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Four gifts given in Jerusalem 11. Firstborn animal · 12. Firstfruits 13. Burnt offering (Judaism) · 14. Parts of the thank offering and Nazirite's offering Ten gifts given (even) outside of Jerusalem 15. Heave offering 16. Heave offering of the Levite's tithe 17. Dough offering 18. First shearing of the sheep 19. Shoulder, cheeks and maw 20. Coins for redemption of the first born son · 21. Redemption of a donkey  · 22. Dedication of property to a priest  · 23. Field not redeemed in a Jubilee year · 24. The property of the foreigner with no heir.

Priestly Garments Priestly undergarments Priestly tunic Priestly turban · Priestly robe (Judaism) Ephod · Priestly breastplate · Priestly frontlet Urim and Thummim Priestly sash

Miscellaneous topics The Mitzvah of sanctifying the Kohen Kohanic disqualifications Holy anointing oil Kahen Aaron's rod Bat- Kohen
Kohen
(daughter of a kohen) Sons of Zadok Contact by a kohen with a dead body 13 Kohanic cities

v t e

Zadok
Zadok
(Hebrew: צדוק‬ Tsadoq, meaning "Righteous") or Zadoq is a legendary priest, said to be descended from Eleazar
Eleazar
the son of Aaron (1 Chron 6:4-8).[1] He aided King David
David
during the revolt of his son Absalom
Absalom
and was subsequently instrumental in bringing King Solomon
King Solomon
to the throne. After Solomon's building of The First Temple
The First Temple
in Jerusalem, Zadok
Zadok
was the first High Priest to serve there. The prophet Ezekiel
Ezekiel
extols the sons of Zadok
Zadok
as staunch opponents of paganism during the era of pagan worship and indicates their birthright to unique duties and privileges in the future temple ( Ezekiel
Ezekiel
44:15, 43:19).

Contents

1 Hebrew Bible

1.1 Anointing
Anointing
Solomon

2 Dead Sea Scrolls 3 In rabbinical literature

3.1 Phineas/ Ithamar controversy 3.2 Priesthood transition

4 The Zadokite dynasty

4.1 History of Zadokides

5 Other theories about Zadok 6 Other Zadoks 7 See also 8 References

Hebrew Bible[edit] The Bible states that Zadok
Zadok
was a patrilineal descendant of Eleazar the son of Aaron
Aaron
the high priest.( 2 Samuel
2 Samuel
8:17; 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
24:3) The lineage of Zadok
Zadok
is presented in the genealogy of Ezra
Ezra
(his descendant) as being of ninth generation of direct patrilineal descent from Phineas the son of Eleazar; Ezra
Ezra
7:1, see 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
5:30 where he is placed ninth in descent from Phineas.

...Zadok, The son of Ahitub, son of Amaryah, son of Azaryah, son of Mirayoth, son of Zerachyah, son of Uzzi, son of Bukki, son of Avishua, son of Phineas —  Ezra
Ezra
7:1-4

In chronological order, Zadok
Zadok
is first mentioned as coming to support David
David
at Hebron.[2] During the rebellion of Absalom, Zadok
Zadok
is mentioned, as he and the Levites wished to accompany the fleeing David and bring along the Ark of the Covenant, but the king instructed them to remain at Jerusalem, where they could do him better service,[3] so that it actually happened that Ahimaaz, the son of Zadok, along with Jonathan, the son of Abiathar, brought the fleeing king a life saving message.[4] In all these passages Zadok
Zadok
is mentioned in precedence to Abiathar.[citation needed] Both Zadok
Zadok
and Abiathar were functioning in tandem as high priests at the time of David's hasty exit from Jerusalem. But, when King David sought advice from the Urim and Thummim
Urim and Thummim
by way of Abiathar a divine response was not given, leading to his dismissal from high-priesthood[citation needed]. Subsequently, when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar sided with him, leading king Solomon
Solomon
(David's son) to expel him from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and reinforce the sole high-priesthood of Zadok, who, along with Nathan the Prophet, supported King Solomon's accession to throne.[5] Anointing
Anointing
Solomon[edit]

The Anointing
Anointing
of Solomon
Solomon
by Cornelis de Vos. According to 1 Kings 1:39, Zadok
Zadok
anointed Solomon
Solomon
as king.

