a mystical school, whose collective effort resulted in the Zohar. Even if de León wrote the text, the entire contents of the book may not be fraudulent. Parts of it may be based on older works, and it was a common practice to ascribe the authorship of a document to an ancient rabbi in order to give the document more weight. It is possible that Moses
Moses
de León considered himself to be channeling the words of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon. In the Encyclopaedia Judaica article written by Professor Gershom Scholem of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
there is an extensive discussion of the sources cited in the Zohar. Scholem views the author of the Zohar
Zohar
as having based the Zohar
Zohar
on a wide variety of pre-existing Jewish sources, while at the same time inventing a number of fictitious works that the Zohar
Zohar
supposedly quotes, e.g., the Sifra de-Adam, the Sifra de-Hanokh, the Sifra di-Shelomo Malka, the Sifra de-Rav Hamnuna Sava, the Sifra de-Rav Yeiva Sava, the Sifra de-Aggadeta, the Raza de-Razin and many others. Scholem's views are widely held as accurate among historians of the Kabbalah, but like all textual historical investigations, are not uncritically accepted; most of the following conclusions are still accepted as accurate, although academic analysis of the original texts has progressed dramatically since Scholem's ground-breaking research. Scholars that continue to research the background of the Zohar
Zohar
include Yehuda Liebes
Yehuda Liebes
(who wrote his doctorate degree for Scholem on the subject of a Dictionary of the Vocabulary of the Zohar
Zohar
in 1976), and Daniel C. Matt, also a student of Scholem, who is currently reconstructing a critical edition of the Zohar
Zohar
based on original unpublished manuscripts. While many original ideas in the Zohar
Zohar
are presented as being from (fictitious) Jewish mystical works, many ancient and clearly rabbinic mystical teachings are presented without their real, identifiable sources being named. Academic studies of the Zohar
Zohar
show that many of its ideas are based in the Talmud, various works of midrash, and earlier Jewish mystical works. Scholem writes:

The writer had expert knowledge of the early material and he often used it as a foundation for his expositions, putting into it variations of his own. His main sources were the Babylonian Talmud, the complete Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah, the Midrash
Midrash
Tanhuma, and the two Pesiktot (Pesikta De-Rav Kahana or Pesikta Rabbati), the Midrash
Midrash
on Psalms, the Pirkei de- Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer, and the Targum Onkelos. Generally speaking, they are not quoted exactly, but translated into the peculiar style of the Zohar
Zohar
and summarized....

... Less use is made of the halakhic Midrashim, the Jerusalem Talmud, and the other Targums, nor of the Midrashim
Midrashim
like the Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, the Midrash
Midrash
on Proverbs, and the Alfabet de-R. Akiva. It is not clear whether the author used the Yalkut Shimoni, or whether he knew the sources of its aggadah separately. Of the smaller Midrashim he used the Heikhalot Rabbati, the Alfabet de-Ben Sira, the Sefer Zerubabel, the Baraita
Baraita
de-Ma'aseh Bereshit, [and many others]...

