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The Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
(Berber languages: ⵉⵣⵉⵔⵉⴻⵏ Tagelda en Ayt Ziri, Arabic: زيريون‎ /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri), was a Sanhaja
Sanhaja
Berber dynasty from current Algeria, which ruled the central Maghreb
Maghreb
from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.[3][6] Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader who rallied to the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
and gave his name to the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids. They gradually established their autonomy until officially breaking with the Fatimids
Fatimids
in the mid-11th century. Transmitting power by hereditary means, they constituted a true dynasty.[clarification needed] They were the third Muslim dynasty of Berber origin in the Maghreb
Maghreb
during the Middle Ages. It opened the way to a period in Maghrebi history where political power was held by Berber dynasties such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid dynasty and Hafsid dynasty.[7] Continuing their conquests to Fez and all of modern-day Morocco
Morocco
in 980, they encountered resistance from the local Zenata
Zenata
Berbers, who gave their allegiance to the Caliphate of Cordoba.[5][8][9] Various Zirid branches did however rule the central Maghreb. This branch of the Zirids, at the beginning of the 11th century, following various family disputes, broke away as the Hammadids
Hammadids
and took control of the territories of the central Maghreb. The Zirids proper were then designated as Badicides and occupied only Ifriqiyah between 1048 and 1148.[10] Part of the dynasty fled to al-Andalus and later founded, in 1019, the Taifa of Granada
Taifa of Granada
on the ruins of the Caliphate of Cordoba.[6] The Zirids of Granada
Granada
were again defeated by the expansion of the Almoravids, who annexed their kingdom in 1090,[11] while the Badicides and the Hammadids
Hammadids
remained independent. Following the recognition of the Sunni
Sunni
Muslim Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and the assertion of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
and the Central Maghreb
Maghreb
as independent kingdoms of Sunni obedience in 1048, the Fatimids
Fatimids
reportedly masterminded the migration of the Hilalians to the Maghreb. In the 12th century, the Hilalian invasions combined with the attacks of the Normans
Normans
of Sicily on the littoral weakened Zirid power. The Almohad caliphate finally conquered the central Maghreb
Maghreb
and Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
in 1152, thus unifying the whole of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and ending the Zirid dynasties.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Economy 3 Zirid rulers 4 Offshoots of the Zirid dynasty

4.1 Zirids of Granada 4.2 Hammadid dynasty

5 Succession timeline 6 Photo gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

History[edit] The Zirids were Sanhaja
Sanhaja
Berbers
Berbers
originating from the area of modern Algeria. In the 10th century this tribe served as vassals of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate, defeating the Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellion of Abu Yazid (943-947), under Ziri ibn Manad (935-971). Ziri was installed as the governor of central Maghreb
Maghreb
and founded the gubernatorial residence of Ashir south-east of Algiers, with Fatimid
Fatimid
support. When the Fatimids
Fatimids
moved their capital to Egypt
Egypt
in 972, Ziri's son Buluggin ibn Ziri
Buluggin ibn Ziri
(971-984) was appointed viceroy of Ifriqiya. The removal of the fleet to Egypt
Egypt
made the retention of Kalbid
Kalbid
Sicily impossible, while Algeria
Algeria
broke away under the governorship of Hammad ibn Buluggin, Buluggin's son.

The Zirid realm (dark green) after the secession of the Hammadids (1018) and before the influx of Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
tribes (1052)

