HOME
The Info List - Zadar





Zadar
Zadar
(Croatian: [zâdar] ( listen); see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city. It is situated on the Adriatic Sea, at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari
Ravni Kotari
region. Zadar
Zadar
serves as the seat of Zadar County
Zadar County
and the wider northern Dalmatian region. The city proper covers 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi) with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the fifth-largest city in the nation. The area of present-day Zadar
Zadar
traces its earliest evidence of human life from the late Stone Age, while numerous settlements have been dated as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, the area was inhabited by an ancient Mediterranean
Mediterranean
people of a pre-Indo-European culture. Zadar
Zadar
traces its origin to its 9th-century BC founding as a settlement of the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians
Liburnians
known as Iader. In 59 BC it was renamed Iadera when it became a Roman municipium, and in 48 BC, a Roman colonia. It was during the Roman rule that Zadar acquired the characteristics of a traditional Ancient Roman city with a regular road network, a public square (forum), and an elevated capitolium with a temple. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 and the destruction of Salona
Salona
by the Avars and Croats
Croats
in 614, Zadar
Zadar
became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia. In the beginning of the 9th century, Zadar
Zadar
came under short Frankish rule, and was returned to the Byzantines by the Pax Nicephori in 812. The first Croatian rulers gained control over the city in 10th century. In 1202, Zadar
Zadar
was conquered and burned by the Republic of Venice, which was helped by the Crusaders. Croats
Croats
again regained control over the city in 1358, when it was given to the Croatian-Hungarian king Louis I. In 1409, king Ladislaus I sold Zadar
Zadar
to the Venetians. When the Turks conquered the Zadar
Zadar
hinterland at the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important stronghold, ensuring Venetian trade in the Adriatic, the administrative center of the Venetian territories in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and a cultural center. During this time, many famous Croatian writers, such as Petar Zoranić, Brne Krnarutić, Juraj Baraković
Juraj Baraković
and Šime Budinić, wrote in the Croatian language. After the fall of Venice
Venice
in 1797, Zadar
Zadar
came under the Austrian rule until 1918, except for the period of short-term French rule (1805–1813), still remaining the capital of Dalmatia. During the French rule, the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin, was published in Zadar
Zadar
(1806–1810). During the 19th century, Zadar
Zadar
was a center of the Croatian movement for cultural and national revival. With the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo Zadar
Zadar
fell under Italian rule, and during World War II
World War II
was heavily destroyed by the Allies. After the defeat of the Axis Powers, it was ceded to Croatia
Croatia
whose armed forces defended it in October 1991 from the Serb forces who aimed to capture it. Today, Zadar
Zadar
is a historical center of Dalmatia, Zadar
Zadar
County's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, educational, and transportation centre. Zadar
Zadar
is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar. Because of its rich heritage, Zadar
Zadar
is today one of the most popular Croatian tourist destinations, named "entertainment center of the Adriatic" by The Times
The Times
and "Croatia's new capital of cool" by the Guardian.[1] In 2016, Zadar
Zadar
was named "Best European Destination" by the Belgian portal Europe's Best Destinations.com after a three-week period of online voting and more than 288,000 cast votes.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology and historical names 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Antiquity 3.3 Early Middle Ages 3.4 High Middle Ages 3.5 15th to 18th centuries 3.6 19th and 20th centuries 3.7 Italy
Italy
(1918–1947) 3.8 World War II 3.9 SFR Yugoslavia (1947–1991) 3.10 Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–1995)

4 Main sights

4.1 Architecture 4.2 Culture

5 City government

5.1 Mayoral election

6 Population 7 Economy 8 Education

8.1 University

9 Science 10 Transportation 11 Sports 12 International relations 13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

Etymology and historical names[edit] The name of the city of Zadar
Zadar
emerged as Iadera and Iader in ancient times, but the origin of the name is older. It was most probably related to a hydrographical term, coined by an ancient Mediterranean people and their Pre-Indo-European language. They transmitted it to later settlers, the Liburnians. The name of the Liburnian settlement was first mentioned by a Greek inscription from Pharos (Stari grad) on the island of Hvar
Hvar
in 384 BC, where the citizens of Zadar
Zadar
were noted as Ίαδασινοί (Iadasinoi). According to the Greek source Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
the city was Ίδασσα (Idassa), probably a Greek transcription of the original Liburnian expression. During Antiquity the name was often recorded in sources in Latin in two forms: Iader in the inscriptions and in the writings of classic writers, Iadera predominantly among the late Antiquity writers, while usual ethnonyms were Iadestines and Iadertines. The accent was on the first syllable in both Iader and Iadera forms, which influenced the early- Medieval
Medieval
Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
forms Jadra, Jadera and Jadertina, where the accent kept its original place. In the Dalmatian language, Jadra (Jadera) was pronounced Zadra (Zadera), due to the phonetic transformation of Ja- to Za-.[needs IPA] That change was also reflected in the Croatian name Zadar
Zadar
(recorded as Zader in the 12th century [3]), developed from masculine Zadъrъ. An ethnonym graphic Jaderani from the legend of Saint Chrysogonus
Saint Chrysogonus
in the 9th century, was identical to the initial old-Slavic form Zadъrane, or Renaissance
Renaissance
Croatian Zadrani. The Dalmatian names Jadra, Jadera were transferred to other languages; in the Venetian language
Venetian language
Jatara (hyper-urbanism in the 9th century) and Zara, Tuscan Giara, Latin Diadora ( Constantine VII
Constantine VII
in De Administrando Imperio, 10th century, probably an error in the transcription of di iadora), Old French
Old French
Jadres (Geoffroy de Villehardouin in the chronicles of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1202), Arabic Jādhara (جاذَرة) and Jādara (جادَرة) (Al-Idrisi, 12th century), Iadora (Guido, 12th century), Catalan Jazara, Jara, Sarra (14th century) and the others.[4] Jadera became Zara when it fell under the authority of the Republic of Venice
Venice
in the 15th century. Zara was later used by the Austrian Empire in the 19th century, but it was provisionally changed to Zadar/Zara from 1910 to 1920; from 1920[5] to 1947[6] the city became part of Italy
Italy
as Zara, and finally was named Zadar
Zadar
in 1947. Geography[edit] Zadar
Zadar
faces the islands of Ugljan
Ugljan
and Pašman, from which it is separated by the narrow Zadar
Zadar
Strait. The promontory on which the old city stands used to be separated from the mainland by a deep moat which has since been filled. The harbor, to the north-east of the town, is safe and spacious. Climate[edit] Zadar
Zadar
has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa), since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. Zadar
Zadar
has mild, wet winters and very warm, humid summers. Average annual rainfall is in excess of 917 mm (36.10 in). July and August are the hottest months, with an average high temperature around 29–30 °C (84–86 °F). The highest temperature ever was 36.3 °C (97 °F) on 4 August 2017. Temperatures can consistently reach over 30 °C (86 °F) during the summer months, but during spring and autumn may also reach 30 °C almost every year. Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are rare, and are not maintained for more than a few days. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature around 7.7 °C (46 °F). On 23 January 1963 was recorded the lowest temperature ever in Zadar, −9.1 °C (15.6 °F). Through July and August temperature has never dropped below 10 °C (50 °F). October and November are the wettest months, with a total precipitation of about 114 and 119 mm (4.49 and 4.69 in), respectively. July is the driest month, with a total precipitation of around 35 mm (1.38 in). Winter is the wettest season, however it can rain in Zadar
Zadar
at any time of the year. Snow is exceedingly rare, but it may fall in December, January, February and much more rarely in March. On average Zadar
Zadar
has 1.4 days of snow a year, but it is more likely that the snow does not fall. Also the sea temperature is from 10 °C (50 °F) in February to 25 °C (77 °F) in July and August, but is possible to swim from May until October, sometimes even by November. Sometimes in February the sea temperature can drop to only 7 °C (45 °F) and in July exceed 29 °C (84 °F).