The author of the Zohar
Zohar
drew upon the Bible commentaries written by medieval rabbis, including Rashi, Abraham
Abraham
ibn Ezra, David Kimhi
David Kimhi
and even authorities as late as Nahmanides
Nahmanides
and Maimonides. Scholem gives a variety of examples of such borrowings. The Zohar
Zohar
draws upon early mystical texts such as the Sefer Yetzirah and the Bahir, and the early medieval writings of the Hasidei Ashkenaz. Another influence on the Zohar
Zohar
that Scholem, and scholars like Yehudah Liebes and Ronit Meroz have identified[2] was a circle of Spanish Kabbalists in Castile who dealt with the appearance of an evil side emanating from within the world of the sephirot. Scholem saw this dualism of good and evil within the Godhead as a kind of "gnostic" inclination within Kabbalah, and as a predecessor of the Sitra Ahra (the other, evil side) in the Zohar. The main text of the Castile circle, the Treatise on the Left Emanation, was written by Jacob ha-Cohen in around 1265.[28] Contents[edit] The Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
was first printed in Mantua
Mantua
in 1557. The main body of the Zohar
Zohar
was printed in Cremona
Cremona
in 1558 (a one-volume edition), in Mantua
Mantua
in 1558-1560 (a three-volume edition), and in Salonika
Salonika
in 1597 (a two-volume edition). Each of these editions included somewhat different texts.[29] When they were printed there were many partial manuscripts in circulation that were not available to the first printers. These were later printed as " Zohar
Zohar
Chadash" (lit. "New Zohar"), but Zohar
Zohar
Chadash actually contains parts that pertain to the Zohar, as well as Tikunim (plural of Tikun, "Repair") that are akin to Tikunei haZohar, as described below. The term "Zohar", in usage, may refer to just the first Zohar
Zohar
collection, with or without the applicable sections of Zohar
Zohar
Chadash, or to the entire Zohar
Zohar
and Tikunim. Citations referring to the Zohar
Zohar
conventionally follow the volume and page numbers of the Mantua
Mantua
edition; while citations referring to Tikkunei ha Zohar
Zohar
follow the edition of Ortakoy (Constantinople) 1719 whose text and pagination became the basis for most subsequent editions. Volumes II and III begin their numbering anew, so citation can be made by parashah and page number (e.g. Zohar: Nasso 127a), or by volume and page number (e.g. Zohar III:127a).[citation needed] Unlike other Jewish traditions, which depict God
God
in relatively simple terms, the Zohar
Zohar
is intentionally obscure. As a work it is full of neologisms, linguistic borrowings, occasional grammatical mistakes, and inspired wordplay on rabbinic and biblical passages. Its ideas are often inconsistent and conflicting, referring to abstract concepts that are never completely expressed.[2] Zohar[edit] The earlier part of the Zohar, also known as Zohar
Zohar
'Al ha Torah
Torah
(Zohar on the Torah, זוהר על התורה) or Midrash
Midrash
Rashbi, contains several smaller "books", as described below. This book was published in three volumes: Volume 1 on Bereishit (Genesis), Volume 2 on Shemot (Exodus) and Volume 3 on Vayikra, Bamidbar and Devarim (Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). At the start of the first volume is printed a "Preface to the Book
Book
of the Zohar" (pages 1a to 14b). After this introduction is the Zohar's commentary on most of the parashahs of the Torah. There is Zohar
Zohar
on all of the parashahs of Bereishit through the book of Vayikra; in Bamidbar there is no Zohar
Zohar
on the last two parashas: Matot (although on this parashah there is a small paragraph on page 259b) and Mas'ei. In Devarim there is no Zohar
Zohar
on Devarim, Re'eh, Ki-Tavo, Nitzavim, and veZot haBerakhah. Printed within these three volumes are these smaller books:[30] Sifra diTzni'uta/ Book
Book
of the Hidden (ספרא דצניעותא) This small "book", three pages long (Volume 2, parashat Teruma, pages 176b-179a), the name of which, " Book
Book
of the Hidden", attests to its veiled and cryptic character, is considered by some an important and concentrated part of the Zohar. Its enumerations and anatomical references are reminiscent of the Sefer Yetzirah, the latter being remazim (hints) of divine characteristics. Externally it is a commentary on seminal verses in Bereishit (and therefore in the version published in Cremona
Cremona
it is printed in parashat Bereishit). It has five chapters. Intrinsically it includes, according to Rashbi, the foundation of Kabbalah, which is explained at length in the Zohar
Zohar
and in the books of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
after it.[30] Rabbi Shalom Buzaglo said, " Rashbi
Rashbi
– may his merit protect us – said ( Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 2, page 176a), Sifra diTzni'uta is five chapters that are included in a Great Palace and fill the entire earth,' meaning, these five paragraphs include all the wisdom of Kabbalah... for, Sifra diTzni'uta is the 'little that holds the much'; brevity with wonderful and glorious wisdom."[31] There are those who attribute Sifra diTzni'uta to the patriarch Yaakov; however, Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer Tzvi of Kamarno in his book Zohar
Zohar
Chai wrote,[32] "Sifra diTzni'uta was composed by Rashbi... and he arranged [it] from baraitas that were transmitted to Tannaim from mount Sinai from the days of Moshe, similar to the way Rabeinu HaKadosh
Rabeinu HaKadosh
arranged the six orders of Mishnah
Mishnah
from that which was repeated from before." Idra Rabba/The Great Assembly (אדרא רבא) The Idra Rabba is found in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 3, parashat Nasso (pp. 127b-145a), and its name means, "The Great Assembly". "Idra" is a sitting-place of sages, usually circular, and the word "Rabba/Great" differentiates this section from the section Idra Zuta, which was an assembly of fewer sages that occurred later, as mentioned below. Idra Rabba contains the discussion of nine of Rashbi's friends, who gathered together to discuss great and deep secrets of Kabbalah. The nine are: Rabbi
Rabbi
Elazar his son, Rabbi
Rabbi
Abba, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yossi bar Yaakov, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yitzchak, Rabbi
Rabbi
Chezkiyah bar Rav, Rabbi
Rabbi
Chiyya, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yossi and Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisa. After the opening of the discussion by Rashbi, the sages rise, one after the other, and lecture on the secret of Divinity, while Rashbi
Rashbi
adds to and responds to their words. The lectures in this section mainly explain the words of the Sifra diTzni'uta, in a similar manner as the Gemara
Gemara
explains the Mishnah.[30] As described in the Idra Rabba, before the Idra disjourned, three of the students died: Rabbi
Rabbi
Yossi bar Yaakov, Rabbi
Rabbi
Chezkiyah bar Rav, and Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisa. As it is told, these students filled up with Godly light and therefore journeyed to the eternal world after their deaths. The remaining students saw their friends being carried away by angels. Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon said some words and they were calmed. He shouted out, "Perhaps, God
God
forbid, a decree has been passed upon us to be punished, for through us has been revealed that which has not been revealed since the time Moshe stood on Mount Sinai!" At that instant a heavenly voice emerged and said, "Fortunate are you Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon! and fortunate is your portion and the portion of the friends who remain alive with you! For it has been revealed to you that which has not been revealed to all the upper hosts."[33] Idra Zuta/The Smaller Assembly (אדרא זוטא) The Idra Zuta is found in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 3, parashat Haazinu (p. 287b to 296b), and is called "Idra Zuta", which means, "The Smaller Assembly", distinguishing it from the aforementioned Greater Assembly, the Idra Rabba. In the Idra Zuta, Rashbi's colleagues convene again, this time seven in number, after the three mentioned above died. In the Idra Zuta the Chevraya Kadisha are privileged to hear teachings from Rashbi
Rashbi
that conclude the words that were explained in the Idra Rabba. Ra'aya Meheimna/The Faithful Shepherd (רעיא מהימנא) The book Ra'aya Meheimna, the title of which means "The Faithful Shepherd", and which is by far the largest "book" included in the book of the Zohar, is what Moshe, the "Faithful Shepherd", teaches and reveals to Rashbi
Rashbi
and his friends, who include Tannaim and Amoraim. In this assembly of Holy Friends, which took place in the Beit Midrash
Midrash
of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon bar Yochai, secrets of and revelations on mitzvot of the Torah
Torah
are explained and clarified — roots and deep meanings of mitzvot. Since it deals with mitzvot, from Ra'aya Meheimna it is possible to learn very much about the ways of the halakhic rulings of the Rabbis.[30] Ra'aya Meheimna is distributed over several parashiyot throughout the Zohar. Part of it is known and even printed on separate pages, and part of it is weaved into the body of the Zohar. Ra'aya Meiheimna is found in Vols. 2 and 3 of the Zohar, but is not found explicitly in Vol. 1. Several great rabbis and sages have tried to find the Ra'aya Meheimna, which originally is a vast book on all the 613 mitzvot, and arrange it according to the order of positive commandments and negative commandments, and even print it as a book on its own.[30] In the lessons at the end of the Zohar, Ra'aya Meheimna is sometimes referred to as "Chibra Kadma'ah" — "the preceding book". Regarding the importance of Ra'aya Meheimna, Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Cordovero said, "Know that this book, which is called Ra'aya Meheimna, which Rashbi
