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Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
(Chinese: 張騫; d. 113 BC)[1] was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China
China
in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty. He was the first official diplomat to bring back reliable information about Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Chinese imperial court, then under Emperor Wu of Han, and played an important pioneering role in the Chinese colonization and conquest of the region now known as Xinjiang. Today Zhang Qian's travels are associated with the major route of transcontinental trade, the Silk Road. In essence, his missions opened up to China
China
the many kingdoms and products of a part of the world then unknown to the Chinese. Zhang Qian's accounts of his explorations of Central Asia
Central Asia
are detailed in the Early Han historical chronicles, Records of the Grand Historian, compiled by Sima Qian
Sima Qian
in the 1st century BC. The Central Asian sections of the Silk Road
Silk Road
routes were expanded around 114 BC largely through the missions and explorations of Zhang Qian.[2] Today Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
is considered a national hero and revered for the key role he played in opening China
China
to the world of commercial trade.

Contents

1 Zhang Qian's Missions 2 Zhang Qian's reports

2.1 Dayuan
Dayuan
(大宛) (Ferghana) 2.2 Rouzhi (月氏) (Yuezhi) 2.3 Daxia
Daxia
(大夏) (Bactria) 2.4 Shendu (身毒) (India) 2.5 Anxi (安息) (Parthia) 2.6 Tiaozhi (条支) ( Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
in Mesopotamia) 2.7 Kangju
Kangju
(康居) northwest of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
(粟特) 2.8 Yancai 奄蔡 (Vast Steppe)

3 Development of East-West contacts 4 Death 5 Other achievements 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links

Zhang Qian's Missions[edit]

Statue of Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum, Xi'an

Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
was born in Chenggu district just east of Hanzhong
Hanzhong
in the north central province of Shaanxi, China.[3] He entered the capital, Chang'an, today's Xi'an, between 140 BC and 134 BC as a Gentleman (郎), serving Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. At the time the nomadic Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tribes controlled what is now Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and dominated the Western Regions, Xiyu (西域), the areas neighbouring the territory of the Han Dynasty. The Han emperor was interested in establishing commercial ties with distant lands but outside contact was prevented by the hostile Xiongnu. The Han court dispatched Zhang Qian, a military officer who was familiar with the Xiongnu, to the Western Regions
Western Regions
in 138 BC with a group of ninety-nine members to make contact and build an alliance with the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
against the Xiongnu. He was accompanied by a guide named Ganfu (甘父), a Xiongnu
Xiongnu
who had been captured in war.[4] The objective of Zhang Qian's first mission was to seek a military alliance with the Yuezhi,[5] in modern Tajikistan. However to get to the territory of the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
he was forced to pass through land controlled by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
who captured him (as well as Ganfu) and enslaved him for ten years.[6] During this time he married a Xiongnu wife, who bore him a son, and gained the trust of the Xiongnu leader.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Zhang and Ganfu (as well as Zhang's Xiongnu
Xiongnu
wife and son) were eventually able to escape and, passing Lop Nor
Lop Nor
and following the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, around the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
and through small fortified areas in the middle of oases in what is now Xinjiang
Xinjiang
until they made their way to Dayuan
Dayuan
and eventually to the land of the Yuezhi. The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were agricultural people who produced strong horses and many unknown crops including alfalfa for animal fodder. However, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were too settled to desire war against the Xiongnu. Zhang spent a year in Yuezhi
Yuezhi
and the adjacent Bactrian territory, documenting their cultures, lifestyles and economy, before beginning his return trip to China, this time following the southern edge of the Tarim Basin.[14] On his return trip he was again captured by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
who again spared his life because they valued his sense of duty and composure in the face of death. Two years later the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
leader died and in the midst of chaos and infighting Zhang Qian escaped. Of the original mission of just over a hundred men, only Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
and Ganfu managed to return to China. Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
returned in 125 BC with detailed news for the Emperor, showing that sophisticated civilizations existed to the West, with which China
China
could advantageously develop relations. The Shiji
Shiji
relates that "the Emperor learned of the Dayuan
Dayuan
(大宛), Daxia
Daxia
(大夏), Anxi (安息), and the others, all great states rich in unusual products whose people cultivated the land and made their living in much the same way as the Chinese. All these states, he was told, were militarily weak and prized Han goods and wealth".[15] Upon Zhang Qian's return to China
China
he was honoured with a position of palace counselor.[16] Although he was unable to develop commercial ties between China
China
and these far-off lands, his efforts did eventually result in trade mission to the Wu-sun
Wu-sun
people in 119 BC which led to trade between China
China
and Persia. On his mission Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
had noticed products from an area now known as northern India. However, the task remained to find a trade route not obstructed by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
to India. Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
set out on a second mission to forge a route from China
China
to India
India
via Sichuan, but after many attempts this effort proved unsuccessful. In 119–115 BC Zhang Qian was sent on a third mission by the emperor, to develop ties with the Wusun
Wusun
(烏孫) people.[17] Zhang Qian's reports[edit]