The relationship with their Fatimid
Fatimid
overlords varied - in 1016 thousands of Shiites
Shiites
lost their lives in rebellions in Ifriqiya, and the Fatimids
Fatimids
encouraged the defection of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
from the Zirids, but nevertheless the relationship remained close. In 1049 the Zirids broke away completely by adopting Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
and recognizing the Abbasids
Abbasids
of Baghdad
Baghdad
as rightful Caliphs, a move which was popular with the urban Arabs of Kairouan.[4][12] The Zirid period of Tunisia
Tunisia
is considered a high point in its history, with agriculture, industry, trade and learning, both religious and secular, all flourishing, especially in their capital, Kairouan.[13] Management of the area by later Zirid rulers was neglectful as the agricultural economy declined, prompting an increase in banditry among the rural population.[13] When the Zirids renounced Shia Islam
Islam
and recognized the Abbasid Caliphate in 1048, the Fatimids
Fatimids
sent the Arab tribes of the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym to Ifriqiya. The Zirids were defeated, and the land laid waste by the Bedouin conquerors. The resulting anarchy devastated the previously flourishing agriculture, and the coastal towns assumed a new importance as conduits for maritime trade and bases for piracy against Christian shipping, as well as being the last holdout of the Zirids.[4] After the loss of Kairouan
Kairouan
(1057) the rule of the Zirids was limited to a coastal strip with Mahdia
Mahdia
as the capital, while several Bedouin Emirates formed inland. Between 1146 and 1148 the Normans
Normans
of Sicily conquered all the coastal towns, and in 1152 the last Zirids in Algeria
Algeria
were superseded by the Almohad Caliphate. Economy[edit] The Zirid period is a time of great economic prosperity. The departure of the Fatimids
Fatimids
to Cairo, far from ending this prosperity, saw its amplification under the Zirid and Hammadid rulers. Referring to the government of the Zirid Emir
Emir
al-Mu'izz, the historian Ibn Khaldun describes: "It [has] never [been] seen by the Berbers
Berbers
of that country a kingdom more vast and more flourishing than his own." The northern regions produced wheat in large quantities, while the region of Sfax was a major hub of olive production and the cultivation of the date is an important part of the local economy in Biskra. Other crops such as sugar cane, saffron, cotton, sorghum, millet and chickpea are grown. The breeding of horses and sheep was flourishing and fishing was active, providing plentiful food. The Mediterranean is also an important part of the economy, even though it was, for a time, abandoned after the departure of the Fatimids
Fatimids
when the priority of the Zirid Emirs turned to territorial and internal conflicts. Their maritime policy enabled them to establish trade links, in particular for the importation of timber necessary for their fleet, and enabled them to begin an alliance and very close ties with the Kalbid
Kalbid
Emirs of Sicily. They did, however, face blockade attempts by the Venetians and Normans
Normans
who sought to reduce their wood supply and thus their dominance in the region.[14] The Arab chronicler Ibn Hawqal
Ibn Hawqal
visited and described the city of Algiers
Algiers
under the Zirid era: "The city of Algiers, is built on a gulf and surrounded by a wall. It contains a large number of bazaars and a few sources of good water near the sea. It is from these sources that the inhabitants draw the water they drink. In the outbuildings of this town are very extensive countryside and mountains inhabited by several tribes of the Berbers. The chief wealth of the inhabitants consists of herds of cattle and sheep grazing in the mountains. Algiers
Algiers
supplies so much honey that it forms an export object, and the quantity of butter, figs and other commodities is so great that it is exported to Kairouan
Kairouan
and elsewhere".[14] Zirid rulers[edit]

Abul-Futuh Sayf ad-Dawla Buluggin ibn Ziri
Buluggin ibn Ziri
(973-983) Abul-Fat'h al-Mansur ibn Buluggin (983-995) Abu Qatada Nasir ad-Dawla Badis ibn Mansur (995-1016) Sharaf ad-Dawla al-Muizz ibn Badis (1016–1062) declared independence from the Fatimids
Fatimids
and changed the khutba to refer to the Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
in 1048, changed capital to Mahdia
Mahdia
in 1057 after Kairouan
Kairouan
was lost to the Banu Hilal Abu Tahir Tamim ibn al-Mu'izz (1062–1108) Yahya ibn Tamim (1108–1131) Ali ibn Yahya (1115–1121) Abu'l-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali (1121–1148)

Offshoots of the Zirid dynasty[edit] Zirids of Granada[edit] Main article: Taifa of Granada

Map of the Taifa of Granada
Taifa of Granada
in the first half of the 11th century

The Zirids were also the ruling dynasty of the Taifa of Granada, a Berber kingdom in Al-Andalus. The founder was the brother of Buluggin, Zawi ben Ziri, a general of the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
under Caliph Hisham II. After the death of Almanzor in Medinaceli
Medinaceli
on 12 August 1002 (25 Ramadan 392), a civil war broke out in Al-Andalus, and General Zawi ibn Ziri destroyed several cities, such as Medina Azahara
Medina Azahara
in 1011 and Córdoba in 1013. He founded the Taifa of Granada, and declared himself its first emir. He died of poison in Algiers
Algiers
in 1019. The arts and civil construction under the rule of the Zirid governors and emirs in Al-Andalus, mainly in the Taifa of Granada, were very important. An example is the Cadima Alcazaba
Alcazaba
in Albayzin, Granada, and part of the old wall surrounding Granada. Hammadid dynasty[edit] Main article: Hammadid dynasty Succession timeline[edit]