Rashbi
made with the tzadikim who are in Gan Eden, was a repair of the Shekhinah, and an aid and support for it in the exile, for there is no aid or support for the Shekhinah besides the secrets of the Torah... And everything that he says here of the secrets and the concepts—it is all with the intention of unifying the Shekhinah and aiding it during the exile.[34] Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam/The Hidden Midrash
Midrash
(מדרש הנעלם) Midrash haNe'elam is located within the body of the Zohar
Zohar
(parashat Vayera, Chayei Sarah, Toldot) and the Zohar
Zohar
Chadash (pp. 2b-30b; 46b-47b (in the Zohar
Zohar
Chadash edition by Rav Reuven Margoliot), and in parashat Balak, Ki Teitze, and the entire Zohar
Zohar
Chadash on Shir haShirim, Ruth, and Eikah.) According to Ramaz, it is fit to be called Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam because "its topic is mostly the neshamah (an upper level of soul), the source of which is in Beri'ah, which is the place of the upper Gan Eden; and it is written in the Pardes that drash is in Beri'ah... and the revealed midrash is the secret of externality, and Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam is the secret of internality, which is the neshamah. And this derush is founded on the neshamah; its name befits it – Midrash haNe'elam.[35] The language of Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam is sometimes Hebrew, sometimes Aramaic, and sometimes both mixed. Unlike the body of the Zohar, its drashas are short and not long. Also, the topics it discusses — the work of Creation, the nature the soul, the days of Mashiach, and Olam Haba — are not of the type found in the Zohar, which are the nature of God, the emanation of worlds, the "forces" of evil, and more. Idra deVei Mashkana, Heikhalot, Raza deRazin, Saba deMishpatim, Tosefta, and Sitrei Torah In the Zohar
Zohar
there are more sections that are of different nature with regard to their contents and importance, as follows: Idra deVei Mashkana ("Assembly of the House of the Tabernacle") deals mainly with the secrets of prayer, and is found in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 2, parashat Mishpatim (pp. 122b-123b). Heikhalot ("Palaces") deals in describing the palaces of Gan Eden, and Gehinom, and contains many matters related to prayer. It is found in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 1, parashat Bereishit (pp 38a-45b); Vol. 2 parashat Pekudei (pp. 244b-262b, heikhalot of holiness; pp. 262b-268b, heikhalot of impurity). Raza deRazin ("Secret of Secrets") deals with revealing the essence of a man via the features of his face and hands. It is found in the Zohar Vol. 2,parashat Yitro (pp. 70a-75a). Saba deMishpatim ("The Elder on Statutes") is the commentary of Rav Yiba Saba regarding transmigration of souls, and punishments of the body in the grave. It is found in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 2,parashat Mishpatim (pp. 94a-114a). Tosefta are paragraphs containing the beginnings of chapters on the wisdom of the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
of the Zohar, and it is dispersed in all three volumes of the Zohar. Sitrei Torah
Torah
are drashas of verses from the Torah
Torah
regarding matters of the soul and the secret of Divinity, and they are dispersed in the Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 1.[30] For more books and sources mentioned in the Zohar, see also below. Zohar
Zohar
Chadash/The New Zohar
Zohar
(זוהר חדש)[edit] After the book of the Zohar
Zohar
had been printed (in Mantua
Mantua
and in Cremona, in the Jewish years 5318-5320 or 1558-1560? CE), many more manuscripts were found that included paragraphs pertaining to the Zohar
Zohar
in their content and had not been included in printed editions. The manuscripts pertained also to all parts of the Zohar; some were similar to Zohar
Zohar
on the Torah, some were similar to the inner parts of the Zohar
Zohar
( Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam, Sitrei Otiyot and more), and some pertained to Tikunei haZohar. Some thirty years after the first edition of the Zohar
Zohar
was printed, the manuscripts were gathered and arranged according to the parashas of the Torah
Torah
and the megillot (apparently the arrangement was done by the Kabbalist, Rabbi
Rabbi
Avraham haLevi of Tsfat), and were printed first in Salonika
Salonika
in Jewish year 5357 (1587? CE), and then in Kraków (5363), and afterwards many times in various editions.[30] There is Zohar
Zohar
Chadash on the Torah
Torah
for many parashas across the chumash, namely, on chumash Bereishit: Bereishit, Noach, Lekh Lekha, Vayeira, Vayeishev; on chumash Shemot: Beshalach, Yitro, Terumah, Ki Tissa; on chumash Vayikra: Tzav, Acharei, Behar; on chumash Bamidbar: Chukat, Balak, Matot; on chumash Devarim: Va'etchanan, Ki Tetze, Ki Tavo.[30] Within the paragraphs of Zohar
Zohar
Chadash are inserted Sitrei Otiyot ("Secrets of the Letters") and Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam, on separate pages. Afterwards follows the midrashim – Midrash
Midrash
haNe'elam on the megillot: Shir haShirim, Ruth, and Eikhah. And at the end are printed Tikunim ( Tikunei Zohar
Tikunei Zohar
Chadash, תיקוני זוהר חדש), like the Tikunei haZohar.[30] Tikunei haZohar/Rectifications of the Zohar
Zohar
(תיקוני הזוהר)[edit] Main article: Tikunei haZohar Tikunei haZohar, which was printed as a separate book, includes seventy commentaries called "Tikunim" (lit. Repairs) and an additional eleven Tikkunim. In some editions, Tikunim are printed that were already printed in the Zohar
Zohar
Chadash, which in their content and style also pertain to Tikunei haZohar.[30] Each of the seventy Tikunim of Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
begins by explaining the word "Bereishit" (בראשית), and continues by explaining other verses, mainly in parashat Bereishit, and also from the rest of Tanakh. And all this is in the way of Sod, in commentaries that reveal the hidden and mystical aspects of the Torah. Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
and Ra'aya Meheimna are similar in style, language, and concepts, and are different from the rest of the Zohar. For example, the idea of the Four Worlds
Four Worlds
is found in Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
and Ra'aya Meheimna but not elsewhere, as is true of the very use of the term "Kabbalah". In terminology, what is called Kabbalah
Kabbalah
in →Tikunei ha Zohar
Zohar
and Ra'aya Meheimna is simply called razin (clues or hints) in the rest of the Zohar.[36] In Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
there are many references to "chibura kadma'ah" (meaning "the earlier book"). This refers to the main body of the Zohar.[36] Parts of the Zohar: summary of Rabbinic view[edit] The traditional Rabbinic view is that most of the Zohar
Zohar
and the parts included in it (i.e. those parts mentioned above) were written and compiled by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon bar Yochai, but some parts preceded Rashbi and he used them (such as Sifra deTzni'uta; see above), and some parts were written or arranged in generations after Rashbi's passing (for example, Tannaim after Rashbi's time are occasionally mentioned). However, aside from the parts of the Zohar
Zohar
mentioned above, in the Zohar
Zohar
are mentioned tens of earlier sources that Rashbi
Rashbi
and his Chevraya Kadisha had, and they were apparently the foundation of the Kabbalistic tradition of the Zohar. These include Sefer Raziel, Sifra de'Agad'ta, Sifra de'Adam haRishon, Sifra de'Ashmedai, Sifra Chakhmeta 'Ila'ah diVnei Kedem, Sifra deChinukh, Sifra diShlomoh Malka, Sifra Kadma'i, Tzerufei de'Atvun de'Itmasru le'Adam beGan 'Eden, and more. In the Jewish view this indicates more, that the teaching of the Sod in the book of the Zohar
Zohar
was not invented in the Tannaic period, but rather it is a tradition from ancient times that Rashbi
Rashbi
and his Chevraya Kadisha used and upon which they built and founded their Kabbalah, and also that its roots are in the Torah
Torah
that was given by Hashem
Hashem
to Moshe on Sinai.[30] Viewpoint and exegesis: Rabbinic view[edit] According to the Zohar, the moral perfection of man influences the ideal world of the Sefirot; for although the Sefirot
Sefirot
accept everything from the Ein Sof
Ein Sof
(Heb. אין סוף, infinity), the Tree of Life itself is dependent upon man: he alone can bring about the divine effusion.[4] This concept is somewhat akin to the concept of Tikkun olam. The dew that vivifies the universe flows from the just.[4] By the practice of virtue and by moral perfection, man may increase the outpouring of heavenly grace.[4] Even physical life is subservient to virtue.[4] This, says the Zohar, is indicated in the words "for the Lord God
God
had not caused it to rain" (Gen. 2:5), which means that there had not yet been beneficent action in heaven, because man had not yet been created to pray for it.[4] The Zohar
Zohar
assumes four kinds of Biblical text exegesis, from the literal to the more mystical:

The simple, literal meaning of the text: Peshat The allusion or hinted/allegorical meaning: Remez The rabbinic comparison through sermon or illustration and metaphor: Derash The secret/mysterious/hidden meaning: Sod[4]

The initial letters of these words (P, R, D, S) form together the word PaRDeS ("paradise/orchard"), which became the designation for the Zohar's view of a fourfold meaning of the text, of which the mystical sense is considered the highest part.[4] Academic views[edit] In Eros and Kabbalah, Moshe Idel (Professor of Jewish Mysticism, Hebrew
Hebrew
University in Jerusalem) argues that the fundamental distinction between the rational-philosophic strain of Judaism
Judaism
and mystical Judaism, as exemplified by the Zohar, is the mystical belief that the Godhead is complex, rather than simple, and that divinity is dynamic and incorporates gender, having both male and female dimensions. These polarities must be conjoined (have yihud, "union") to maintain the harmony of the cosmos. Idel characterizes this metaphysical point of view as "ditheism", holding that there are two aspects to God, and the process of union as "theoeroticism". This ditheism, the dynamics it entails, and its reverberations within creation is arguably the central interest of the Zohar, making up a huge proportion of its discourse (pp. 5–56). Mention should also be made of the work of Elliot Wolfson (Professor of Jewish Mysticism, New York University), who has almost single-handedly challenged the conventional view, which is affirmed by Idel as well. Wolfson likewise recognizes the importance of heteroerotic symbolism in the kabbalistic understanding of the divine nature. The oneness of God
God
is perceived in androgynous terms as the pairing of male and female, the former characterized as the capacity to overflow and the latter as the potential to receive. Where Wolfson breaks with Idel and other scholars of the kabbalah is in his insistence that the consequence of that heteroerotic union is the restoration of the female to the male. Just as, in the case of the original Adam, the woman was constructed from man, and their carnal cleaving together was portrayed as becoming one flesh, so the ideal for kabbalists is the reconstitution of what Wolfson calls the male androgyne. Much closer in spirit to some ancient Gnostic
Gnostic
dicta, Wolfson understands the eschatological ideal in traditional Kabbalah to have been the female becoming male (see his Circle in the Square and Language, Eros, Being). Commentaries[edit] The first known commentary on the book of Zohar, "Ketem Paz", was written by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon Lavi of Libya. Another important and influential commentary on Zohar, 22-volume "Or Yakar", was written by Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Cordovero
Moshe Cordovero
of the Tzfat (i.e. Safed) kabbalistic school in the 16th century. The Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
authored a commentary on the Zohar. Rabbi
Rabbi
Tzvi Hirsch of Ziditchov wrote a commentary on the Zohar entitled Ateres Tzvi. A major commentary on the Zohar
Zohar
is the Sulam written by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Ashlag. A full translation of the Zohar
Zohar
into Hebrew
Hebrew
was made by the late Rabbi Daniel Frish of Jerusalem under the title Masok MiDvash. Influence[edit] Judaism[edit] On the one hand, the Zohar
Zohar
was lauded by many rabbis because it opposed religious formalism, stimulated one's imagination and emotions, and for many people helped reinvigorate the experience of prayer.[4] In many places prayer had become a mere external religious exercise, while prayer was supposed to be a means of transcending earthly affairs and placing oneself in union with God.[4] According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "On the other hand, the Zohar was censured by many rabbis because it propagated many superstitious beliefs, and produced a host of mystical dreamers, whose overexcited imaginations peopled the world with spirits, demons, and all kinds of good and bad influences."[4] Many classical rabbis, especially Maimonides, viewed all such beliefs as a violation of Judaic principles of faith. Its mystic mode of explaining some commandments was applied by its commentators to all religious observances, and produced a strong tendency to substitute mystic Judaism
Judaism
in the place of traditional rabbinic Judaism.[4] For example, Shabbat, the Jewish Sabbath, began to be looked upon as the embodiment of God
God
in temporal life, and every ceremony performed on that day was considered to have an influence upon the superior world.[4] Elements of the Zohar
Zohar
crept into the liturgy of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the religious poets not only used the allegorism and symbolism of the Zohar
Zohar
in their compositions, but even adopted its style, e.g. the use of erotic terminology to illustrate the relations between man and God.[4] Thus, in the language of some Jewish poets, the beloved one's curls indicate the mysteries of the Deity; sensuous pleasures, and especially intoxication, typify the highest degree of divine love as ecstatic contemplation; while the wine-room represents merely the state through which the human qualities merge or are exalted into those of God.[4] In the 17th century, it was proposed that only Jewish men who were at least 40 years old could study Kabbalah, and by extension read the Zohar, because it was believed to be too powerful for those less emotionally mature and experienced. [37] Neo-Platonism[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2010)

Founded in the 3rd century CE by Plotinus, The Neoplatonist
Neoplatonist
tradition has clear echoes in the Zohar, as indeed in many forms of mystical spirituality, whether Jewish, Christian or Muslim (see Avicenna, Maimonides, and Aquinas). The concept of creation by successive emanations of God, in particular, is characteristic of Neoplatonist thought. In both Kabbalistic and Neoplatonist
Neoplatonist
systems, the Logos, or Divine Wisdom, is the primordial archetype of the universe and mediates between the divine idea and the material world. For example, the Neoplatonist
Neoplatonist
Proclus describes the Logos in terms of the "One beyond being". This primordial unity then, though self-complete, overflows with potency and from this power creates the manifold world beneath it. This downward movement from unity to multiplicity he calls Procession. The reverse process of Reversion is then the lower lifeforms, such as humanity, ascending back toward God
God
through spiritual contemplation. Jewish commentators on the Zohar
Zohar
expressly noted these Greek influences.[38] Christian mysticism[edit]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "The enthusiasm felt for the Zohar
Zohar
was shared by many Christian scholars, such as Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Johann Reuchlin, Aegidius of Viterbo, etc., all of whom believed that the book contained proofs of the truth of Christianity.[39] They were led to this belief by the analogies existing between some of the teachings of the Zohar
Zohar
and certain Christian dogmas, such as the fall and redemption of man, and the dogma of the Trinity, which seems to be expressed in the Zohar
Zohar
in the following terms:

'The Ancient of Days has three heads. He reveals himself in three archetypes, all three forming but one. He is thus symbolized by the number Three. They are revealed in one another. [These are:] first, secret, hidden 'Wisdom'; above that the Holy Ancient One; and above Him the Unknowable One. None knows what He contains; He is above all conception. He is therefore called for man 'Non-Existing' [Ayin]'"[39] (Zohar, iii. 288b).