Zhang Qian's travels to the west

The reports of Zhang Qian's travels are quoted extensively in the 1st century BC Chinese historic chronicles "Records of the Great Historian" (Shiji) by Sima Qian. Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
visited directly the kingdom of Dayuan
Dayuan
(大宛) in Ferghana, the territories of the Yuezhi (月氏) in Transoxiana, the Bactrian country of Daxia
Daxia
(大夏) with its remnants of Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
rule, and Kangju
Kangju
(康居). He also made reports on neighbouring countries that he did not visit, such as Anxi (安息) (Arsacid territories), Tiaozhi (條支/条支) (Seleucid Empire in Mesopotamia), Shendu (身毒) (Pakistan) and the Wusun (烏孫). Dayuan
Dayuan
(大宛) (Ferghana)[edit]

Countries described in Zhang Qian's report. Visited countries are highlighted in blue.

After being released from captivity by Xiongnu, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
visited Dayuan, located in the Fergana
Fergana
region west of the Tarim Basin. The people of Dayuan
Dayuan
were being portrayed as sophisticated urban dwellers similar to the Parthians and the Bactrians. The name Dayuan
Dayuan
is thought to be a transliteration of the word Yona, the Greek descendants that occupied the region from the 4th to the 2nd century BCE. It was during this stay that Zhang reported the famous tall and powerful "blood-sweating" Ferghana
Ferghana
horse. The refusal by Dayuan
Dayuan
to offer these horses to Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
resulted in two punitive campaigns launched by the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
to acquire these horses by force.

" Dayuan
Dayuan
lies southwest of the territory of the Xiongnu, some 10,000 li (5,000 kilometers) directly west of China. The people are settled on the land, plowing the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. The people live in houses in fortified cities, there being some seventy or more cities of various sizes in the region. The population numbers several hundred thousand" (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Rouzhi (月氏) (Yuezhi)[edit] After obtaining the help of the king of Dayuan, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
went southwest to the territory of the Yuezhi, with whom he was supposed to obtain a military alliance against the Xiongnu.

"The Great Yuezhi
Yuezhi
live some 2,000 or 3,000 li (1,000 or 1,500 kilometers) west of Dayuan, north of the Gui (Oxus) river. They are bordered to the south by Daxia
Daxia
(Bactria), on the west by Anxi, and on the north by Kangju
Kangju
(康居). They are a nation of nomads, moving place to place with their herds and their customs are like those of the Xiongnu. They have some 100,000 or 200,000 archer warriors." (adapted from Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
also describes the origins of the Yuezhi, explaining they came from the eastern part of the Tarim Basin. This has encouraged some historians to connect them to the Caucasoid mummies of the Tarim. (The question of links between the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
and the Tocharians
Tocharians
of the Tarim is more controversial.)

"The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly Mountains (Tian Shan) and Dunhuang, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
they moved far away to the west, beyond Dayuan (Ferghana), where they attacked the people of Daxia
Daxia
(Bactria) and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui (Oxus) river." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

A smaller group of Yuezhi, the "Little Yuezhi", were not able to follow the exodus and reportedly found refuge among the "Qiang barbarians". Zhang was the first Chinese to write about one humped dromedary camels which he saw in this region.[18] Daxia
Daxia
(大夏) (Bactria)[edit] Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
probably witnessed the last period of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, as it was being subjugated by the nomadic Yuezhi. Only small powerless chiefs remained, who were apparently vassals to the Yuezhi horde. Their civilization was urban, almost identical to the civilizations of Anxi and Dayuan, and the population was numerous.

" Daxia
Daxia
is situated over 2,000 li (1,000 kilometers) southwest of Dayuan
Dayuan
(Ferghana), south of the Gui (Oxus) river. Its people cultivate the land, and have cities and houses. Their customs are like those of Dayuan. It has no great ruler but only a number of petty chiefs ruling the various cities. The people are poor in the use of arms and afraid of battle, but they are clever at commerce. After the Great Yuezhi moved west and attacked and conquered Daxia, the entire country came under their sway. The population of the country is large, numbering some 1,000,000 or more persons. The capital is Lanshi (Bactra) where all sorts of goods are bought and sold." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, translation Burton Watson).

