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Zerubbabel[a] was in biblical account a governor of the Persian Province of Yehud Medinata[1] and the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate king of Judah. Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
led the first group of Jews, numbering 42,360, who returned from the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
in the first year of Cyrus, King
King
of Persia.[2] The date is generally thought to have been between 538 and 520 BC.[3] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
also laid the foundation of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
soon after. In all of the accounts in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
that mention Zerubbabel, he is always associated with the high priest who returned with him, Joshua (Jeshua) son of Jozadak (Jehozadak). Together, these two men led the first wave of Jewish returnees from exile and began to rebuild the Temple.[2] Old Testament theologian John Kessler describes the region of Judah as a small province that contained land extending 25 km from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and was independently ruled prior to the Persian rule.[4] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was the governor of this province.[5] King Darius I
Darius I
of Persia
Persia
appointed Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
governor of the Province.[6] It was after this appointment that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
began to rebuild the Temple. Elias Bickerman speculates that one of the reasons that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was able to rebuild the Temple was because of "the widespread revolts at the beginning of the reign of Darius I
Darius I
in 522 BC, which preoccupied him to such a degree that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
felt he could initiate the rebuilding of the temple without repercussions".[7]

Contents

1 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and the Davidic Line 2 The name

2.1 Sheshbazzar

3 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

3.1 In the Prophets (Nevi'im)

3.1.1 The Prophecy of Haggai 3.1.2 Zechariah

3.2 In the Writings (Kethuvim)

3.2.1 Ezra 3.2.2 Nehemiah 3.2.3 1st Chronicles

3.3 Son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
or Pedaiah

4 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the New Testament 5 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in Apocrypha

5.1 Sirach 5.2 1st Esdras

6 Zorobabel[31] and the Darius contest in other texts 7 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in Freemasonry 8 Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in other texts 9 External links 10 Notes 11 References

Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and the Davidic Line[edit] The Davidic line
Davidic line
from Jeconiah
Jeconiah
had been cursed by Jeremiah, saying that no descendant of "Coniah" would ever sit on the throne again (Jer. 22:30). Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was of the main Davidic line
Davidic line
through Solomon and Jeconiah. The prophets Zechariah and Haggai
Haggai
both give unclear statements regarding Zerubbabel's authority in their oracles, in which Zerubbabel was either the subject of a false prophecy or the receiver of a divine promotion to kingship. He could also be viewed as a governor of a state within another nation and thus technically "not on the throne" of a nation. Either way, he was given the task of rebuilding the Temple in the second year of the reign of Darius I
Darius I
(520 BC), along with the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak. Muslim historian Ya'qubi attributed the recovery of the Torah
Torah
and the Books of the Prophets
Books of the Prophets
to him instead of Ezra.[8] The Seder Olam Zutta lists him as the Exilarch
Exilarch
in Babylon
Babylon
to succeed Shealtiel. The texts[which?] are conflicting as to whether Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was the son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
or his nephew. His son Meshullam succeeded him as Exilarch, and was followed by another son Hananiah. His other sons were Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah and Jushab-hesed (1 Chronicles 3:20). He also had a daughter called Shelomith ( 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
3:19). The name[edit] If the name Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is Hebrew, it may be a contraction of Zərua' Bāvel (Hebrew: זְרוּעַ בָּבֶל‬), meaning "the one sown of Babylon", and referring to a child conceived and born in Babylon; or perhaps even, Zərûy Bāvel (Hebrew: זְרוּי בָּבֶל‬), meaning, "the winnowed of Babylon", in the sense of being exiled in Babylon. If the name is not Hebrew
Hebrew
but Assyrian-Babylonian, it may contract, Zəru Bābel, meaning, "Seed of Babylon", the one conceived in Babylon. (Contrast the related Hebrew form for "Seed": Hebrew: זֶרַע‬, Zera'.) Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
may have had a Babylonian style name because of his interaction with the Babylonian court.[9] Sheshbazzar[edit] Ezra
Ezra
begins with Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
entrusting the Temple vessels to Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
(Hebrew: שֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר‬, Modern Sheshbatsar, Tiberian Šēšbaṣṣár, "prince of Judah"); this apparently important figure then disappears from the story entirely ( Ezra
Ezra
1:8,11), and Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is abruptly introduced as the main figure. Both are called governors of Judah and are both credited with laying the foundation of the Temple. A number of explanations have been proposed, including: (1) the two are the same person; (2) Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
was in fact Shenazzar, Zerubabbel's uncle (mentioned in the Books of Chronicles); (3) Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
began the work and Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
finished it.[10] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] In the Prophets (Nevi'im)[edit] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
appears in the prophecies of Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah. The Prophecy of Haggai[edit] "'On that day, says the Lord of Hosts, I will take you Zerubbabel, son of Shealtiel, my servant, and wear you like a signet ring; for it is you whom I have chosen. This is the word of the Lord of Hosts'" (Hag. 2:23). This quotation from the Book of Haggai
Haggai
illustrates the messianic expectations that are often associated with Zerubbabel. The term, "my servant," describes Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
as God's servant. This term is often associated with King
King
David. Walter Rose concludes that: "the epithet 'servant' is hardly ever used for kings after David may be related to the fact that most of them were disappointing in their performance as kings appointed by YHVH".[11] Rose emphasizes that the author of the Book of Haggai
Haggai
is associating Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
with King
King
David. Scholars have also analyzed the phrase "I will take you." Rose associates this term with a mission, change, or protection.[12] For Zerubbabel, this mission was likely the rebuilding of the second Temple. The most widely debated part of this prophecy is the phrase, "wear you like a signet ring." A signet ring is an authoritative symbol that is associated with power. Rose interprets this passage by comparing it to the passage in Jeremiah
Jeremiah
22:24, in through which he concludes that the King
King
is a signet ring on God's hand.[13] John Kessler interprets the idea of the nature of the Signet ring
Signet ring
as such that "the real true figure of speech at issue is a personification of which the simile or metaphor is only a part. The real trope consists of the personification of Yahweh, who is likened to the owner of a signet".[14] However, this word when in Hebrew
Hebrew
has been translated as meaning both seal and signet ring. It is unclear whether Haggai's prophecy claims that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is going to be the King
King
of the Land of Judah or if he is just to build the second Temple. Many scholars have interpreted the following passage from Haggai
Haggai
as identifying Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
as a king of the land of Judah, a continuation of the Davidic line: " Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is to be made either the representative of YHVH, or the new king who will restore the monarchy, or the new world leader. One sometimes finds words like messianic or Messiah used to describe Zerubbabel's role".[15] According to Peter Ackroyd, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was "'a royal representative of God'".[16] Both historians' interpretations of the prophecy of Haggai appear to understand the term of the "signet ring" as being a metaphor for Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