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "This and other similar doctrines found in the Zohar
Zohar
are now known to be much older than Christianity, but the Christian scholars who were led by the similarity of these teachings to certain Christian dogmas deemed it their duty to propagate the Zohar."[39] However, fundamental to the Zohar
Zohar
are descriptions of the absolute Unity and uniqueness of God, in the Jewish understanding of it, rather than a trinity or other plurality. One of the most common phrases in the Zohar
Zohar
is "raza d'yichuda "the secret of his Unity", which describes the Oneness of God
God
as completely indivisible, even in spiritual terms. A central passage, Patach Eliyahu (introduction to Tikunei Zohar
Tikunei Zohar
17a), for example, says:

Elijah
Elijah
opened and said: "Master of the worlds! You are One, but not in number. You are He Who is Highest of the High, Most Hidden of the Hidden; no thought can grasp You at all...And there is no image or likeness of You, inside or out...And aside from You, there is no unity on High or Below. And You are acknowledged as the Cause of everything and the Master of everything...And You are the completion of them all. And as soon as You remove Yourself from them, all the Names remain like a body without a soul...All is to show how You conduct the world, but not that You have a known righteousness that is just, nor a known judgement that is merciful, nor any of these attributes at all...Blessed is God
God
forever, amen and amen!

The meaning of the three heads of Keter, according to the kabbalists, has extremely different connotations from ascribing validity to any compound or plurality in God, even if the compound is viewed as unified. In Kabbalah, while God
God
is an absolutely simple (non-compound), infinite Unity beyond grasp, as described in Jewish philosophy by Maimonides, through His Kabbalistic manifestations such as the Sephirot
Sephirot
and the Shekhinah (Divine Presence), we relate to the living dynamic Divinity that emanates, enclothes, is revealed in, and incorporates, the multifarious spiritual and physical plurality of Creation within the Infinite Unity. Creation is plural, while God
God
is Unity. Kabbalistic theology unites the two in the paradox of human versus Divine perspectives. The spiritual role of Judaism
Judaism
is to reach the level of perceiving the truth of the paradox, that all is One, spiritual and physical Creation being nullified into absolute Divine Monotheism. Ascribing any independent validity to the plural perspective is idolatry. Nonetheless, through the personalised aspects of God, revealing the concealed mystery from within the Divine Unity, man can perceive and relate to God, who otherwise would be unbridgably far, as the supernal Divine emanations are mirrored in the mystical Divine nature of man's soul. The relationship between God's absolute Unity and Divine manifestations may be compared to a man in a room - there is the man himself, and his presence and relationship to others in the room. In Hebrew, this is known as the Shekhinah. It is also the concept of God's Name - it is His relationship and presence in the world towards us. The Wisdom (literally written as Field of Apples) in kabbalistic terms refers to the Shekhinah, the Divine Presence. The Unknowable One (literally written as the Miniature Presence) refers to events on earth when events can be understood as natural happenings instead of God's act, although it is actually the act of God. This is known as perceiving the Shekhinah through a blurry, cloudy lens. This means to say, although we see God's Presence (not God
God
Himself) through natural occurrences, it is only through a blurry lens; as opposed to miracles, in which we clearly see and recognize God's presence in the world. The Holy Ancient One refers to God
God
Himself, Who is imperceivable. (see Minchas Yaakov
Yaakov
and anonymous commentary in the Siddur
Siddur
Beis Yaakov
Yaakov
on the Sabbath hymn of Askinu Seudasa, composed by the Arizal based on this lofty concept of the Zohar). Within the descending Four Worlds
Four Worlds
of Creation, each successive realm perceives Divinity less and apparent independence more. The highest realm Atziluth-Emanation, termed the "Realm of Unity", is distinguished from the lower three realms, termed the "Realm of Separation", by still having no self-awareness; absolute Divine Unity is revealed and Creation is nullified in its source. The lower three Worlds feel progressive degrees of independence from God. Where lower Creation can mistake the different Divine emanations as plural, Atziluth
Atziluth
feels their non-existent unity in God. Within the constricted appearance of Creation, God
God
is revealed through various and any plural numbers. God
God
uses each number to represent a different supernal aspect of reality that He creates, to reflect their comprehensive inclusion in His absolute Oneness: 10 Sephirot, 12 Partzufim, 2 forms of Light, 2 Partzufim
Partzufim
and 3 Heads in Keter, 4 letters of the Tetragrammaton, 22 letters of the Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet, 13 Attributes of Mercy, etc. All such forms when traced back to their source in God's infinite light, return to their state of absolute Oneness. This is the consciousness of Atziluth. In Kabbalah, this perception is considered subconsciously innate to the souls of Israel, rooted in Atzilut.[40] The souls of the Nations are elevated to this perception through adherence to the 7 Laws of Noah, that bring them to absolute Divine Unity and away from any false plural perspectives. There is an alternative notion of three in the Zohar
Zohar
that is One, "Israel, the Torah
Torah
and the Holy One Blessed Be He are One."[41] From the perspective of God, before constriction in Creation, these three are revealed in their source as a simple (non-compound) absolute Unity, as is all potential Creation from God's perspective. In Kabbalah, especially in Hasidism, the communal divinity of Israel is revealed Below in the righteous Tzadik
Tzadik
Jewish leader of each generation who is a collective soul of the people. In the view of Kabbalah, however, no Jew would worship the supernal community souls of the Jewish people, or the Rabbinic leader of the generation, nor the totality of Creation's unity in God
God
itself, as Judaism
Judaism
innately perceives the absolute Monotheism of God. In a Kabbalistic phrase, one prays "to Him, not to His attributes". As Kabbalah
Kabbalah
sees the Torah
Torah
as the Divine blueprint of Creation, so any entity or idea in Creation receives its existence through an ultimate lifeforce in Torah interpretation. However, in the descent of Creation, the Tzimtzum constrictions and impure Qliphoth
Qliphoth
side of false independence from God result in distortion of the original vitality source and idea. Accordingly, in the Kabbalistic view, the non-Jewish belief in the Trinity, as well as the beliefs of all religions, have parallel, supernal notions within Kabbalah
Kabbalah
from which they ultimately exist in the process of Creation. However, the impure distortion results from human ascription of false validity and worship to Divine manifestations, rather than realising their nullification to God's Unity alone.[42] In normative Christian theology, as well as the declaration of the First Council of Nicaea, God
God
is declared to be "one". Declarations such as " God
God
is three" or " God
God
is two" are condemned in later counsels as entirely heretical and idolatrous. The beginning of the essential declaration of belief for Christians, the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
(somewhat equivalent to Maimonides' 13 principles of Faith), starts with the Shema influenced declaration that "We Believe in One God..."[43] Like Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
asserts the absolute monotheism of God.[44] Unlike the Zohar, Christianity
Christianity
interprets the coming of the Messiah
Messiah
as the arrival of the true immanence of God. Like the Zohar
Zohar
the Messiah is believed to be the bringer of Divine Light: "The Light (the Messiah) shineth in the Darkness and the Darkness has never put it out", yet the Light, although being God, is separable within God
God
since no one has seen God
God
in flesh: "for no man has seen God..." (John 1).[45] It is through the belief that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, since God
God
had vindicated him by raising him from the dead, that Christians believe that Jesus is paradoxically and substantially God, despite God's simple undivided unity. The belief that Jesus Christ is " God
God
from God, Light from Light" is assigned as a mystery and weakness of the human mind-affecting and effecting in our comprehension of him. The mystery of the Trinity
Trinity
and our mystical union with the Ancient of Days will only be made, like in the Zohar, in the new Garden of Eden, which is made holy by the Light of God
God
where people's love for God
God
is unending. Zohar
Zohar
study (Jewish view)[edit] Who Should Study Tikunei haZohar