Cloth from Shu (Sichuan) was found there.[19] Shendu (身毒) (India)[edit] Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
also reports about the existence of India
India
southeast of Bactria. The name Shendu (身毒) comes from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word "Sindhu", meaning the Indus river of Pakistan. Sindh was one of the richest regions of India
India
at the time, ruled by Indo-Greek Kingdoms, which explains the reported cultural similarity between Bactria
Bactria
and India:

"Southeast of Daxia
Daxia
is the kingdom of Shendu (Sindh)... Shendu, they told me, lies several thousand li southeast of Daxia
Daxia
(Bactria). The people cultivate the land and live much like the people of Daxia. The region is said to be hot and damp. The inhabitants ride elephants when they go in battle. The kingdom is situated on a great river (Indus)" (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Anxi (安息) (Parthia)[edit] Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
identifies "Anxi" (Chinese: 安息) as an advanced urban civilization, like Dayuan
Dayuan
(Ferghana) and Daxia
Daxia
(Bactria). The name "Anxi" is a transcription of "Arshak" (Arsaces),[20] the name of the founder of Arsacid Empire
Arsacid Empire
that ruled the regions along the silk road between the Tedzhen river
Tedzhen river
in the east and the Tigris
Tigris
in the west, and running through Aria, Parthia
Parthia
proper, and Media proper.

"Anxi is situated several thousand li west of the region of the Great Yuezhi. The people are settled on the land, cultivating the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. They have walled cities like the people of Dayuan
Dayuan
(Ferghana), the region contains several hundred cities of various sizes. The coins of the country are made of silver and bear the face of the king. When the king dies, the currency is immediately changed and new coins issued with the face of his successor. The people keep records by writing on horizontal strips of leather. To the west lies Tiaozhi (Mesopotamia) and to the north Yancai and Lixuan (Hyrcania)." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Tiaozhi (条支) ( Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
in Mesopotamia)[edit] Zhang Qian's reports on Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Seleucid Empire, or Tiaozhi (条支), are in tenuous terms. He did not himself visit the region, and was only able to report what others told him.

Tiaozhi (Mesopotamia) is situated several thousand li west of Anxi (Arsacid territory) and borders the Western Sea (Persian Gulf/Mediterranean?). It is hot and damp, and the people live by cultivating the fields and planting rice... The people are very numerous and are ruled by many petty chiefs. The ruler of Anxi (the Arsacids) give orders to these chiefs and regards them as vassals. (adapted from Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Kangju
Kangju
(康居) northwest of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
(粟特)[edit] Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
also visited directly the area of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
(Kangju), home to the Sogdian nomads:

" Kangju
Kangju
is situated some 2,000 li (1,000 kilometers) northwest of Dayuan
Dayuan
(Bactria). Its people are nomads and resemble the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
in their customs. They have 80,000 or 90,000 skilled archer fighters. The country is small, and borders Dayuan. It acknowledges sovereignty to the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
people in the South and the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
in the East." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Yancai 奄蔡 (Vast Steppe)[edit]

"Yancai lies some 2,000 li (832 km) northwest of Kangju
Kangju
(centered on Turkestan at Beitian). The people are nomads and their customs are generally similar to those of the people of Kangju. The country has over 100,000 archer warriors, and borders a great shoreless lake, perhaps what is now known as the Northern Sea (Aral Sea, distance between Tashkent
Tashkent
to Aralsk
Aralsk
is about 866 km)" (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Development of East-West contacts[edit] Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial relations between China
China
and Central as well as Western Asia flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the end of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC, initiating the development of the Silk Road:

"The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson).

Many objects were soon exchanged, and travelled as far as Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in the East, as suggested by the discovery of a Persian box and various artifacts from Central Asia
Central Asia
in the 122 BC tomb of King Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
of Nanyue.

Mogao Caves
Mogao Caves
8th-century mural depicting the pseudohistorical legend of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
worshipping "golden man" Buddha statues captured in 121 BC.

Murals in Mogao Caves
Mogao Caves
in Dunhuang
Dunhuang
describe the Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping Buddhist statues, explaining them as "golden men brought in 120 BC by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads", although there is no other mention of Han Wudi worshipping the Buddha in Chinese historical literature. China
China
also sent a mission to Anxi, which were followed up by reciprocal missions from Parthian envoys around 100 BC:

"When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi, the king of Anxi (the Arsacid ruler) dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom... When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them... The emperor was delighted at this." (adapted from Shiji, 123, trans. Burton Watson).

The Roman historian Florus
Florus
describes the visit of numerous envoys, including Seres
Seres
(Chinese or central Asians), to the first Roman Emperor Augustus, who reigned between 27 BC and 14:

"Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations. Thus even Scythians
Scythians
and Sarmatians
Sarmatians
sent envoys to seek the friendship of Rome. Nay, the Seres
Seres
came likewise, and the Indians who dwelt beneath the vertical sun, bringing presents of precious stones and pearls and elephants, but thinking all of less moment than the vastness of the journey which they had undertaken, and which they said had occupied four years. In truth it needed but to look at their complexion to see that they were people of another world than ours." ("Cathay and the way thither", Henry Yule).