Climate data for Zadar
Zadar
(Puntamika Borik) 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2017

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.4 (63.3) 21.2 (70.2) 22.5 (72.5) 25.8 (78.4) 32.0 (89.6) 34.6 (94.3) 36.1 (97) 36.3 (97.3) 32.0 (89.6) 27.2 (81) 25.0 (77) 18.7 (65.7) 36.3 (97.3)

Average high °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 11.3 (52.3) 13.6 (56.5) 16.6 (61.9) 21.3 (70.3) 25.2 (77.4) 28.2 (82.8) 28.2 (82.8) 24.3 (75.7) 20.0 (68) 15.1 (59.2) 11.9 (53.4) 18.9 (66)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 7.5 (45.5) 9.7 (49.5) 12.9 (55.2) 17.5 (63.5) 21.3 (70.3) 23.9 (75) 23.7 (74.7) 19.9 (67.8) 15.9 (60.6) 11.4 (52.5) 8.5 (47.3) 14.9 (58.8)

Average low °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 4.3 (39.7) 6.3 (43.3) 9.3 (48.7) 13.5 (56.3) 17.0 (62.6) 19.3 (66.7) 19.3 (66.7) 16.0 (60.8) 12.5 (54.5) 8.3 (46.9) 5.5 (41.9) 11.3 (52.3)

Record low °C (°F) −9.1 (15.6) −6.4 (20.5) −6.8 (19.8) 0.5 (32.9) 3.4 (38.1) 8.2 (46.8) 12.7 (54.9) 11.5 (52.7) 8.0 (46.4) 2.3 (36.1) −1.8 (28.8) −6.5 (20.3) −9.1 (15.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.6 (2.858) 62.5 (2.461) 63.5 (2.5) 70.0 (2.756) 64.7 (2.547) 54.4 (2.142) 30.4 (1.197) 49.6 (1.953) 104.0 (4.094) 106.7 (4.201) 105.6 (4.157) 95.2 (3.748) 879.2 (34.614)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.0 8.5 8.9 10.4 9.5 8.2 5.3 5.9 8.7 9.8 11.2 10.4 106.8

Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.1

Average relative humidity (%) 72.4 70.0 71.2 72.7 73.8 71.2 67.2 69.3 73.4 73.8 73.5 72.8 71.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.7 146.9 186.0 207.0 275.9 303.0 350.3 322.4 246.0 182.9 123.0 108.5 2,566.6

Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service[7][8]

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

Liburnia
Liburnia
(9th century BC – 59 BC) Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(59 BC – 476) Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(476–800) Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(800–812) Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(812 – 10th century) Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(10th century – 1202) Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
(1202–1358) Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(1358–1409) Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
(1409–1797) Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(1797–1804) Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1804–1805) French Empire (1805–1813) Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1813–1918)  State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs (1918)  Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (1918–1920)  Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1920–1945)  Yugoslavia ( SR Croatia) (1945–1991)   Croatia
Croatia
(1991–present)

Prehistory[edit] The district of present-day Zadar
Zadar
has been populated since prehistoric times. The earliest evidence of human life comes from the Late Stone Age, while numerous settlements have been dated as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, the area was inhabited by an ancient Mediterranean
Mediterranean
people of a pre-Indo-European culture. They assimilated with the Indo-Europeans who settled between the 4th and 2nd millennium BC into a new ethnical unity, that of the Liburnians. Zadar
Zadar
was a Liburnian settlement, laid out in the 9th century BC, built on a small stone islet and embankments where the old city stands and tied to the mainland by the overflown narrow isthmus, which created a natural port in its northern strait.[9] Antiquity[edit] The Liburnians, an Illyrian tribe, were known as great sailors and merchants, but also had a reputation for piracy in the later years. By the 7th century BC, Zadar
Zadar
had become an important centre for their trading activities with the Phoenicians, Etruscans, Ancient Greeks and other Mediterranean
Mediterranean
peoples. Its population at that time is estimated at 2,000.[10] From the 9th to the 6th century there was certain cultural unity in the Adriatic Sea, with the general Liburninan seal, whose naval supremacy meant both political and economical authority through several centuries.[11] Due to its geographical position, Zadar developed into a main seat of the Liburnian thalassocracy and took a leading role in the Liburnian tetradekapolis, an organization of 14 communes.[12] The people of Zadar, Iadasinoi, were first mentioned in 384 BC as the allies of the natives of Hvar
Hvar
and the leaders of an eastern Adriatic coast coalition in the fight against the Greek colonizers. An expedition of 10,000 men in 300 ships sailed out from Zadar
Zadar
and laid siege to the Greek colony Pharos in the island of Hvar, but the Syracusan fleet of Dionysus was alerted and attacked the siege fleet. The naval victory went to the Greeks which allowed them relatively safer further colonization in the southern Adriatic.[13]

Zadar
Zadar
(Iader) and the other cities of the Liburnian tetradecapolis in the age of the Roman conquest

The archaeological remains have shown that the main centres of Liburnian territorial units or municipalities were already urbanized in the last centuries BC; before the Roman conquest, Zadar
Zadar
held a territory of more than 600 km2 (230 sq mi) in the 2nd century BC. In the middle of the 2nd century BC, the Romans began to gradually invade the region. Although being first Roman enemies in the Adriatic Sea, the Liburnians, mostly stood aside in more than 230 years of Roman wars with the Illyrians, to protect their naval and trade connections in the sea. In 59 BC Illyricum was assigned as a provincia (zone of responsibility) to Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Liburnian Iadera became a Roman municipium. The Liburnian naval force was dragged into the Roman civil war between Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Pompey
Pompey
in 49 BC, partially by force, partially because of the local interests of the participants, the Liburnian cities. Caesar was supported by the urban Liburnian centres, like Iader (Zadar), Aenona (Nin) and Curicum (Krk), while the city of Issa (Vis) and the rest of the Liburnians
Liburnians
gave their support to Pompey. In 49 BC near the island of Krk, the "Navy of Zadar", equipped by the fleets of a few Liburnian cities and supported by some Roman ships, lost an important naval battle against Pompey
Pompey
supporting the "Liburnian navy". The civil war was prolonged until the end of 48 BC, when Caesar rewarded his supporters in Liburnian Iader and Dalmatian Salona, by giving the status of the Roman colonies to their communities.[14] Thus the city was granted the title colonia Iulia Iader, after its founder, and in the next period some of the Roman colonists (mostly legionary veterans) settled there. The real establishment of the Roman province of Illyricum occurred not earlier than 33 BC and Octavian’s military campaign in Illyria and Liburnia, when the Liburnians
Liburnians
finally lost their naval independence and their galleys and sailors were incorporated into the Roman naval fleets.