attaining God's authority on earth. Not all Biblical scholars interpret Zerubbabel's authority in the same manner. Other scholars see it as a prophecy proclaiming that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
will become king. According to Sara Japhet: " Haggai
Haggai
does not explain, however, for what Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was chosen. From what is described in the prophecy—the overthrow of the kingdoms of the nations as the first stage in the choosing of Zerubbabel—we may conclude that Haggai
Haggai
sees Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
as a king, whose kingdom is made possible by a change in the political structure. ... [F]rom now on, since Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
has been chosen as a 'signet,' he will be 'sitting on the throne of David and ruling again in Judah'. All this, however, is only hinted at in the prophecy of Haggai
Haggai
and not stated explicitly".[17] A. Lemaire interprets the author of Haggai
Haggai
as wanting Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
to be appointed to a lesser role: " Haggai
Haggai
is expressing the hope of a change in status of the province of Yehud, and of Zerubbabel's emergence as a king of a vassal state within the Persian empire".[18] John Kessler's interpretation agrees with Lemaire's: "The Promise of David…was now functioning in a new form, accommodated to the realities of the Persian period. Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was not the ruler of a nation, but the governor of a province. Yet, such a provisional situation posed no inherent threat to the promise of the Davidic house".[19] Some historians claim that Haggai's prophecy does not claim that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
will become the King
King
of the land of Judah. Rose's concludes that the imagery itself does not claim that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
will be King
King
of Judea.[20] Rose also claims that "in Haggai's passage, one does not find a statement about Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
being YHVH's anointed, or about his autonomous rule (given by God), present or future, and there is no explicit promise that God will make the nations submit to his chosen one. One reads only about a mutual destruction of political and military forces masterminded by God. On the basis of these observations, I think it is safe to conclude that there is no reason to assume that divine intervention which does not mention autonomous rule or submission of the nations to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
(Hag. 2) would necessarily imply a change of his position".[21] Furthermore, Rose makes this claim because the prophecy does not claim that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
will become king: "The absence of any reference to the Davidic line
Davidic line
from which Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
came, and the failure to use words like "melech" … (related to the title of King)…point in a different direction".[22] Zechariah[edit] Falling in line with the rest of the twelve prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Nevi'im), the book of Zechariah describes a hope for a future king, beyond the current leader Zerubbabel, and further establishes a portrayal of this future king. Anthony Petterson argues that the standard explanation of Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah's prophesies, in which Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was supposed to be the restorer of the Davidic dynasty but never fulfilled these expectations, does not actually stand as an explanation of the final form of these texts. Zerubbabel's name is mentioned four times throughout Zechariah 1–8, and all of these instances occur in one short oracle written in chapter 4. Any other references to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
throughout this book are guesses or theories as to his significance. Zechariah 4:1–3 gives a vision that was had by Zechariah of a lampstand with a bowl on it. Upon that are seven lamps, each with seven lips. There are two olive trees, one to the right of the bowl and one to the left. The explanation, told by the angel that Zechariah is conversing with, is as follows: "This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: 'Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,' says the Lord of hosts. 'Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
you shall become a plain! And he shall bring forth the capstone with shouts of "Grace, grace to it!"' (Zech 4:6–7) "The hands of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. … The seven are the eyes of the Lord, which range through the whole earth … the two olive trees … are the two sons of oil (anointed ones) who stand by the Lord of the whole earth." (Zech 4:9–14) There is a debate in the Biblical scholarly community as to who the "sons of oil" is referencing. Though conventional wisdom often understood it to be Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and Joshua, Boda argues that, because of the important role that prophets were said to play in the reconstruction of the Temple in Zech 8:9, Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah are the sons of oil.[23] The controversy regarding the prophesies about Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
relate back to this quote about Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
laying the foundation of the temple and eventually completing it. Zech 3:8 and 6:12 refer to a man called "The Branch." In Zech 6, the Lord tells Zechariah to gather silver and gold from the returned exiles (who had come back to Judah from Babylonia), and to go to the house of Josiah son of Zephaniah (members of the Davidic lineage). Then Zechariah is told to fashion a crown out of the silver and gold, set it on the head of Joshua son of Jehozadak, and tell him the following: "Thus says the Lord of hosts: Here is a man whose name is Branch (Hebrew: Zemah): for he shall branch out in his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord … he shall bear royal honor, and shall sit upon his throne and rule. There shall be a priest by his throne, with peaceful understanding between the two of them." (Zech 6:12–13) It is unclear whether or not "the Branch" refers to Zerubbabel. Should this have been the intention of the author, then the restoration of the Davidic line