In 97 the Chinese general Ban Chao
Ban Chao
dispatched an envoy to Rome
Rome
in the person of Gan Ying. Several Roman embassies to China
China
followed from 166, and are officially recorded in Chinese historical chronicles. Death[edit] The Shiji
Shiji
reports that Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
returned from his final expedition to the Wusun
Wusun
in 115 BC. After his return he "was honoured with the post of grand messenger, making him among the nine highest ministers of the government. A year or so later he died."[21]

"The indications regarding the year of his death differ, but Shih Chih-mien (1961), p. 268 shows beyond doubt that he died in 113 B.C. His tomb is situated in Chang-chia ts'un 張家村 near Ch'eng-ku . . . ; during repairs carried out in 1945 a clay mold with the inscription 博望家造 [Home of the Bowang (Marquis)] was found, as reported by Ch'en Chih (1959), p. 162." Hulsewé and Loewe (1979), p. 218, note 819.

Other achievements[edit] From his missions he brought back many important products, the most important being alfalfa seeds (for growing horse fodder), strong horses with hard hooves, and knowledge of the extensive existence of new products, peoples and technologies of the outside world. He died c. 114 BC after spending twenty-five years travelling on these dangerous and strategic missions. Although at a time in his life he was regarded with disgrace for being defeated by the Xiongnu, by the time of his death he had been bestowed with great honours by the emperor.[22][23][24] Zhang Qian's journeys had promoted a great variety of economic and cultural exchanges between the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
and the Western Regions. Because silk became the dominant product traded from China, this great trade route later became known as the Silk Road
Silk Road
or Silk Route.[25] See also[edit]

Seres Ban Chao Faxian Xuanzang Chen Cheng Zheng He Yi Jing Rabban Bar Sauma Tianzhu (India)

Footnotes[edit]

^ Loewe (2000), p. 688. ^ Boulnois, Luce (2005). Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants. Hong Kong: Odyssey Books. p. 66. ISBN 962-217-721-2.  ^ Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants on the Silk Road, p. 61. (2004) Luce Boulnois. Translated by Helen Loveday. Odyssey Books & Guides. ISBN 962-217-720-4 (Hardback); ISBN 962-217-721-2 (Paperback). ^ Watson (1993), p. 231. ^ Silk Road, North China, C. Michael Hogan, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham ^ Frances Wood, "The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia", 2002, University of California Press, 270 pages ISBN 978-0-520-23786-5 ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-231-13924-1. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Julia Lovell (2007). The Great Wall: China
China
Against the World, 1000 BC – AD 2000. Grove Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-8021-4297-4. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Alfred J. Andrea; James H. Overfield (1998). The Human Record: To 1700. Houghton Mifflin. p. 165. ISBN 0-395-87087-9. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Yiping Zhang (2005). Story of the Silk Road. 五洲传播出版社. p. 22. ISBN 7-5085-0832-7. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Charles Higham (2004). Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 409. ISBN 0-8160-4640-9. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Indian Society for Prehistoric & Quaternary Studies (1998). Man and environment, Volume 23, Issue 1. Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies. p. 6. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Adrienne Mayor (22 September 2014). The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton University Press. pp. 422–. ISBN 978-1-4008-6513-0.  ^ Watson (1993), p. 232. ^ Watson (1993), chap. 123. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices, 2000, University of California Press, 184 pages ISBN 0-520-23674-2 ^ Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture, p. 615. Dorothy Perkins. (2000). Roundtable Press Book. ISBN 0-8160-2693-9 (hc); ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk). ^ Chinese Recorder. Presbyterian Mission Press. 1875. pp. 15–.  ^ James M. Hargett (2006). Stairway to Heaven: A Journey to the Summit of Mount Emei. SUNY Press. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-0-7914-6682-7.  ^ The Kingdom of Anxi ^ Watson (1993), p. 240. ^ Watson (1993), pp. 231–239, 181, 231–241. ^ Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture, pp. 614–615. Dorothy Perkins. (2000). Roundtable Press Book. ISBN 0-8160-2693-9 (hc); ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk). ^ Alemany, Agustí. Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation. p. 396. Retrieved 2008-05-24.  ^ Asiapac Editorial, Chungjiang Fu, Liping Yang, Chungjiang Fu, Liping Yang. Chinese History: Ancient China
China
to 1911 – Google Book Search. p. 84. Retrieved 2008-05-24. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

References[edit]

Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N., (1979). China
China
in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Loewe, Michael (2000). " Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
張騫". A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, and Xin Periods (220 BC – AD 24). Leiden: Brill. pp. 687–9. ISBN 90-04-10364-3.  Yü, Ying-shih (1986). "Han Foreign Relations". In Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K. The Cambridge History of China, Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 377–462. 

External links[edit]

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