According to 1 Kings 1:39, Zadok
Zadok
officiated at the anointing ceremony of Solomon
Solomon
as king. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
records how before his death, Aaron
Aaron
was accompanied by his brother Moses
Moses
and his sons Elazar
Elazar
and Ithamar. Upon entry to the cave where he was to die, Aaron
Aaron
saw his brother Moses
Moses
dress his elder son Elazer with the clothes of the high priesthood, as initiation to high priesthood. Jewish commentaries on the Bible say that this initiation ceremony served as the catalyst for the stipulation that all future candidates of high priesthood be patrilineal descendants of Elazar
Elazar
the elder son of Aaron
Aaron
and not Ithamar, the younger son. Similarly, the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
relates how, at the time Phineas son of Eleazar
Eleazar
appeased God's anger, he merited the divine blessing of God:

Phineas the son of Eleazar
Eleazar
the son of Aaron
Aaron
the priest..Behold I give to him my covenant of peace, and will be his, and his progeny after him, (a) covenant of everlasting priesthood in turn of his zealousness for his God, and he atoned for the sons of Israel —  Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
25:13

In addition, The Tanakh
Tanakh
(i.e., Hebrew Bible) records

And you Moses
Moses
bring forward your brother Aaron, and his sons, from among the children of Israel
Israel
to serve as priests to Me - Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, ELAZAR, and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron. . . —  Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus
28:01

Dead Sea Scrolls[edit] The Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
portray a central role for "the sons of Zadok
Zadok
the Priest" within the community; the "Teacher of Righteousness" (Moreh Zedek) named as founder may point to a Zadokite.[citation needed] while the phrase "To be as one in following the Law and (sharing) wealth and reconcilling (based on) the mouth of the sons of Tzadok the keepers of the covenant" from the Community Rule document[citation needed] suggest that the leaders of the community were sons of Zadok. In rabbinical literature[edit] Main article: Chazal Phineas/ Ithamar controversy[edit] Rabbinical commentators explain that the continuity of high priesthood is put forth to the descendants of Phineas from this noted verse.[6] According to some rabbinical commentators[who?] Phineas sinned due to his not availing his servitude of Torah instruction to the masses at the time leading up to the Battle of Gibeah. In addition, he also failed to address the needs of relieving Jephthah
Jephthah
of his vow. As consequence, the high priesthood was taken from him and given (temporarily, see next section) to the offspring of Ithamar, essentially Eli and his sons. Priesthood transition[edit] Upon the sin of Eli's sons, Hophni and Phinehas, it was prophesied that the high priesthood would be returned to the sons of Eleazar:

And I will raise up myself a reliable priest who acts with my heart, and with my soul he will do, and I will build him a reliable household, and he will go before my Anointed for all of days — 1 Book of Samuel
Book of Samuel
2:35