Davidic line
of kings would be imminent, as Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is a member of the line of David (1 Chron 3:19–20). There is some evidence for this link, namely that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was the governor of Judah at the time of Zechariah, he was frequently associated with Joshua ( Ezra
Ezra
3:2, 3:8), and he is also described as the Temple builder (Zech 4:9). However, there are several reasons that complicate this association. The first is that Joshua is the one crowned, not the Branch. The next is that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is not mentioned. The third is that the references to Zemah appear to anticipate a future event, while Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
existed in the present.[24] Zechariah neither proclaims that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
will restore the monarchy, nor does he contradict the previous hopes for a Davidic king (Hag 2:23). Rather, Zechariah maintains hope for a Davidic king in the future, without tying down the prophecy directly to Zerubbabel.[23] In the Writings (Kethuvim)[edit] References to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
appear in the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 Chronicles. Ezra[edit] According to the Book of Ezra
Ezra
chapter 2, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
returned to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the first wave of liberated exiles under the decree of King
King
Cyrus of Persia
Persia
in 538 BCE. The mention of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the book of Ezra
Ezra
primarily serves the purpose of describing the return to Judah following the exile from Babylon
Babylon
and the construction of the Second Temple. According to the authors of the Book of Ezra, "when the seventh month came… Jeshua son of Jozadak along with his fellow-priests, and Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
son of Shealtiel, with his colleagues, set to work to build the altar of the God of Israel". ( Ezra
Ezra
3:1–2) The Book of Ezra
Ezra
also gives a date for the beginning of the construction of the Temple: "In the second month of the second year, after they came to the house of God in Jerusalem, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
and Jeshua son of Jozadak began the work". (Ezr. 3:8) This passage describes how Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was part of the group who began to build the second Temple of Jerusalem. According to the Book of Ezra, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is also under the authority of King
King
Cyrus of Persia to build the Temple (Ezr. 4:3). The passages describing Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
do mention the prophecies of Haggai
Haggai
and of Zechariah concerning Zerubbabel's actions in the land of Judah. Regarding Sheshbazzar, he was appointed governor of Judah by the Persian King
King
Cyrus in the year 538 BCE, and was given gold and told to return to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to rebuild the Temple. According to a letter from Tattenai (the governor of the province Beyond the River) to King Darius I, Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
started the Temple, but it lay under construction for a long time. It seems as though Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
picked up construction shortly afterwards, in the 2nd year of Darius' rule (August 29, 520 BCE) (see Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in Haggai). This is a contradiction, however, as Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
was said in Zechariah 4:9 to have laid the foundations of the new Temple, while Tattenai's letter to Darius says that Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
laid the foundations of the Temple ( Ezra
Ezra
5:16).[25] According to the Letter written by King
King
Darius I
Darius I
recorded in the Book of Ezra: "the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar carried away from the temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and brought to Babylon, are to be returned; they are all to be taken back to the temple in Jerusalem, and restored each to its place in the house of God". (Ezr. 6:5) The final detail in the book of Ezra
Ezra
regarding Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is a date for the completion of the second Temple. According to the Book of Ezra, "the house was completed on the third day of the month of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of King
King
Darius." In this passage, the word "house" refers to the second Temple. Nehemiah[edit] The reference to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the Book of Nehemiah
Nehemiah
is rather brief. The author of the Book of Nehemiah
Nehemiah
only refers to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in passing when the author states that: "These are the priests and the Levites which came back with Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
and with Jeshua" (Neh. 12:1). The Book of Nehemiah
Nehemiah
provides no new information regarding Zerubbabel. 1st Chronicles[edit] The mention of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
only states Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and his lineage and descendants. This passage states: "The sons of Pedaiah: Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and Shimei. The sons of Zerubbabel: Meshullam and Hannaniah; they had a sister Shelomith. There were five others: Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah, and Jushab-hesed" (1 Chronicles 3:19). Unlike the passages in Nehemiah, Haggai, and Ezra, 1 Chronicles appears to state that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is not the son of Shealtiel, but rather the son of Pedaiah. For a further explanation of this contradiction please see the section on Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and his family. Son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
or Pedaiah[edit]

Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
lists Shealtiel
Shealtiel
as the second son of King
King
Jeconiah (1Chronicles 3:17). The Neo-Babylonian King
King
Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II exiled to Babylon
Babylon
Joconiah and Jeconiah's uncle King
King
Zedekiah
Zedekiah
the last king of Judah and killed Zedekiah
Zedekiah
there. Potentially, Shealtiel
Shealtiel
became the legal heir to the throne, if the Davidic monarchy were restored. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
has conflicting texts regarding whether Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is the son of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
or of Pedaiah. Several texts (that are thought to be more-or-less contemporaneous) explicitly call " Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
the son of Shealtiel" ( Ezra
Ezra
3:2,8;5:2, Nehemiah
Nehemiah
12:1, Haggai
Haggai
1:1,12,14). The Seder Olam Zutta
Seder Olam Zutta
also supports that position. 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
3:17–19 makes Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
a nephew of Shealtiel: King
King
Jeconiah
Jeconiah
is the father of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
and Pedaiah, then Pedaiah
Pedaiah
is the father of Zerubbabel. The text which identifies Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
as a son of Pedaiah
Pedaiah
could be a scribal error. It occurs in a part of the text where the Hebrew
Hebrew
seems discongruent and possibly garbled ( 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
3:16–21).[26] The expected mention of Shealtiel
Shealtiel
being a father seems accidentally omitted, and thus his children became confused with Pedaiah's. There may be other problems with these verses as well. In any case, those texts that call Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
"son of Shealtiel" have a context that is overtly political and seems to emphasize Zerubbabel's potential royal claim to the throne of the Davidic Dynasty by being Shealtiel's successor. Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is understood as the legal successor of Shealtiel, with Zerubbabel's title paralleling the High Priest Jeshua's title, "son of Jozadak", that emphasizes Joshua's rightful claim to the dynasty of high priests, descending from Aaron. Therefore, with one descending from David and the other from Aaron, these two officials have the divine authority to rebuild the Temple. Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the New Testament[edit] Main article: Genealogy of Jesus
Genealogy of Jesus
§  Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
son of Shealtiel In the New Testament, the name Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
appears in both versions of the genealogy of Jesus.