The Roman forum remains in Zadar

From the early days of Roman rule, Zadar
Zadar
gained its Roman urban character and developed into one of the most flourishing centres on the eastern Adriatic coast, a state of affairs which lasted for several hundred years. The town was organised according to the typical Roman street system with a rectangular street plan, a forum, thermae, a sewage and water supply system that came from lake Vrana, by way of a 40 kilometres (25 miles) long aqueduct. It did not play a significant role in the Roman administration of Dalmatia, although the archaeological finds tell us about a significant growth of economy and culture. Christianity
Christianity
did not bypass the Roman province of Dalmatia. Already by the end of the 3rd century Zadar
Zadar
had its own bishop and founding of its Christian community took place;[15] a new religious centre was built north of the forum together with a basilica and a baptistery, as well as other ecclesiastical buildings. According to some estimates, in the 4th century it had probably around ten thousand citizens, including the population from its ager, the nearby islands and hinterland, an admixture of the indigenous Liburnians
Liburnians
and Roman colonists. Early Middle Ages[edit]

Defensive System of Zadar

Part of more than 3km long Zadar
Zadar
fortifications

Location Zadar
Zadar
County,  Croatia

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Type Cultural

Criteria iii, iv

Designated 2017 (41 Session)

Part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar

Reference no. 1533

Region Europe and North America

During the Migration Period
Migration Period
and the Barbarian invasions, Zadar stagnated. In 441 and 447 Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was ravaged by the Huns, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, in 481 Dalmatia
Dalmatia
became part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, which, besides Italy, already included the more northerly parts of Illyricum, i.e. Pannonia
Pannonia
and Noricum. In the 5th century, under the rule of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, Zadar became poor with many civic buildings ruined due to its advanced age. About the same time (6th century) it was hit by an earthquake, which destroyed entire complexes of monumental Roman architecture, whose parts would later serve as material for building houses. This caused a loss of population and created demographic changes in the city, then gradually repopulated by the inhabitants from its hinterland.[16] However, during six decades of Gothic rule, the Goths saved those old Roman Municipal institutions that were still in function, while religious life in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
even intensified in the last years, so that there was a need for the foundation of additional bishoprics.[17] In 536 the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Justinian the Great
Justinian the Great
started a military campaign to reconquer the territories of the former Western Empire (see Gothic War); and in 553 Zadar
Zadar
passed to the Byzantine Empire. In 568 Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was devastated by an Avar invasion; although further waves of attacks by Avar and Slav tribes kept up the pressure, it was the only city which survived due to its protective belt of inland plains. The Dalmatian capital Salona
Salona
was captured and destroyed in the 640s, so Zadar
Zadar
became the new seat of the Byzantine archonty of Dalmatia, territorially reduced to a few coastal cities with their agers and municipal lands at the coast and the islands nearby. The prior of Zadar
Zadar
had jurisdiction over all Byzantine Dalmatia, so Zadar enjoyed metropolitan status at the eastern Adriatic coast. At this time rebuilding began to take place in the city.

St. Donatus church, 9th century

At the beginning of the 9th century the Zadar
Zadar
bishop Donatus and the city duke Paul mediated in the dispute between the Holy Roman empire under Pepin and the Byzantine Empire. The Franks
Franks
held Zadar
Zadar
for a short time, but the city was returned to Byzantium by a decision of the 812 Treaty of Aachen.[18] Zadar's economy revolved around the sea, fishing and sea trade in the first centuries of the Middle Ages. Thanks to saved Antique ager, adjusted municipal structure and a new strategic position, it became the most important city between the Kvarner
Kvarner
islands and Kaštela
Kaštela
Bay. Byzantine Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was not territorially unified, but an alliance of city municipalities headed by Zadar, and the large degree of city autonomy allowed the development of Dalmatian cities as free communes. Forced to turn their attention seawards, the inhabitants of Zadar focused on shipping, and the city became a naval power to rival Venice. The citizens were Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
speakers, but from the 7th century the Croatian language
Croatian language
started to spread in the region, becoming predominant in the inland and the islands to the end of the 9th century.[19] The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Adriatic cities developed significantly during a period of peace from the last decades of the 9th to the middle of the 10th century. Especially favourable conditions for navigation in the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
occurred since the Saracen
Saracen
raids had finished. Also the adjustment of relations with the Croats
Croats
enabled Zadar
Zadar
merchants to trade with its rich agriculture hinterland[20] where the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
had formed, and trade and political links with Zadar
Zadar
began to develop. Croatian settlers began to arrive, becoming commonplace by the 10th century, occupying all city classes, as well as important posts, like those of prior, judge, priest and others.[citation needed] In 925, Tomislav, the Duke of Croatian Dalmatia, united Croatian Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Pannonia
Pannonia
establishing the Croatian Kingdom. He was also granted the position of protector of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(the cities) by the Byzantine Emperor.[citation needed] He thus politically united the Dalmatian cities with their hinterland.[citation needed] Following the dynastic struggle between the descendants of king Stjepan Držislav
Stjepan Držislav
after his death in 997, the city was besieged in 998 by the army of the Bulgarian emperor Samuel but managed to defend itself. High Middle Ages[edit] At the time of Zadar's medieval development, the city became a threat to Venice's ambitions, because of its strategic position at the centre of the eastern Adriatic coast. In 998 Zadar
Zadar
sought Venetian protection against the Neretvian pirates.[18][21] The Venetians were quick to fully exploit this opportunity: in 998 a fleet commanded by Doge Pietro Orseolo II, after having defeated pirates, landed in Korčula
Korčula
and Lastovo. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was taken by surprise and offered little serious resistance. Trogir
Trogir
was the exception and was subjected to Venetian rule only after a bloody struggle, whereas Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was forced to pay tribute.[18][22] Tribute previously paid by Zadar
Zadar
to Croatian kings, was redirected to Venice, a state of affairs which lasted for several years.

Coat of arms of Zadar

Zadar
Zadar
citizens started to work for the full independence of Zadar
Zadar
and from the 1030s the city was formally a vassal of the Byzantine Empire. The head of this movement was the mightiest Zadar
Zadar
patrician family - the Madi.[23] After negotiations with Byzantium, Zadar
Zadar
was attached to the Croatian state led by king Petar Krešimir IV in 1069. Later, after the death of king Dmitar Zvonimir
Dmitar Zvonimir
in 1089 and ensuing dynastic run-ins, in 1105 Zadar
Zadar
accepted the rule of the first Croato-Hungarian king, Coloman. In the meantime Venice
Venice
developed into a true trading force in the Adriatic and started attacks on Zadar. The city was repeatedly invaded by Venice
Venice
between 1111 and 1154 and then once more between 1160 and 1183, when it finally rebelled, appealing to the Pope and to the Croato-Hungarian throne for protection.