A number of scholars indicate that Zadok
Zadok
was the subject of the prophecy of Elkanah when Zadok, said to be of the progeny of Eleazar, was ultimately appointed as high priest.[7][8] Zadok, as a patrilineal descendant of Phinehas
Phinehas
(son of Elazar) assumed the high priesthood. His sons were Ahimaaz
Ahimaaz
and Azariah followed by his descendants who held the high priesthood up to the destruction of The First Temple and, following the building of the second temple, resumed the high priesthood, as per Joshua the High Priest
Joshua the High Priest
(along with Ezra) being of Zadokite lineage. The attempt to trace his genealogy back to Eleazar, the third son of Aaron, as opposed to Abiathar, his contemporary and colleague, who was regarded as a descendant of Eli and considered a member of the house of Ithamar, was first made by the Chronicler (I Chronicles 5:30-34 [A. V. vi. 4-8]; comp. 6:35-38 [A. V. 6:50-53]), thus assuring the preeminence of the Zadokites over the descendants of Eli. In the beginning of his career he was associated with Abiathar (2 Samuel 20:25) and with his son (ib. 8:17; I Chron. 24:3, 6, 31). The hypothesis has accordingly been advanced that Zadok
Zadok
officiated in the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
at Gibeon (I Chron. 16:39; comp. I Kings 3:4), while the sons of Eli were stationed as high priests at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or, more probably, at Shiloh (compare Keil on I Kings 1:8) Such a division of functions is very doubtful, however; and it is more plausible to suppose that Zadok
Zadok
gradually won equality of rank with the sons of Eli by his good fortune in gaining the favor of David.[citation needed] According to the Chronicler, a certain Zadok, as a young man, had been one of those who joined David
David
at Hebron
Hebron
and helped him win the crown of all Israel, his house then including twenty-two captains; (I Chron 12:29) and Josephus
Josephus
expressly identifies this Zadok
Zadok
with the high priest of the same name (Antiquities of the Jews 7:2, § 2). According to the Masoretic
Masoretic
Hebrew text, David
David
addressed the priest with the words "ha- Kohen
Kohen
ha-ro'eh attah," ("You are the seer-priest") (II Sam. 15:27) and the Vulgate consequently regards Zadok
Zadok
as a seer, although this interpretation is regarded by many scholars as incorrect. These two difficult words are emended by Wellhausen to "ha- Kohen
Kohen
ha-Rosh Atta" ("You are the chief priest"), thus implying the promise of the high-priesthood to him. On the suppression of the Absolom rebellion, the king sent Zadok
Zadok
and Abiathar to the elders of Judah, urging them to hasten to bring the monarch back (ib. 19:12) Zadok
Zadok
again manifested his loyalty to the next king when he espoused the cause of Solomon
Solomon
against Adonijah, (I Kings 1:8 et seq.) and in his gratitude Solomon
Solomon
appointed him sole high priest (ib. ii. 35). In his account of this event Josephus
Josephus
states (Antiquities 8,1, § 3) that Zadok
Zadok
was a scion of the house of Phinehas, and consequently a descendant of Eleazar. The Zadokite dynasty[edit] Main article: Sons of Zadok History of Zadokides[edit] Historical data show that the high-priesthood remained in the progeny of the Zadokites from the time of Zadok
Zadok
up until the rise of the Hasmoneans, in about 167 BCE.[9] The descendants of Zadok
Zadok
increased in rank and influence, so that his son Azariah was one of the princes of Solomon,(1 Kings 4:2) and the Ahimaaz
Ahimaaz
who married a daughter of Solomon
Solomon
was probably another of Zadok's sons (1 Kings 4:15) Either Zadok
Zadok
himself or his grandson was the ruler of the Aaronite priests (1 Chronicles 27:17), and Jerusha, the mother of Jotham, is apparently termed the daughter of Zadok
Zadok
to emphasize her noble lineage, since her father may have been a descendant of the first Zadok
Zadok
(2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chronicles 27:1). The house of Zadok
Zadok
occupied the high priesthood through much of the Second Temple's time, from Jehoshua ben Jehozadak after the Exile, down to Simon II (Simon the Just, much praised in Ben Sira
Ben Sira
50), his eldest son Onias III, and his usurping second son Jason (or Jehoshua), who introduced the programme of Hellenization that eventually led to the Maccabean Revolt. Josephus
Josephus
records that Onias IV went to Leontopolis
Leontopolis
in the Egyptian nome of Heliopolis with a significant following, and for lending military support to the Ptolemaic Pharaoh was given land to build a temple to rival the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
(although Josephus
Josephus
also ascribes this to Onias III, while dating the project so as to suggest Onias II). It has been suggested that Onias or members of his Zadokite house may have also founded the community at Qumran. Other theories about Zadok[edit] Some have speculated that as Zadok
Zadok
does not appear in the text of Samuel until after the conquest of Jerusalem, he was actually a Jebusite priest co-opted into the Israelite
Israelite
state religion. Harvard Divinity School Professor Frank Moore Cross
Frank Moore Cross
refers to this theory as the " Jebusite Hypothesis," criticizes it extensively, but terms it the dominant view among contemporary scholars, in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel.[10] Further support for the Jebusite Hypothesis may be drawn from Zadok's participation in the conspiracy among native Jerusalemites (i.e., Jebusites), including Nathan and Bathsheba, that displaced the non-Jerusalemite senior heir to King David's throne, Adonijah, in favor of Bathsheba's son Solomon
Solomon
(1 Kings 2:27, 35, 39), thus highjacking the throne and succession for the party of the conspirators. Elsewhere in the Bible, the Jebusites are described in a manner that suggests that they worshipped the same God (El Elyon) as the Israelites, in the case of Melchizedek. Further support for this theory comes from the fact that other Jebusites or residents of pre- Israelite
Israelite
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
bore names invoking the principle or god Zedek (Tzedek) (see, for example, the names Melchizedek
Melchizedek
and Adonizedek). Under this theory the Aaronic lineage ascribed to Zadok
Zadok
is a later, anachronistic interpolation.[11] Other Zadoks[edit] Zadok
Zadok
or Tzadok, pupil of Antigonus and possibly founder of the Sadducees, construed his teaching, "Be not like the servants who serve their masters for the sake of the wages, but be rather like those who serve without thought of receiving wages" to mean that there is no afterlife. This gives way to the Sadducee
Sadducee
connection of Zadok
Zadok
the pupil of Antigonus of Sokho. The popular founder of Reform Judaism, Abraham Geiger, was of the opinion that the Sadducee
Sadducee
("Tzadoki" in Mishnaic pronunciation) sect of Judaism drew their name from Zadok, with the leaders of the sect proposed as the sons of Zadok.[12] However, based on Chazalic sources, the origination of the Sadducee group initiated in tandem with the Boethusian group, with their founders, Zadok
Zadok
and Boethus, both being individual students of the Antigonus of Sokho, who preceded the Zugot era during the Second Temple period ( Avoth deRabbi Nathan
Avoth deRabbi Nathan
5:2). Chazalic literature took a dim view of both the Sadducees
Sadducees
and Boethusian groups not only due to their perceived carefree approach to keeping to written Torah and oral Torah law, but also due to their attempts to persuade common-folk to join their ranks ( Sifri
Sifri
to Deuteronomy)[13] Maimonides, in his treatise to Pirkei Avot, views the Sadducees
Sadducees
as Gonvei Da'at ("stealers of knowledge") of the greater Jewish nation and of intentionally negating the Chazalic interpretation of Torah (Torah Shebal Peh Rambam to Avoth chap. 2). Likewise, in his Mishneh Torah treatise the Rambam defines the Sadducees
Sadducees
as "Harming Israel
Israel
and causing the nation to stray from following God" (Hilchoth Avodah Zarah 10:2). Considering the lack of Chazalic documentary indicating a connection between Zadok
Zadok
the first high priest and Zadok
Zadok
the student of Antignos of Sokho, along with the 13 plus generations between the two Zadok's, Rabbinic figures tend to put a damper on that association[citation needed]. Additional aspects disproving that association include a Chazalic mention that the Sadducee
Sadducee
and Boethusian groups favored using vessels of gold and silver whereas the common vessel usage of priests, to negate transmission of impurity, were typically of stone. A Rabbi Zadok is also mentioned as saved in Talmud
Talmud
(Bavli Gittin 56B) by Yohanan ben Zakkai, when he makes his deal with Vespasian. This Zadok
Zadok
is part of the Tannaim teachers that assembled the Mishnah, or Oral Torah
Oral Torah
ultimately forming the Talmud. This Zadok
Zadok
is listed as Second Generation of five in the Tannaim teacher group, ultimately responsible for the Mishnah
Mishnah
used today compiled by Judah I, or Judah the Prince. See also[edit]