In Matthew's genealogy from Solomon: " Jechoniah
Jechoniah
was the father of Shealtiel, and Shealtiel
Shealtiel
the father of Zerubbabel, and Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
the father of Abiud". (Matthew 1:12–13), In Luke's genealogy from Nathan (son of David) there is also a " Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
son of Salatiel" (different spelling from Matthew), but this Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is grandson of Neri, not Jeconiah, and his son is Rhesa
Rhesa
not Abiud. (Luke 3:27).

These genealogies do not match the genealogy presented in 1 Chronicles; various explanations have been suggested. Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in Apocrypha[edit] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is mentioned in both the books of Sirach
Sirach
and 1 Esdras. Sirach[edit] "How shall we magnify Zerubbabel? He was like a signet ring on the right hand" ( Sirach
Sirach
49:13) Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is listed alongside Jeshua (Joshua) son of Jozadak and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
as a leader of the restoration of the Temple. Notably, Ezra is missing from this honor. This portion of the text of Sirach
Sirach
is a list and brief description of the famous rulers, prophets, and ancestors of the kingdom of Judah (beginning in chapter 44). 1st Esdras[edit] 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
3–4 tells the story of a speech-writing competition between three bodyguards of Darius I, in which the winner would receive honor and riches from the King. Scholars have long debated the source of the competition and the Praise of Truth. Cook says that the competition story could be either “a secondary insertion or part of the original compilation.[27]:5 The argument for wine conflicts with Proverbs xxiii.29–35 and Sirach.xxxi.25–30. Cook mentions other views of the Praise of Truth: “may be a specimen of Palestinian wisdom (Zunz),and although Volz (1493) thinks it shows contact with Alexandrian religious philosophy, Torrey (46 seq.) fails to find anything ' hellenistic ' or suggestive of the influence of Greek literature or philosophy”.[27]:5 Torrey (1910) disagrees with German critics: "But if any student of the Greek Bible will look closely at the idiom of these two chapters, he will find it precisely the same which elsewhere results from a close rendering of a Hebrew
Hebrew
or Aramaic original. … All those who are familiar with Semitic modes of thought and literary forms will recognize here a characteristic Semitic product".[28] Dancy (2001) supports Torrey “And the praise of truth is clearly an insertion (4.34–41). It differs totally from the other three in being not a courtly speech but a lofty hymn. In particular, Egyption Ma’at and Persian Arsha were deities of order, representing both truth and (as here) justice. The hymn is unlikely to be Jewish in origin, otherwise the praise would have been of Wisdom, but its elevated tone clearly appealed to the Jewish editor.”[29] The first two spoke about the strength of wine and the strength of kings, respectively, but the winner was the third bodyguard, who spoke about the strength of women and truth: "If she smiles at him, he laughs; if she loses her temper with him, he flatters her so that she may be reconciled with him. Gentlemen, why are not women strong, since they do such things?" (1 Esd 4:31–32). This speaker is told (in parentheses) to be Zerubbabel, but this detail was likely tacked onto a secular, Hellenized
Hellenized
tale about the power of wine, kings, truth, and women.[27]:29 The author of 1 Esdras might have done so to glorify the power of Zerubbabel, the description of which is unparalleled in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Haggai, as the aforementioned books all discuss the power of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in accordance to the power of the high priest Joshua. After Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
wins the competition, he is given sanction to rebuild the Temple and return the sacred Temple vessels that Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II had preserved after the conquest of Babylon. It is also probable that the author of 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
included this reference to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
to alleviate any confusion about the difference between Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and Sheshbazzar
Sheshbazzar
that was apparent in the original book of Ezra.[30] The account of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
is almost identical to the account of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in the Book of Ezra, included in the Kethuvim. This is because many scholars believe that 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
is a Greek version of the Book of Ezra. However, there are a few details that appear in 1 Esdras and not in the Book of Ezra. The first discrepancy is that 1 Esdras refers to Zerubbabel's son as Joakim (1 Esd. 5:5). However, this is not one of the sons included in the genealogy included in 1 Chronicles and the Book of Ezra
Ezra
makes no mention of Zerubbabel's son. The second discrepancy is that the author of 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
claims that it was " Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
who spoke wise words before King
King
Darius of Persia" (1 Esd. 5:6). However, there is no passage similar to this in the Book of Ezra. Finally 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
mentions a person called Sanabassar as the Governor of Judah and that it was he who laid the foundation for the first temple (1 Esd. 6:18–20). Sanabassar may refer to Shashbazar. However, according to the Book of Ezra, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is the governor of Judah and he laid the foundation for the Temple. He was given sanction to rebuild the Temple and return the sacred Temple vessels that Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II had preserved after the conquest of Babylon. Zorobabel[31] and the Darius contest in other texts[edit] Alcuin Blamires[32]:50–58 has found five authors who tell the tale of a contest to identify what is the strongest thing. According to Blamires[32]:59 these tales represent “the nearest discoverable counterpart to Theophrastus/Jerome’s influence on medieval misogyny.” In chronological order they are