— Royal house — Zirid dynasty

Direct Fatimid
Fatimid
rule over central Maghreb
Maghreb
and Ifriqya Emir
Emir
of Maghreb
Maghreb
vassal of the Fatimids 972 – 1048 Independence from the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate

Maghreb
Maghreb
under Zirds (972-1048) Emirs of Ifriqiya (loss of central Maghreb
Maghreb
to the benefit of Hammadids) Badicid branch 1048 – 1148 Norman conquest

Secession
Secession
from the Zirid Emirate
Emirate
of Ifriqiya Emirs of central Maghreb Hammadid branch 1014 – 1152 Almohad conquest

New title Emirs of Granada[15] Zawid branch 1013 – 1090 Almoravid conquest

Preceded by Hammudid dynasty Emirs of Malaga[15] Zawid branch 1058 – 1090

Photo gallery[edit]

The ruins of Achir, a fortress founded by Ziri ibn Menad, the eponym of the Zirid dynasty

The Maqsurah
Maqsurah
of Al-Muizz in the Mosque of Uqba, Kairouan, produced during the reign of Al-Muizz ibn Badis

The Casbah of Algiers, founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri
Bologhine ibn Ziri
and classed by the Unesco

See also[edit]

List of Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasties Ar-Raqiq, a courtier, poet and historian, secretary to al-Muizz ibn Badis.

Notes[edit]

^ "Qantara". Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ Euratlas. "Euratlas Periodis Web - Map of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
in Year 1000". Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ a b "Zirid Dynasty
Dynasty
Muslim dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-11-27.  ^ a b c Idris H. Roger, L'invasion hilālienne et ses conséquences, in : Cahiers de civilisation médiévale (43), Jul.-Sep. 1968, pp.353-369. [1] ^ a b Julien, Charles-André (1994-01-01). Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord: des origines à 1830 (in French). Payot. p. 295.  ^ a b "Qantara - Les Zirides et les Hammadides (972-1152)". www.qantara-med.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.  ^ Hrbek, Ivan; Africa, Unesco
Unesco
International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of (1992-01-01). Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. J. Currey. p. 172. ISBN 9780852550939.  ^ a b Meynier, Gilbert (2010-01-01). L'Algérie, coeur du Maghreb classique: de l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (698-1518) (in French). La Découverte. p. 158. ISBN 9782707152312.  ^ Simon, Jacques (2011-01-01). L'Algérie au passé lointain: de Carthage à la régence d'Alger (in French). Harmattan. p. 165. ISBN 9782296139640.  ^ Idris, Hady Roger. "L'invasion hilālienne et ses conséquences". Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 11 (43): 353–369. doi:10.3406/ccmed.1968.1452.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004-01-01). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9780748621378.  ^ Berry, LaVerle. "Fatamids". Libya: A Country Study. Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ a b Brill, E.J. "Fatamids". Libya: Encyclopedia of Islam. Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ a b Sénac, Philippe; Cressier, Patrice (2012-10-10). Histoire du Maghreb
Maghreb
médiéval: VIIe-XIe siècle (in French). Armand Colin. p. 150. ISBN 9782200283421.  ^ a b "Zirid Dynasty
Dynasty
- Muslim dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 

References[edit]

Zirid Dynasty
Dynasty
Encyclopædia Britannica Historical map showing location of Zirid Kingdom c. 1000

v t e

Islamic dynasties in Maghreb
Maghreb
region

Salihids (710–1019) Barghawata
Barghawata
(744-1058) Rustamids (767-909) Muhallabids
Muhallabids
(771–793) Idrisids (780–985 ) Ifranids (790-1066) Aghlabids
Aghlabids
(800–909) Zirids (973–1148) Banu Kanz (1004–1412) Hammadids
Hammadids
(1008–1152) Almoravids
Almoravids
(1040–1147) Khurasanids (1059-1158) Almohads
Almohads
(f. 1130, r. 1147–1269) Hafsids (1229–1574) Ziyyanids (1235–1556) Marinids (f. 1244, r. 1269–1465) Wattasids (1472–1554) Saadi (f. 1509, r. 1554–1659) Kingdom of Ait Abbas
Kingdom of Ait Abbas
(f. 1510, r. 1510–1872) Kuku Sultanate (1515-1638) Alaouites (f. 1631, r. 1666–present) Husainids (1705–1957) Karamanli (1711–1835) Senussi
Senussi
(1837-1969)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77114508 GND: 118921150 SUDOC: 083337601 BNF:

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