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Despite the preeminence of Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
and despite the topmost priority of Torah study
Torah study
in Judaism, much of the Zohar
Zohar
has been relatively obscure and unread in the Jewish world in recent times, particularly outside of Israel and outside of Chasidic
Chasidic
groups. Although some rabbis since the Shabbetai Tzvi
Shabbetai Tzvi
debacle still maintain that one should be married and forty years old in order to study Kabbalah, since the time of Baal Shem
Baal Shem
Tov there has been relaxation of such stringency, and many maintain that it is sufficient to be married and knowledgeable in halakhah and hence permitted to study Kabbalah and by inclusion, Tikunei haZohar; and some rabbis will advise learning Kabbalah
Kabbalah
without restrictions of marriage or age.[46] In any case the aim of such caution is to not become caught up in Kabbalah
Kabbalah
to the extent of departing from reality or halakhah. Rabbinic Accolades; the Importance of Studying Tikunei haZohar Many eminent rabbis and sages have echoed the Zohar's own urgings for Jews
Jews
to study it, and have and urged people in the strongest of terms to be involved with it. To quote from the Zohar
Zohar
and from some of those rabbis:

"Vehamaskilim yavinu/But they that are wise will understand" (Dan. 12:10) – from the side of Binah (understanding), which is the Tree of Life. Therefore it is said, "Vehamaskilim yaz'hiru kezohar haraki'a"/And they that are wise will shine like the radiance of the sky" (Dan. 12:3) – by means of this book of yours, which is the book of the Zohar, from the radiance (Zohar) of Ima Ila'ah (the "Higher Mother", the higher of the two primary partzufim that develop from Binah) [which is] teshuvah; with those [who study this work], trial is not needed. And because Yisrael will in the future taste from the Tree of Life, which is this book of the Zohar, they will go out, with it, from Exile, in a merciful manner, and with them will be fulfilled, " Hashem
Hashem
badad yanchenu, ve'ein 'imo El nechar/ Hashem
Hashem
alone will lead them, and there is no strange god with Him" (Deut. 32:12). — Zohar, parashat Nasso, 124b, Ra'aya Meheimna

Woe to the [people of the] world who hide the heart and cover the eyes, not gazing into the secrets of the Torah! —  Zohar
Zohar
Vol 1, p. 28a

Rabbi
Rabbi
Nachman of Breslov
Nachman of Breslov
said the following praise of the Zohar's effect in motivating mitzvah performance, which is the main focus in Judaism:

It is [already] known that learning the Zohar
Zohar
is very, very mesugal [capable of bringing good effects]. Now know, that by learning the Zohar, desire is generated for all types of study of the holy Torah; and the holy wording of the Zohar
Zohar
greatly arouses [a person] towards service of Hashem
Hashem
Yitbarakh. Namely, the praise with which it praises and glorifies a person who serves Hashem, that is, the common expression of the Zohar
Zohar
in saying, "Zaka'ah/Fortunate!" etc. regarding any mitzvah; and vice-versa, the cry that it shouts out, "Vai!" etc., "Vai leh, Vai lenishmateh/Woe to him! Woe to his soul!" regarding one who turns away from the service of Hashem
Hashem
— these expressions greatly arouse the man for the service of the Blessed One. — Sichot Haran #108

English translations[edit]

Zohar
Zohar
Pages in English, at ha-zohar.net, including the Introduction translated in English Berg, Michael: Zohar
Zohar
23 Volume Set- The Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Centre International. Full 23 Volumes English translation with commentary and annotations. Matt, Daniel C., Nathan Wolski, & Joel Hecker, trans. The Zohar: Pritzker Edition (12 vols.) Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004-2017. Matt, Daniel C. Zohar: Annotated and Explained. Woodstock, Vt.: SkyLights Paths Publishing Co., 2002. (Selections) Matt, Daniel C. Zohar: The Book
Book
of Enlightenment. New York: Paulist Press, 1983. (Selections) Scholem, Gershom, ed. Zohar: The Book
Book
of Splendor. New York: Schocken Books, 1963. (Selections) Sperling, Harry and Maurice Simon, eds. The Zohar
Zohar
(5 vols.). London: Soncino Press. Tishby, Isaiah, ed. The Wisdom of the Zohar: An Anthology of Texts (3 vols.). Translated from the Hebrew
Hebrew
by David Goldstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Shimon Bar Yochai. Sefer ha Zohar
Zohar
(Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 English). Createspace, 2015

See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Bahir Baqashot Dor Daim Kabbalah: Primary texts Moses
Moses
de León Sepher Yetzirah Simeon bar Yochai Treatise on the Left Emanation

References[edit]