Praise of Truth
Truth
by Phillips Galle after Gerard Groenning 1638.

1 Esdras
1 Esdras
(cited as Vulgate or 3 Esdras by Blamires) Josephus
Josephus
c. 94 Antiquities of the Jews[33] Nicholas Bozon c. 1320 Contes moralisés[34] Jean Le Fèvre de Ressons (1320–1380) Livre de Leesce[35] John Gower
John Gower
1390 Confessio Amantis
Confessio Amantis
VII. lines 1802–1975 Lope De Vega
Lope De Vega
c. 1638 Contra valor no hay desdicha[36] lines 452–495 Mary Collier 1730 The Three Wise Sentences[37]

Five versions pick truth as strongest after discussing the merits of women. Bozon’s omission of the “Esdras sequel on truth” was either deliberate or “not available in the account he is following.[32]:55 Le Fèvre “makes Zorobabel a fourth speaker, championing truth after the other three nominations have been aired by three preceding speakers”.[32]:55 Lope De Vega
Lope De Vega
also ignores truth. Walker observes that De Vega used several historical sources in addition to 1 Esdras.[38] Four versions (Esdras, Josephus, Gower and Collier) mention the courtesan Apame who took the crown of Darius in Esdras and Josephus
Josephus
(in Gower Apemen is courtesan of Cyrus). Collier follows Esdras fairly closely and “ends with a pious expression of the poet's submission to divine will:”.[39] The contest inspired six sixteenth century artists to create prints illustrating the four powers. Veldman has located works by Philips Galle, Johannes Wierix, Pieter Perret, Zacharias Dolendo, Nicolaus Knüpfer and Christoffel van Sichem. The last work dates from 1657. The disappearance of 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
from the Dutch bible “would certainly have contributed to the sudden decline in the riddle’s popularity”.[40] Many authors[41][42][43] consider “truth” to be the core of this story. Some modern critics[32] view “women” as the focus as they were often belittled in Biblical and medieval texts. Milton disagrees with Zorobabel and asserts that “truth and justice are all one”.[44] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in Freemasonry[edit] Though he is not mentioned in Craft Freemasonry, Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is considered to be of great importance to a number of Masonic bodies. Within the Holy Royal Arch, and Royal Arch Masonry
Royal Arch Masonry
he is considered to be a ruling principal.[45] Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in other texts[edit] He is the receiver of an apocalypse in the seventh century Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, also known as Sefer Zerubbabel.[46] This text contains a prophecy given to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
from God. It is very similar to the style of the prophecy given in 1 Enoch. The prophecy contains messianic imagery and Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
is told the future of the city of Jerusalem. He plays a large role in Sholem Asch's final work The Prophet.[47] He is announced as the Prince of Judah upon his return to the Holy Land. One of the firm and long-standing followers and friends of the Prophet Isaiah, and descendant of the Davidic Dynasty. External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Zerubbabel.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zorobabel.

Easton's Bible Dictionary: Zerubbabel Jewish Encyclopedia: Zerubbabel Loeb Family Tree: Zerubbabel

Notes[edit]

^ (Hebrew: זְרֻבָּבֶל‬, Modern Zərubavel, Tiberian Zerubaḇel)Ancient Greek: Ζοροβαβέλ, Zorobabel; Latin: Zorobabel

References[edit]