Siege
Siege
of the city in 1202

Zadar
Zadar
was especially devastated in 1202 after the Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo used the crusaders, on their Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
to Palestine, to lay siege to the city.[24] The crusaders were obliged to pay Venice for sea transport to Egypt. As they were not able to produce enough money, the Venetians used them to initiate the Siege
Siege
of Zadar, when the city was ransacked, demolished and robbed.[24] Emeric, king of Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary, condemned the crusade, because of an argument about the possible heresy committed by God's army in attacking a Christian city. Nonetheless, Zadar
Zadar
was devastated and captured, with the population escaped into the surrounding countryside. Pope Innocent III excommunicated the Venetians and crusaders involved in the siege.[24] Two years later (1204), under the leadership of the Croatian nobleman Domald from Šibenik, most of the refugees returned and liberated the city from what remained of the crusader force. In 1204 Domald was comes (duke) of Zadar, but the following year (1205) Venetian authority was re-established and a peace agreement signed with hard conditions for the citizens. The only profit which the Communal Council of Zadar
Zadar
derived from this was one third of the city's harbour taxes, probably insufficient even for the most indispensable communal needs.[25]

Chest of Saint Simeon
Chest of Saint Simeon
photographed around 1900

This did not break the spirit of the city, however. Its commerce was suffering due to a lack of autonomy under Venice, while it enjoyed considerable autonomy under the much more feudal Kingdom of Croatia-Hungary. A number of insurrections followed (1242–1243, 1320s, 1345–1346 - the latter resulted in a sixteen-month-long Venetian siege) which finally resulted in Zadar
Zadar
coming back under the crown of King Louis I of Croatia- Hungary
Hungary
under the Treaty of Zadar, in 1358. After the War of Chioggia
War of Chioggia
between Genoa and Venice, Chioggia concluded on 14 March 1381 an alliance with Zadar
Zadar
and Trogir
Trogir
against Venice, and finally Chioggia
Chioggia
became better protected by Venice
Venice
in 1412, because Šibenik
Šibenik
became in 1412 the seat of the main customs office and the seat of the salt consumers office with a monopoly on the salt trade in Chioggia
Chioggia
and on the whole Adriatic Sea. After the death of Louis, Zadar
Zadar
recognized the rule of king Sigismund, and after him, that of Ladislaus of Naples. During his reign Croatia- Hungary
Hungary
was enveloped in a bloody civil war. In 1409, Venice, seeing that Ladislaus was about to be defeated, and eager to exploit the situation despite its relative military weakness, offered to buy his "rights" on Dalmatia
Dalmatia
for a mere 100,000 ducats. Knowing he had lost the region in any case, Ladislaus accepted. Zadar
Zadar
was, thus sold back to the Venetians for a paltry sum. The population of Zadar
Zadar
during the Medieval
Medieval
period was predominantly Croatian, according to numerous archival documents,[26] and the Croatian language
Croatian language
was used in liturgy,[27] as shown by the writings of cardinal Boson, who followed Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III
en route to Venice
Venice
in 1177. When the papal ships took shelter in the harbour of Zadar, the inhabitants greeted the Pope by singing lauds and canticles in Croatian.[28][29] Even though interspersed by sieges and destruction, the time between the 11th and 14th centuries was the golden age of Zadar. Thanks to its political and trading achievements, and also to its skilled seamen, Zadar
Zadar
played an important role among the cities on the east coast of the Adriatic. This affected its appearance and culture: many churches, rich monasteries and palaces for powerful families were built, together with the Chest of Saint Simeon. One of the best examples of the culture and prosperity of Zadar
Zadar
at that time was the founding of the University of Zadar, built in 1396 by the Dominican Order
Dominican Order
(the oldest university in present-day Croatia). 15th to 18th centuries[edit]

The Adriatic in 1560, with Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Zadar

After the death of Louis I, Zadar
Zadar
came under the rule of Sigmund of Luxembourg and later Ladislaus of Naples, who, witnessing his loss of influence in Dalmatia, sold Zadar
Zadar
and his dynasty's rights to Dalmatia to Venice
Venice
for 100,000 ducats on 31 July 1409. Venice
Venice
therefore obtained control over Zadar
Zadar
without a fight, but was confronted by the resistance and tensions of important Zadar
Zadar
families. These attempts were met with persecution and confiscation. Zadar
Zadar
remained the administrative seat of Dalmatia, but this time under the rule of Venice, which expanded over the whole Dalmatia, except the Republic of Ragusa/Dubrovnik. During that time Giorgio da Sebenico, a renaissance sculptor and architect, famous for his work on the Cathedral of Šibenik, was born in Zadar. Other important people followed, such as Luciano and Francesco Laurana, known worldwide for their sculptures and buildings.

Zadar's "Kopnena vrata" (Landward Gate) with the Lion of Saint Mark, a symbol of the Republic of Venice, above it

The 16th and 17th centuries were noted in Zadar
Zadar
for Ottoman attacks. Ottomans captured the continental part of Zadar
Zadar
at the beginning of the 16th century and the city itself was all the time in the range of Turkish artillery. Due to that threat, the construction of a new system of castles and walls began. These defense systems changed the way the city looked. To make place for the pentagon castles many houses and churches were taken down, along with an entire suburb: Varoš of St. Martin. After the 40-year-long construction Zadar
Zadar
became the biggest fortified city in Dalmatia, empowered by a system of castles, bastions and canals filled with seawater. The city was supplied by the water from public city cisterns. During the complete makeover of Zadar, many new civic buildings were built, such as the City Lodge and City Guard on the Gospodski Square, several army barracks, but also some large new palaces. In contrast to the insecurity and Ottoman sieges and destruction, an important culture evolved midst the city walls. During the 16th and the 17th centuries the activity of the Croatian writers and poets became prolific (Jerolim Vidolić, Petar Zoranić, Brne Karnarutić, Juraj Baraković, Šime Budinić). Also noteworthy is the painter Andrea Meldolla[30] (c. 1510/1515–1563), nicknamed Andrea Schiavone. During the continuous Ottoman danger the population stagnated by a significant degree along with the economy. During the 16th and 17th centuries several large-scale epidemics of bubonic plague erupted in the city. After more than 150 years of Turkish threat Zadar
Zadar
was not only scarce in population, but also in material wealth. Venice
Venice
sent new colonists and, under the firm hand of archbishop Vicko Zmajević, the Arbanasi (Catholic Albanian refugees) settled in the city, forming a new suburb. Despite the shortage of money, the Teatro Nobile (Theater for Nobility) was built in 1783. It functioned for over 100 years. 19th and 20th centuries[edit]

Zadar
Zadar
waterfront in 1909. Gödöllő steamboat can be seen in the distance

In 1797 with the Treaty of Campo Formio, the Republic of Venice, including Zadar, came under the Austrian crown. In 1806 it was briefly given to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, until in 1809 it was added to the French Illyrian Provinces. In November 1813 an Austrian force blockaded the town with the assistance of two British Royal Navy frigates HMS Havannah and Weazle under the 3rd Earl of Cadogan. On 9 December the French garrison of Zadar
Zadar
capitulated, and by the end of the year all of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was brought back under the control of the Austrian Empire. After the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1815) until 1918, the town (bilingual name Zara - Zadar
Zadar
) remained part of the Austrian monarchy ( Austria
Austria
side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Dalmatia.[31] The Italian name was officially used before 1867. It remained also the capital of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
province (Kronland). Although during the first half of the 19th century the city population stagnated due to low natural increase, the city started to spread from the old center; citizens from the old city created the new suburb of Stanovi in the north.[32][33] During the second half of the 19th century, there was constant increase of population due to economic growth and immigration. Under the pressure of the population increase, the city continued to spread to Voštarnica and Arbanasi quarters, and the bridge in the city port was built. Except being the administrative center of the province, agriculture, industry of liqueurs and trade were developed, many brotherhoods were established, similar to the Central European trade guilds. The southern city walls were torn down, new coastal facilities were built and Zadar
Zadar
became an open port.[34] As the city developed economically, it developed culturally. A large number of printshops, new libraries, archives, and theatres sprung up. At the end of the 19th century there was also stronger industrial development, with 27 small or big factories before the World War I.[35]