Zadok the Priest (coronation anthem by George Frideric Handel) List of High Priests of Israel

References[edit]

^ See section below Other theories for a different view. ^ and lists the ministers of his fathers house at 22 persons -1 Chr. 12:24-29 ^ (II Sam. xv. 24-29; comp. 35 ^ (ib. xvii. 21) ^ (1 Kings 2:27, 35; 1 Chr. 29:22) ^ Maggid Meisharim (of Rabbi Yosef Karo) p. 55b, Rashi
Rashi
to Talmud tractate Zvachim p. 101b ^ See "Torath HaKohanim", Mnachem Risikoff, Minor Chap. 200 ^ Robert Alter, The David
David
Story (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 15. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0021_0_21361.html ^ Scholars supporting the Jebusite Hypothesis include H. H. Rowley, " Zadok
Zadok
and Nehushtan", Journal of Biblical Literature 58:113-41 (1939); H. H. Rowley, " Melchizedek
Melchizedek
and Zadok," Festschrift Alfred Bertholet, pp. 461-72 (1950); Rainer Albertz, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period 1:295 (1994); Jones, The Nathan Narratives 20-25, 40-42, 131-35. ^ H. H. Rowley, " Zadok
Zadok
and Nehushtan", Journal of Biblical Literature 58:113-41 (1939), states that the Bible provides two different genealogies for Zadok
Zadok
(2 Sam 8:17 and 1 Chron 24:3; see also 1 Chron 5:30-34, 6:35-38), "but of these one is almost certainly due to textual corruption, and the other to the pious fabrication of a later age." Rowley follows this statement with an analysis too long to summarize here. ^ Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel, pp. 20 &c ^ Sifri
Sifri
to Deuteronomy p. 233 (Torah Ve'Hamitzvah edition)

Israelite
Israelite
religious titles

Preceded by Abiathar High Priest of Israel Succeeded by Ahimaaz

v t e

High Priests of Israel
Israel
(List)

Tabernacle

Aaron Eleazar Phinehas Abishua Bukki Uzzi Eli Ahitub Ahijah Ahimelech Abiathar

First Temple

Zadok Ahimaaz Azariah I Johanan Jehoiarib Jehoshaphat Jehoiada Pediah Zedekiah Azariah II Hilkiah

Post-exilic

Joshua Joiakim Eliashib Joiada Johanan Jaddua Onias I Simon I Simeon the Just Eleazar Manasseh Onias II Simon II Onias III Jason Menelaus Onias IV Alcimus

Hasmonean dynasty

Jonathan Apphus Simon Thassi Hyrcanus I Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus

Herodians to the Jewish Revolt

Ananelus Aristobulus III Joshua ben Fabus Simon ben Boethus Joazar ben Boethus Eleazar
Eleazar
ben Boethus Annas Caiaphas Theophilus ben Ananus Simon Cantatheras ben Boethus Elioneus ben Simon Cantatheras Ananias ben Nebedeus Joseph Cabi ben Simon Ananus ben Ananus Joshua ben Damneus Joshua ben Gamaliel Mattathias ben Theophilus Phannia

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