^ Haggai
Haggai
1:1 ^ a b Ezra ^ Janet E. Tollington, Tradition and Innovation in Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah 1–8 (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), 132. ^ John Kessler (28 February 2006). Michael Floyd; Robert D. Haak, eds. Prophets, Prophecy, and Prophetic Texts in Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism. A&C Black. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-567-02780-1.  ^ Michael H. Floyd and Robert D. Haak Eds. Prophets and Prophetic Texts In Second Temple
Second Temple
Jerusalem. (New York, T & T Clark International, 2006). 104. ^ Diana Edelman. The Origins of the 'Second' Temple: Persian Imperial Policy and the Rebuilding of Jerusalem. (Oakville, CT, Equinox Publishing Ltd, 2005). 2. ^ Edelman 6 ^ Reeves, John C. (2005). Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic: A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse
Apocalypse
Reader. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 1-58983-102-0.  ^ "Zerubbabel." Encyclopaedia Judaica online. 2nd ed. Macmillan Reference, Detroit, USA, 2007. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2010. ^ M. Patrick Graham, The "Chronicler's History": Ezra-Nehemiah, 1–2 Chronicles in Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) p.206 ^ Walter H. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period. (Sheffield, England Sheffield Academic Press 2000), pg 211. ^ Rose 216–217 ^ Rose 229 ^ John Kessler (28 February 2006). Michael Floyd; Robert D. Haak, eds. Prophets, Prophecy, and Prophetic Texts in Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism. A&C Black. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-567-02780-1.  ^ Rose 230 ^ Rose 231 ^ Rose 232 ^ Michael H. Floyd and Robert D. Haak, eds. Prophets and Prophetic Texts In Second Temple
Second Temple
Jerusalem. (New York, T & T Clark International, 2006). 116 ^ Floyd 119 ^ Rose 237 ^ Rose 241 ^ Rose 243 ^ a b Anthony R. Petterson, "The Shape of the Davidic Hope across the Book of the Twelve," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 35 (2010): 225–246. ^ Rose 248 ^ Geoffrey Wigoder, ed., "Sheshbazzar," Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible (G.G. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Publishing House Ltd.), http://www.answers.com/topic/sheshbazzar ^ "Zerubbabel", Jewish Encyclopedia 1908. ^ a b c S. A. Cook (1913). "1 Esdras: Introduction". In R. H. Charles. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English.  ^ Charles C. Torrey (1910). EZRA STUDIES. University of Chicago Press.  ^ John C. Dancy (2001). The Divine Drama: The Old Testament as Literature. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-71882-987-2.  ^ Tollington, 131–134. ^ Zorobabel is the name used in four texts ^ a b c d e Alcuin Blamires (1998). "2 The Formal Case: Origins, Procedures". The Case for Women
Women
in Medieval Culture. Oxford University Press. pp. 50–59. ISBN 978-0-19-818630-4.  ^ Josephus. "3.5". Antiquities of the Jews.  ^ Nicole Bozon. "54. De fortitudine miilieris". Contes moralisés. pp. 75–76.  ^ Jehan Le Fèvre. "Livre de Leësce line 65ff". Lamentations.  ^ Lope De Vega. "Contra Valor No Hay Desdicha". In Menéndez Pelayo, Marcelino. Obras de Lope de Vega, XIV: comedias mitológicas y comedias históricas de asunto extranjero. pp. 288–329.  ^ Mary Collier (1739). The Woman's Labour: an Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck: in Answer to His Late.  ^ Naomi R. Walker (April 1, 2014). "The Greek, the Roman, and the Persian King: Lope De Vega's Use of Historical Source Material for the Play Contra Valor No Hay Desdicha". Bulletin of Hispanic Studies.  ^ Bridget Keegan (1 October 2005). "Mysticisms and Mystifications: The Demands of Laboring-Class Religious Poetry". Criticism (47.4): 471–491.  ^ Ilja M. Veldman (1987). "Who Is the Strongest? The Riddle of Esdras in Netherlandish Art". Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art (17.4): 223–239. JSTOR 3780619.  ^ Samantha J. Rayner. Images of Kingship in Chaucer and His Ricardian Contemporaries. pp. 12–14.  ^ Gower gives full play to his ability as a moralizer in declaring somewhat ironically that the king is inferior to a woman, not to speak of truth. Masahiko Kanno. John Gower's View of Word and Rhetoric (PDF). p. 23.  ^ Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
argues that truth is the strongest force in the world and attributes truth to his God.Mark McEntire. An Apocryphal God: Beyond Divine Maturity. p. 64.  ^ For truth is properly no more than contemplation; and her utmost efficiency is but teaching: but justice in her very essence is all strength and activity; and hath a sword put into her hand, John Milton (1649). "Justice above the King". Eikonoklastes.  ^ Mackey, Albert G. M.D.: Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences, page 1040. McClure Publishing Co., 1917. ^ Strack, Hermann Leberecht; Gunter Stemberger (1992). Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash. Markus Bockmuehl (trans.). Fortress Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-8006-2524-2.  ^ Asch, Sholem (1955). The Prophet. Arthur Saul Super (trans.). G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 343. 

Zerubbabel House of David Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah

Preceded by Shealtiel Leader of the House of David Line lost

Preceded by Unknown Governor of Judah Unknown, possibly Meshullam

Preceded by Shealtiel Prince of Judah Succeeded by Meshullam

Matthew's Ancestry of Jesus – 11th ancestor from Jesus Succeeded by Abiud

Luke's Ancestry of Jesus – 20th ancestor from Jesus Succeeded by Rhesa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69725

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