5-kreuzer KK postal card cancelled bilingual ZARA-ZADAR and TRIEST-TRIESTE in 1884 with Italian postmark Let(tera).arr(ivata). per mare

After 1848, Italian and Croatian nationalistic ideas arrived in the city, which became divided between the Croats
Croats
and the Italians, both of whom founded their respective political parties. There are conflicting sources for both sides claiming to have formed the majority in Zadar
Zadar
in this period. The archives of the official Austro-Hungarian censuses conducted around the end of 19th century show that Italian was the primary language spoken by the majority of the people in the city (9,018 Italians and 2,551 Croatians in 1900), but only by a third of the population in the entire county (9,234 vs. 21,753 the same year).[36][37][38] During the 19th century, the conflict between Zadar's Italian and Croatian communities grew in intensity and changed its nature. Until the beginning of the century it had been of moderate intensity and mainly of a class nature (under Venetian rule the Italians were employed in the most profitable activities, such as trade and administration). With the development of the modern concept of national identity across Europe, national conflicts started to mark the political life of Zadar.

Italian territory of Zara/ Zadar
Zadar
1920-1947

During the second part of the 19th century, Zadar
Zadar
was subject to the same policy enacted by the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in South-Tyrol, the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and consisting in fostering the local German or Croatian culture at the expense of the Italian.[39] In Zadar and generally throughout Dalmatia, the Austrian policy had the objective to reduce the possibility of any future territorial claim by the Kingdom of Italy. Italy
Italy
(1918–1947)[edit] In 1915 Italy
Italy
entered World War I
World War I
under the provisions set in the Treaty of London. In exchange for its participation with the Triple Entente and in the event of victory, Italy
Italy
was to obtain the following territory in northern Dalmatia, including Zadar, Šibenik
Šibenik
and most of the Dalmatian islands, except Krk
Krk
and Rab. At the end of the war, Italian military forces invaded Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and seized control of Zara, with Admiral Enrico Millo
Enrico Millo
being proclaimed the governor of Dalmatia.[40] Famous Italian nationalist Gabriele d'Annunzio
Gabriele d'Annunzio
supported the seizure of Dalmatia, and proceeded to Zadar
Zadar
in an Italian warship in December 1918.[40] During 1918, political life in Zadar
Zadar
intensified. The collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy led to the renewal of national conflicts in the city. With the arrival of an Italian army of occupation in the city on 4 November 1918, the Italian faction gradually assumed control, a process which was completed on 5 December when it took over the governorship.[41] With the Treaty of Versailles (10 January 1920) Italian claims on Dalmatia
Dalmatia
contained in the Treaty of London were nullified, but later on the agreements between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes set in the Treaty of Rapallo (12 November 1920) gave Zadar
Zadar
with other small local territories to Italy. The Zadar
Zadar
enclave, a total of 104 square kilometres (40 square miles), included the city of Zadar, the municipalities of Bokanjac, Arbanasi, Crno, part of Diklo (a total of 51 km2 of territory and 17,065 inhabitants) and the islands of Lastovo
Lastovo
and Palagruža
Palagruža
(53 square kilometres (20 square miles), 1,710 inhabitants). The territory was organized into a small Italian province. World War II[edit]

Bombing of Zadar
Zadar
in World War II
World War II
by the Allies

Painter Božidar Jakac
Božidar Jakac
at the destroyed Zadar
Zadar
Forum, 1961

Germany, Italy, and other Axis Powers, invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Zadar
Zadar
held a force of 9,000 and was one of the starting points of the invasion. The force reached Šibenik
Šibenik
and Split on 15 April (2 days before surrender). Civilians were previously evacuated to Ancona
Ancona
and Pula[citation needed]. Occupying Mostar
Mostar
and Dubrovnik, on 17 April they met invading troops that had started out from Italian-occupied Albania. On 17 April the Yugoslav government surrendered, faced with the Wehrmacht's overwhelming superiority. Mussolini required the newly formed Nazi puppet-state, the so-called Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH) to hand over almost all of Dalmatia (including Split) to Italy
Italy
under the Rome Treaties. The city became the center of a new Italian territorial entity, the Governorate of Dalmatia, including the provinces of Zara (now Zadar), Cattaro (now Kotor), and Spalato (Split). Under Italian rule, the Croats
Croats
were subjected to a policy of forced assimilation. This created immense resentment among the Yugoslav people. The Yugoslav Partisan movement took root in Zadar, even though more than 70% of population of Zadar
Zadar
was Italian. After Mussolini was removed from power on 25 July 1943, Italy
Italy
signed an armistice with the Allies, which was announced on 8 September 1943, and the Italian army collapsed. Then on 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans, and formed the Nazi-puppet Italian Social Republic. German troops (114th Jäger Division) entered Zadar
Zadar
on September 10 and took over. This avoided a temporary liberation by Partisans, as was the case in Split and Šibenik. Zadar
Zadar
was placed under the control of the Italian Social Republic. The NDH proclaimed the Treaty of Rome to be void and occupied Dalmatia with German support. But the NDH was prevented from taking over Zadar on the grounds that Zadar
Zadar
itself was not subject to the conditions of the 1941 Treaty of Rome. Despite this, NDH leader Ante Pavelić designated Zadar
Zadar
as the capital of the Sidraga- Ravni Kotari
Ravni Kotari
County, although the county administrator could not enter the city. During World War II, Zadar
Zadar
was bombed by the Allies, from November 1943 to October 1944. Estimated fatalities range from under 1,000, up to as many as 4,000 of the city's 20,000 inhabitants. Over the course of the bombing, 80% of the city's buildings were destroyed. Zadar
Zadar
has been called the " Dresden
Dresden
of the Adriatic" because of perceived similarities to the Allied bombing of Dresden.[42] In late October 1944 the German army and most of the Italian civilian administration abandoned the city.[43] On 31 October 1944, the Partisans seized the city, until then a part of Mussolini's Italian Social Republic. At the start of World War II, Zadar
Zadar
had a population of 24,000; by the end of 1944, this had decreased to 6,000.[43] Though controlled by the Partisans, Zadar
Zadar
remained under nominal Italian sovereignty until the Paris Peace Treaties that took effect on 15 September 1947.[44] SFR Yugoslavia (1947–1991)[edit] In 1947, Zadar
Zadar
became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Republic of Croatia. In the first decade after the war, the city's population increase was slow and still did not reach its pre-war numbers. The Italian exodus from the city continued and in a few years was almost total. It is estimated that around 10,000 Italians emigrated from Zadar.[45] In October 1953, the last Italian schools in the area were closed. Today the Italian community counts only a few hundred people, gathered into a local community (Comunità degli Italiani di Zara).[46] The city recorded a large population increase in the late 1950s and the 1960s, mainly due to immigration as the government encouraged migration from rural areas to urban centers and their industrial development. Construction of the Adriatic Highway, railway and civil airport contributed to the development of tourism and the accessibility of Zadar.[47] Population growth slowed down in the following decades. In the late 1980s, due to the economic crisis in Yugoslavia, Zadar's economy began stagnating.[47] Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–1995)[edit] In 1990, Serb separatists from Dalmatian Hinterland
Dalmatian Hinterland
sealed roads and effectively blocked Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from the rest of Croatia
Croatia
during the Log Revolution. In March 1991, the Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
broke out that affected Zadar
Zadar
and its surroundings.[48] A number of non-Serbs were expelled from the area and several Croatian policemen were killed resulting in the 1991 anti-Serb riot in Zadar.[49] Serbs at that time accounted for about 14% of the population.[50] The Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) and forces of the SAO Krajina occupied parts of Zadar's hinterland, converged on the city and subjected it to artillery bombardment during the Battle of Zadar.[48] Along with other Croatian towns in the area, Zadar
Zadar
was shelled sporadically, resulting in damage to buildings and homes as well as UNESCO
UNESCO
protected sites. A number of nearby towns and villages were also attacked, the most brutal being the Škabrnja massacre
Škabrnja massacre
in which 86 people were killed. Land connections with Zagreb
Zagreb
were severed for over a year. The only link between the north and south of the country was via the island of Pag. The siege of the city lasted from 1991 until January 1993 when Zadar
Zadar
and the surrounding area came under the control of Croatian forces and the bridge link with the rest of Croatia
Croatia
was reestablished in Operation Maslenica. Attacks on the city continued until the end of the war in 1995. Some of the countryside along the No. 8 highway running north east is still sectioned off due to land mines. Main sights[edit]