^ Scholem, Gershom and Melila Hellner-Eshed. "Zohar". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 21. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 647–664. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. ^ a b c "A mysterious medieval text, decrypted - The Boston Globe".  ^ Beyer 1986: 38–43; Casey 1998: 83–6, 88, 89–93; Eerdmans 1975: 72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Jacobs, Joseph; Broydé, Isaac. "Zohar". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls Company.  ^ Scharfstein, Sol (2004). Jewish History and You II. Jewish History and You. Jersey City, New Jersey: KTAV Publishing House. p. 24.  ^ " Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon Bar Yochai - Lag BaOmer
Lag BaOmer
at". Ou.org. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ e.g. Siddur
Siddur
Sim Shalom edited by Jules Harlow ^ "Enter The Zohar". enterthezohar.com. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ "Revealing The Zohar". kabbalah.info. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ "The purpose of this work [the Holy Zohar] was to bring the remedy before the disease, to help Yisrael in the Exile
Exile
through the unifications and the things that are accomplished through them [i.e. the unifications] in order to increase the strength of holiness, and so that the generation would learn the secrets of the Torah... and so that they would know how to awaken [Divine] mercy and be saved from evil decrees." – Sefer Or Yakar, Shaar Alef, Siman Hei ^ "For, the segulah [special charm and efficacy] of this book [Tikunei haZohar] is to bring the Redemption and freedom from the Exile. And although all the books of Rashbi
Rashbi
draw the Redeemer closer... behold, the book of Tikkunim does so especially, because for this purpose he compiled it ..." – The beginning of the introduction of the commentary Kisse Melekh by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shalom Buzaglo on Tikunei haZohar ^ "And because Yisrael will in the future taste from the Tree of Life, which is this book of the Zohar, they will go out, with it, from Exile, in a merciful manner." – Zohar, Vol. 3, 124b, Ra'aya Meheimna; et al. ^ "... the children [of Yisrael] below will shout out in unison and say, "Shem'a Yisrael/Hear O Yisrael!" but there will be no voice and no reply... so is whoever causes the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and the Wisdom to be removed from the Oral Torah
Torah
and from the Written Torah, and causes people to not endeavor in them, and says that there is nothing other than the pshat in the Torah
Torah
and the Talmud. Certainly it is as if he removes the flow from that River and from that Garden. Woe to him! Better for him that he were not created in the world and did not learn that Written Torah
Torah
and Oral Torah! For it is considered of him as if he returned the world to tohu vavohu (unformed and void) and he causes poverty in the world and prolongs the Exile." — Tikunei haZohar
Tikunei haZohar
#43, p. 82a; et. al. ^ Ezekiel 8:2 ^ Daniel 12:3 ^ The Complete Yuchsin Book, third edition (5723), p. XXII "ובדף קל"ג השמיט המוציא לאור את המאמר על דבר ספר הזהר." (English: And on page 133 the publisher erased the essay concerning the matter of the book of the Zohar.) ^ Available at HebrewBooks.org: ספר יוחסין השלם, p. 88-89 / 95-96 (Hebrew). ^ Dan Rabinowitz in Hakirah, The Flatbush Journal of Jewish Law and Thought, volume 2 (fall 2015), Nekkudot: The Dots that Connect Us, p. 64. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1995). Meditation and Kabbalah. Lanham, MD: Rowman&Littlefield. p. 149. ISBN 9781461629535.  ^ Bechinat ha-Dat ed. Vienna, 1833, p. 43, in the Jacobs and Broyde, "The Zohar", Jewish Encyclopedia ^ See Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Schneerson (the Tzemach Tzedek), Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 33, p. 98, where the author, quoting a response Reb Hillel Paritcher related from Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
(the Baal HaTanya) (quoted also in the beginning of Shar Kakolel) explains that where there is an argument between Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Poskim
Poskim
(legal scholars), the former should be followed. For it is impossible to say that the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is in contradiction with the Talmud
Talmud
itself. Rather, the Kabbalists and the legal scholars have a variant understanding of the explanation of the Talmud. See also Rabbi
Rabbi
David ben Solomon ibn Zimra (the Radvaz) (Chelek 4, Siman 1,111) and Rabbi
Rabbi
Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi (the Chacham Tzvi) (Siman 36) (cited in Shaarei Teshuva 25:14). See also the Responsa of Menachem Schneerson ( Responsa Tzemach Tzedek A.H. Siman 18,4) and Divrei Nechemia ( Responsa Divrei Nechemia O.H. 21). The views of the Radvaz and of the Chacham Tzvi
Chacham Tzvi
are that one should follow the opinion of the Zohar
Zohar
only where a conclusive statement has not been made by the legal authorities ( Gemara
Gemara
or Poskim), or when an argument is found between the Poskim. The above-quoted view, attributed to the Baal HaTanya, would thus be accepted as authoritative by followers of the Baal HaTanya, followers of the Ben Ish Chai, and followers of other Halacha codifiers who accept to follow the rulings of Kabala over those of the Poskim. Such include: some Chassidim, select Sefardim, and other well known groups. ^ http://www.yahadut.org.il/zohar/milhamot-hashem.pdf ^ See עמל ורעות רוח וחרמות ותשובתם (Hebrew) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yiḥyeh Qafeḥ. ^ Responsa of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ratzon Arusi (Hebrew): דרדעים ^ An Analysis of the Authenticity of the Zohar
Zohar
(2005), p. 39, with "Rav E" and "Rav G" later identified by the author as Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliyahu Dessler and Rabbi
Rabbi
Gedaliah Nadel, respectively ( Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Marc Shapiro in Milin Havivin Volume 5 [2011], Is there an obligation to believe that Rebbe Shimon bar Yochai
Shimon bar Yochai
wrote the Zohar?, p. יב [PDF page 133]): "I approached Rav A [Aryeh Carmell] with some of the questions on the Zohar, and he responded to me - 'and what about nikud? Nikud is also mentioned in the Zohar
Zohar
despite the fact that it [is] from Geonic times!' he said. I later found this comment in the Mitpachas Seforim. I would just add that not only is nikud mentioned, but only the Tiberian Nikkud - the norm in Europe of the middle ages - is mentioned and not the Yerushalmi nikud or the Babylonian one — which was used then in the Middle East, and is still used by Yemenites today. Also the Taamay Hamikrah - the trop - are referred to in the Zohar
Zohar
- only by their Sefardi Names. Rav A told me a remarkable piece of testimony: 'My rebbe (this is how he generally refers to Rav E [ Elijah
Elijah
Dessler]) accepted the possibility that the Zohar
Zohar
was written sometime in the 13th century.'" "Rav G [Gedaliah Nadel] told me that he was still unsure as to the origin and status of the Zohar, but told me it was my absolute right to draw any conclusions I saw fit regarding both the Zohar
Zohar
and the Ari." ^ "Sinai". Daat.ac.il. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ Miller, Moshe (2012-02-07). "The Zohar's Mysterious Origins". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ Dan, Joseph Kabbalah: a Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2006, p 22 ^ Doktór, Jan; Bendowska, Magda (2012). "Sefer ha Zohar
Zohar
– the Battle for Editio Princeps". Jewish History Quarterly. 2 (242): 141–161. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Much of the information on contents and sections of the Zohar
Zohar
is found in the book Ohr
Ohr
haZohar(אור הזוהר) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Shalom Gross, in Hebrew, published by Mifal Zohar
Zohar
Hoilumi, Ramat Beth Shemesh, Israel, Heb. year 5761 (2001 CE); also available at http://israel613.com/HA-ZOHAR/OR_HAZOHAR_2.htm, accessed March 1, 2012; explicit permission is given in both the printed and electronic book "to whoever desires to print paragraphs from this book, or the entire book, in any language, in any country, in order to increase Torah
Torah
and fear of Heaven in the world and to awaken hearts our brothers the children of Yisrael in complete teshuvah". ^ Hadrat Melekh on Sifra diTzni'uta, at the end of paragraph 1 ^ זהר חי, בסיום פירושו לספד"צ ^ Zohar
Zohar
Vol. 3, Idra Rabba, p. 144a ^ Ohr
Ohr
haChamah laZohar, part 2, p. 115b, in the name of the Ramak ^ the Ramaz, brought in Mikdash Melekh laZohar, parashat Vayeira, Zalkova edition, p. 100 ^ a b According to Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov
Yaakov
Siegel, in an email dated February 29, 2012, to ~~Nissimnanach ^ "Ask the Expert: Do I Have to be 40 to Study Kabbalah? My Jewish Learning". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ For example, the Porta Coelorum of Rabbi
Rabbi
Abraham
Abraham
Cohen Irira, which forms the third part of Rosenroth's Apparatus in Librum Sohar, was written expressly to exhibit the correspondences between Kabbalistic dogmas and the Platonic philosophy. (See A.E. Waite, The Holy Kabbalah: a study of the secret tradition in Israel, London 1924, reprinted 1996), p.71ff. ^ a b c Jacobs, Joseph; Broydé, Isaac. "Zohar". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls Company.  ^ True Monotheism: Jewish Consciousness from the World of Atzilut from inner.org ^ True Monotheism: The Jewish Three that are One from inner.org ^ Mystical Concepts in Chassidism: An introduction to kabbalistic concepts and doctrines, Jacob Immanuel Schochet, Kehot publications. Chapter on Shevirat HaKeilim etc. describes the Qliphoth
Qliphoth
side of impurity deriving from the Lurianic shattered vessels of Tohu, which acted independently of each other. The fallen vessels are nurtered externally by remnants of their light. The realm of evil is characterised by falsely feeling independent, through being unaware of its true Divine source of vitality on which it depends (external nurture) ^ Briggs, Charles Augustus (1913). "II". The Fundamental Christian Faith: The Origin, History and Interpretation of the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds. C. Scribner's sons. p. 24. LCCN 13035391 – via Google Books.  ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monotheism". Newadvent.org. 1911-10-01. Retrieved 2014-08-17.  ^ "John 1 - Matthew Henry's Commentary - Bible Commentary". Christnotes.org. Retrieved 2014-08-17.  ^ For example, Rabbi
Rabbi
Aryeh Rosenfeld z"l instructed Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov (Jeffrey) Siegel to learn Zohar
Zohar
while he was still single. (Correspondence with ~~~Nissimnanach)