Play media

The main sites of the city

Roman Forum

Cathedral of St. Anastasia

St. Mary's Church, located in the old city opposite St. Donatus' Church

Architecture[edit] Zadar
Zadar
gained its urban structure in Roman times; during the time of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Emperor Augustus, the town was fortified and the city walls with towers and gates were built. On the western side of the town were the forum, the basilica and the temple, while outside the town were the amphitheatre and cemeteries. The aqueduct which supplied the town with water is partially preserved. Inside the ancient town, a medieval town had developed with a series of churches and monasteries being built. During the Middle Ages, Zadar
Zadar
fully gained its urban aspect, which has been maintained until today. In the first half of the 16th century, Venice
Venice
fortified the town with a new system of defensive walls on the side facing land. In the course of the century architectural building in the Renaissance
Renaissance
style was continued and defensive trenches (Foša) were also built. They were completely buried during the Italian occupation until that in 1873, under Austrian rule, the ramparts of Zadar
Zadar
were converted from fortifications into elevated promenades commanding extensive seaward and landward views, thus being the wall lines preserved; of its four old gates one, the Porta Marina, incorporates the relics of a Roman arch, and another, the Porta di Terraferma, was designed in the 16th century by the Veronese artist Michele Sanmicheli. In the bombardments during the Second World War entire blocks were destroyed, but some structures survived. Most important landmarks include:

Roman Forum – the largest on the eastern side of the Adriatic,[51] founded by the first Roman Emperor Augustus, as shown by two stone inscriptions about its completion dating from the 3rd century. Most Roman remains were used in the construction of the fortifications, but two squares are embellished with lofty marble columns; a Roman tower stands on the eastern side of the town; and some remains of a Roman aqueduct
Roman aqueduct
may be seen outside the ramparts. Church of St. Donatus
Church of St. Donatus
– a monumental round building from the 9th century in pre-Romanesque style, traditionally but erroneously said to have been erected on the site of a temple of Juno. It is the most important preserved structure of its period in Dalmatia; the massive dome of the rotunda is surrounded by a vaulted gallery in two stories which also extends around the three apses to the east. The church treasury contains some of the finest Dalmatian metalwork; notably the pastoral staff of Bishop Valaresso (1460). St. Anastasia's Cathedral (Croatian: Sv. Stošija), basilica in Romanesque style built in the 12th to 13th century (high Romanesque style), the largest cathedral in Dalmatia. The churches of St. Chrysogonus and St. Simeon are also architectural examples in the Romanesque style. The latter houses the ark or reliquary of St. Simeon (1380), made in gilted silver by Francesco Antonio da Milano under commission of queen Elizabeth of Hungary. St Chrysogonus's Church
St Chrysogonus's Church
– monumental Romanesque church of very fine proportions and refined Romanesque ornaments. St Elijah's Church (Croatian: Sv. Ilija) St Francis' Church, Gothic styled church, site of the signing of the Zadar
Zadar
Peace Treaty 1358. Its choir is home to several carved stalls, executed in 1394 by the Venetian Giovanni di Giacomo da Borgo San Sepolcro. Five Wells Square St Mary's Church, which retains a fine Romanesque campanile from 1105, belongs to a Benedictine Convent founded in 1066 by a noblewoman of Zadar
Zadar
by the name of Cika with the permanent Ecclesiastical art exhibition "The Gold and Silver of Zadar". The Citadel. Built in 1409 southwest of the Land Gate, it has remained the same to this day. The Land Gate – built to a design by the Venetian architect Michele Sanmicheli in 1543 The unique sea organ [52] The Great Arsenal [53] Among the other chief buildings are the Loggia del Comune, rebuilt in 1565, and containing a public library; the old palace of the priors, now the governor's residence; and the episcopal palaces.

Culture[edit]

Bust reliquary of the Pope Sixtus I, showed at "The Gold and Silver of Zadar" permanent exhibition

Archaeological museum

The first university of Zadar
Zadar
was mentioned in writing as early as in 1396 and it was a part of a Dominican monastery. It closed in 1807. Zadar
Zadar
was, along with Split and Dubrovnik, one of the centers of the development of Croatian literature. The 15th and 16th centuries were marked by important activities of Croatians writing in the national language: Jerolim Vidolić, Petar Zoranić (who wrote the first Croatian novel, Planine), Brne Karnarutić, Juraj Baraković, Šime Budinić. Under French rule (1806–1810), the first Dalmatian newspaper Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin was published in Zadar. It was printed in Italian and Croatian; this last used for the first time in a newspaper.[54] In the second half of the 19th century, Zadar
Zadar
was a centre of the movement for the cultural and national revivals in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(Italian and Croatian). Today Zadar's cultural institutions include:

The Croatian Theatre House The National Museum The Archaeological Museum (established in 1830) The Museum of Ancient Glass[55] The University of Zadar
University of Zadar
(founded in 1396, active until 1807 and refounded in 2002) The Maritime Museum Permanent Exhibition of Sacral Art Croatian Singing Musical Society Zoranić (established 1885) Musical Evenings in St. Donatus [56] (established 1961) International Choirs Competition[57] (established 1997) Arsenal Zadar
Zadar
[53]

City government[edit]

The town hall (centre) in Narodni trg (People's Square)

The administrative area of the City of Zadar
Zadar
includes the nearby villages of Babindub, Crno, Kožino
Kožino
and Petrčane, as well as the islands of Ist, Iž, Molat, Olib, Premuda, Rava and Silba. The total city area, including the islands, covers 194 km2. Zadar
Zadar
is divided into 21 local districts: Arbanasi, Bili Brig, Bokanjac, Brodarica, Crvene Kuće, Diklo, Dračevac, Gaženica, Jazine I, Jazine II, Maslina, Novi Bokanjac, Poluotok, Ploča, Puntamika, Ričina, Smiljevac, Stanovi, Vidikovac, Višnjik, Voštarnica. The current mayor of Zadar
Zadar
is Branko Dukić (HDZ). He was elected for a first term on local elections held on 21 May 2017. The City Council is composed of 31 representatives. Mayoral election[edit]

Candidates Results

Candidate Party Votes %

Branko Dukić Croatian Democratic Union 12.927 51,20%

Sabina Glasovac Social Democratic Party of Croatia 5.848 23.16%

Marijana Botić Youth Action 2.403 9.52%

Enio Meštrović Independent 1.029 4.08%

Ivica Vlakić Modern Democratic Force 801 3.17%

Nino Dellavia Croatian Social Liberal Party 670 2.65%

Denis Bruketa Forward Croatia-Progressive Alliance 540 2.14%

Šime Rušin Independent 264 1.05%

Miljenko Marić Independent 97 0.38%

Invalid votes

662 2.62%

Total:

24.579 97.38%

Registered voters:

64.890

Turnout:

25.248 38.91%

Source: State Election Committee (Državno izborno povjerenstvo) [3]

Population[edit]

Historical populations of Zadar
Zadar
(municipal)

Year Pop. ±%

1880 19,778 —    

1890 21,933 +10.9%

1900 24,778 +13.0%

1910 27,426 +10.7%

1921 26,241 −4.3%

1931 26,882 +2.4%

1948 23,610 −12.2%

1953 25,465 +7.9%

1961 33,464 +31.4%

1971 50,520 +51.0%

1981 67,154 +32.9%

1991 80,355 +19.7%

2001 72,718 −9.5%

2011 75,062 +3.2%

Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005

Zadar
Zadar
is the fifth largest city in Croatia
Croatia
and the second largest in Dalmatia, with a population of 75,082 according to the 2011 census.[58] The 2001 census showed Zadar
Zadar
with a population of 72,718, with 93% of its citizens being ethnic Croats.[59] Economy[edit] Major industries include tourism, traffic, seaborne trade, agriculture, fishing and fish farming activities; metal manufacturing and mechanical engineering industries; chemicals and non-metal industry; and banking. Some of the largest companies with headquarters in Zadar
Zadar
are:

Tankerska plovidba[60] (maritime transport) Cromaris[61] (food industry) Bakmaz (retail) Sonik (retail) Turisthotel (tourism) Maraska[62] (food industry) Punta Sakla (tourism) Intermod (furniture retail and tourism) Adria, Mardešić (fish production) Vodovod (water supply) OTP Bank
OTP Bank
Hrvatska (finance industry) SAS (machine tools) Aluflexpack[63] (production of flexible packaging) Arsenal Holdings [64] (tourism) Liburnija (transportation)

The farmland just northeast of Zadar, Ravni Kotari, is a well known source of marasca cherries. Distilleries in Zadar
Zadar
have produced Maraschino
Maraschino
since the 16th century. Education[edit]

University of Zadar

There are nine primary schools and 16 secondary schools, including six gymnasiums, in Zadar. University[edit] Main article: University of Zadar Further information: List of universities in Croatia University of Zadar
University of Zadar
was founded by the Dominicans in 1396 as Universitas Iadertina, a theological seminary. It was the first institute of higher learning in the country. In 1807 it ceased to become an independent institution and its functions were taken over by other local universities. In 1956 the University of Zagreb, the country's second oldest university, re-established it as its satellite Faculty of Arts campus. The Faculty later became a part of the University of Split, and in 2003, a full-fledged independent university. University comprises 25 departments with more than 6.000 students. Science[edit] In 1998, Zadar
Zadar
hosted the Central European Olympiad in Informatics (CEOI). Transportation[edit] In the 20th century, roads became more important than sea routes, but Zadar
Zadar
remained an important traffic point. The main road along the Adriatic passes through the city. In the immediate vicinity, there is the Zagreb- Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
highway, finished up to Split in 2005. Zadrans can access to the highway by two interchanges: Zadar
Zadar
1 exit in the north and Zadar
Zadar
2 highway hub near Zemunik
Zemunik
in the south. The southern interchange is connected to Zadar
Zadar
port of Gaženica
Gaženica
by the D424 expressway. Since 1966, a railway has linked Zadar
Zadar
with Knin, where it joins the main railway from Zagreb
Zagreb
to Split. However, passenger trains between Knin
Knin
and Zadar
Zadar
are replaced with the buses that run in organization of national railway company. Zadar
Zadar
also has an international ferry line to Ancona
Ancona
in Italy. Ships also connect Zadar
Zadar
with islands of its archipelago from two ferry ports: one located in the town center serving catamaran services and other one located in the suburb of Gaženica
Gaženica
serving ferry and distant services. Zadar International Airport
Zadar International Airport
is located in Zemunik, around 14 kilometres (9 miles) to the east of Zadar
Zadar
and accessible via the expressway. The airport is experiencing year on year an average of 30% increase in passenger traffic mainly due to arrivals of lowcost carriers (Ryanair, Germanwings, InterSky, JobAir, etc.) connecting Zadar
Zadar
from the end of March through October with over 20 cities throughout Europe. Sports[edit]

Krešimir Ćosić Hall

The basketball club is KK Zadar, the football club NK Zadar, and the local handball club RK Zadar. The bowling club Kuglački klub Zadar
Zadar
is also very successful. Zadar
Zadar
is also the hometown of Croatian handball player Ivan Ninčević
Ivan Ninčević
and football player Luka Modrić
Luka Modrić
and football player Danijel Subašić. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia Zadar
Zadar
is twinned, or maintains cultural, economic and educational ties with:

Dundee, United Kingdom Reggio Emilia, Italy Romans-sur-Isère, France Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany Székesfehérvár, Hungary[65] Padua, Italy Iquique, Chile Banská Bystrica, Slovakia[66] Milwaukee, United States[67]

See also[edit]

Croatia
Croatia
portal

Archdiocese of Zadar Bombing of Zadar
Zadar
in World War II Siege of Zadar
Siege of Zadar
(1345-46) History of Croatia History of Dalmatia Krešimir Ćosić Hall Liburnia Ottavio Missoni The church and monastery of St. Michael in Zadar
Zadar
- Croatia List of people from Zadar

Places adjacent to Zadar

90 km (56 mi) Mali Lošinj 15 km (9 mi) Nin 47 km (29 mi) to Starigrad

177 km (110 mi) Ancona

Zadar

90 km (56 mi) Burnum

74 km (46 mi) to Šibenik

References[edit]