Further reading[edit]

Beyer, Klaus. " Aramaic
Aramaic
language, its distribution and subdivisions". 1986. (from reference 2 above) Tenen, Stan, Zohar, "B'reshit, and the Meru Hypothesis: Scholars debate the origins of Zohar", Meru Foundation eTorus Newsletter #40, July 2007 Blumenthal, David R. "Three is not enough: Jewish Reflections on Trinitarian Thinking", in Ethical Monotheism, Past and Present: Essays in Honor of Wendell S. Dietrich, ed. T. Vial and M. Hadley (Providence, RI), Brown Judaic Studies: The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism, Geoffrey Dennis, Llewellyn Worldwide, 2007 Studies in the Zohar, Yehuda Liebes
Yehuda Liebes
(Author), SUNY Press, SUNY series in Judaica: Hermeneutics, Mysticism, and Religion, 1993 "Challenging the Master: Moshe Idel's critique of Gershom Scholem" Micha Odenheimer, MyJewishLearning.Com, Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Mysticism Scholem, Gershom, Zohar
Zohar
in Encyclopadeia Judaica, Keter Publishing Scholem, Gershom, "Kabbalah" in Encyclopadeia Judaica, Keter Publishing Margolies, Reuvein "Peninim U' Margolies" and "Nitzotzei Zohar" (Heb.), Mossad R' Kook Luria, David "Kadmus Sefer Ha'Zohar" (Heb.) Unterman, Alan Reinterpreting Mysticism
Mysticism
and Messianism, MyJewishLearning.Com, Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Mysticism Adler, Jeremy, "Beyond the Law: the artistry and enduring counter-cultural power of the kabbala", Times Literary Supplement 24 February 2006, reviewing: Daniel C Matt, translator The Zohar; Arthur Green A Guide to the Zohar; Moshe Idel Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Eros.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Zohar

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Zohar
Zohar
and Later Mysticism

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zohar.

Zohar
Zohar
Pages in English, at ha-zohar.net, including the Introduction translated in English, and The Importance of Study of the Zohar, and more The Zohar
Zohar
Code: The Temple Calendar of King Solomon Zohar
Zohar
and Related Booklets in various formats in PDF files Sefer haZohar, Mantua
Mantua
edition (1558), at the National Library of Israel, DjVu file Sefer haZohar, Cremona
Cremona
edition (1559), at the National Library of Israel, DjVu file Zohar
Zohar
text files (TXT HTML) among grimoar.cz Hebrew
Hebrew
Kabbalistic texts collection The Zohar
Zohar
in English: Bereshith to Lekh Lekha The Zohar
Zohar
in English: some mystical sections The Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Center translation of the Zohar Original Zohar
Zohar
with Sulam Commentary NOTES ON THE ZOHAR IN ENGLISH: An Extensive Bibliography 7 brief video lectures about The Zohar
Zohar
from Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Education & Research Institute Daily Zohar
Zohar
study of Tikunei Zohar
Tikunei Zohar
in English Zohar
Zohar
Complete English Translation The Aramaic
Aramaic
Language of the Zohar English Partial of the Tikkunei Zohar, only a partial gives intro then Tikkun 1-17 https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BwRFZRSGYc-3UjdTbDVFNWVSZWM/view?usp=drivesdk Folder Containing the books of The Zohar https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0BwRFZRSGYc-3X0xhUXlqb05MdXc

v t e

Jews
Jews
and Judaism

Outline of Judaism Index of Jewish history-related articles

History

Timeline Israelites Origins of Judaism Ancient Israel and Judah Second Temple period Rabbinic Judaism Middle Ages Haskalah Zionism

Population

Assimilation Diaspora

Ashkenazi Sephardi Mizrahi

Languages

Hebrew Judeo-Arabic Judaeo-Spanish Yiddish

Lists of Jews Persecution

Antisemitism

Philosophy

Beliefs

Mitzvah

Chosen people Conversion Eschatology

Messiah

Ethics God Halakha Kabbalah Land of Israel Who is a Jew?

Schisms

Religious movements

Orthodox Haredi Hasidic Conservative Reform Karaite relations

Secularism

Literature

Tanakh

Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim

Rabbinic

Mishnah Talmud Midrash

Kabbalah
Kabbalah
texts

Zohar

Shulchan Aruch Siddur Hebrew
Hebrew
literature

Culture

Calendar

Holidays

Cuisine

Kashrut

Education Leadership

Rabbi

Marriage Music Names Politics Prayer

Synagogue Hazzan

Symbolism

Studies

Ashkenazi intelligence Genetics Jew (word) Jewish Virtual Library Relations with other Abrahamic religions

Christianity Islam

 Category: Jews
Jews
and Judaism Judaism
Judaism
portal Judaism
Judaism
– Wi

.