^ Termin održavanja (2016-11-07). "Destinacije – Zadar
Zadar
– 3000 godina povijesti - Kongresni turizam". Poslovni turizam. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ "Best places to travel in 2016 - Europe's Best Destinations". Europeanbestdestinations.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.  ^ Adnotationes chronologicae in codice missalisaeculi XII. ap. Florianus:Fontesdomestici Vol. III, 209. ^ M.Suić: Prošlost Zadra 1, Zadar
Zadar
u starom vijeku, Filozofski Fakultet Zadar, 1981 ^ See: Treaty of Rapallo, 1920 ^ See: Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 ^ " Zadar
Zadar
Climate Normals" (PDF). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ "Mjesečne vrijednosti za Zadar
Zadar
u razdoblju1961−2014" (in Croatian). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ M. Suić, Prošlost Zadra I, Zadar
Zadar
u starom vijeku, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1981, pages 61–113 ^ V. Graovac, "Populacijski razvoj Zadra", Sveučilište u Zadru, 2004, page 52 ^ M. Zaninović, Liburnia
Liburnia
Militaris, Opusc. Archeol. 13, 43–67 (1988), UDK 904.930.2(497.13)>>65<<, page 47 ^ M. Suić, Liburnija i Liburni, VAMZ, 3.S., XXIV-XXV,1991-92, UDK 931/939 (36)"6/9", pages 55–66 ^ M. Suić, Prošlost Zadra I, Zadar
Zadar
u starom vijeku, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1981, pages 127–130 ^ M. Zaninović, Liburnia
Liburnia
Militaris, Opusc. Archeol. 13, 43–67 (1988), UDK 904.930.2(497.13)>>65<<, pages 56, 57 ^ Z. Strika, "Kako i gdje se prvi put spominje zadarski biskup?", Radovi HAZU u Zadru, sv. 46/2004, UDK 262.12"2/3"(497.5) Zadar, pp. 31–64 ^ V. Graovac, Populacijski razvoj Zadra, Sveučilište u Zadru, Geoadria, Vol. 9, No. 1, UDK: 314.8(497.5 Zadar), page 53 ^ G. Novak, Uprava i podjela, Zbornik FF u Zagrebu I, 1951, pages 83–85 ^ a b c Britannica 1911: Dalmatia
Dalmatia
Archived 7 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nada Klaić, Ivo Petricioli, Prošlost Zadra – knjiga II, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, page 59 ^ Nada Klaić, Ivo Petricioli, Prošlost Zadra II, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, page 84 ^ "Britannica 1911: Zara". 1911encyclopedia.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ Britannica 1911: Illyria Archived 7 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ N. Klaić, I. Petricioli, Prošlost Zadra II, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, pages 86–94 ^ a b c Sethre, Janet (2003). The Souls of Venice. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-7864-1573-8.  ^ N. Klaić, I. Petricioli, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Prošlost Zadra - knjiga II, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, pages 179–184 ^ N. Klaić, I. Petricioli, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Prošlost Zadra - knjiga II, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, pages 215–222 ^ A. Strgačić, Hrvatski jezik i glagoljica u crkvenim ustanovama, Zbornik Zadar, Matica Hrvatska, Zagreb, 1964, page 386 ^ N. Klaić, I. Petricioli, Zadar
Zadar
u srednjem vijeku do 1409., Prošlost Zadra - knjiga II, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1976, page 216. ^ Strgačić, A. (1954). Papa Aleksandar III u Zadru, Radovi instituta JAZiU u Zadru (in Croatian). Zagreb. pp. 164–165. Original text: Et exinde ceteras Dalmatiae insulas transcendentes, in proxima dominica, priusquam sol illusceret, ad civitatem Iaderam, que sita est in capite Ungarici regni, eundem pontificem cum fratribus suis... sanum et alacrem portaverunt. Et quoniqm nondum quisquam Romanorum pontificum civitatem ipsam intraverat, de novo eiusdem pape adventu facta est in clero et populo ipsius loci communis lettitia et ineffabilis exultatio, collaudantium et benedicentium Dominum, qui modernis temporibus per famulum suum Alexandrum, successorem beati Petri, ecclesiam Iadertinam dignatus est visitare. Ideoque preparato sibi de Romano more albo caballo, processionaliter deduxerunt eum per mediam civitatem ad beate Anastasie maiorem ecclesiam in qua virgo et martyr honorifice tumulata quescit, cum inmensis laudibus et canticis altisone resonantibus in eorum sclavica lingua. Post quartem vero diem exivit Iadera, et per Slavorum insulas et maritimas Ystrie modicas civitates felici cursu transitum faciens, ad monasterium sancti Nicolai, situm in faucibus Rivi alti, cum omni alacritate, Domino auxiliante, pervenit.  ^ [1] Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967 ^ V. Graovac, Populacijski razvoj Zadra, Odjel za geografiju, Sveučilište u Zadru (Population development of Zadar, Department of Geography, University of Zadar), UDK: 314.8(497.5 Zadar), page 60 ^ Š Peričić, Razvitak gospodarstva Zadra i okolice u prošlosti, HAZU, Zavod za povijesne znanosti u Zadru, Zagreb-Zadar, 1999, page 312 ^ An open port is one that allows foreign shipping. See List of free ports. ^ V. Graovac, Populacijski razvoj Zadra (Population development of Zadar), Odjel za geografiju, Sveučilište u Zadru, Department of Geography, University of Zadar, UDK: 314.8(497.5 Zadar), pages 61–62 ^ "Full 1900 Census". byu.edu. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ Page 189 of Luciano Monzali - The Italians of Dalmatia- University of Toronto Press Incorporated - 2009 [2] ^ Page 451 of I censimenti della popolazione dell‘Istria, con Fiume e Trieste, e di alcune città della Dalmazia tra il 1850 e il 1936 - Guerrino Perselli, Università Popolare di Trieste - 1993 ^ Emperor Franz Joseph is quoted as giving, on 12 November 1866, a direct order to his ministers to: "decisively oppose the influence of the Italian element still present in some Kronländer [crown lands], and to aim unsparingly and without the slightest compunction at the Germanization or Croatization – depending on the circumstances – of the areas in question, through a suitable entrustment of posts to political magistrates and teachers, as well as through the influence of the press in South Tyrol, Dalmatia, and the Adriatic Coast.", quoted in Monzali, Luciano (2009). The Italians of Dalmatia: from Italian unification to World War I. Translated by Shanti Evans. Toronto Canada: University of Toronto Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8020-9621-0.  citing the archives of Die Protokolle des Österreichischen Ministerrates 1848/1867. V Abteilung: Die Ministerien Rainer und Mensdorff. VI Abteilung: Das Ministerium Belcredi, Wien, Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst 1971, vol. 2, page 297 ^ a b A. Rossi. The Rise of Italian Fascism: 1918–1922. New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2010. P. 47. ^ Ante Bralić, Zadar
Zadar
u vrtlogu propasti Habsburške Monarhije (1917–1918), Časopis za suvremenu povijest 1/2006, Hrvatski institut za povijest, Zagreb, 2006, pp. 243–266 ^ Graovac Matassi 2014, p. 169. ^ a b Begonja 2005, p. 72. ^ Grant, John P.; J. Craig Barker, eds. (2006). International Criminal Law Deskbook. Routledge: Cavendish Publishing. p. 130.  ^ Graovac Matassi 2014, p. 170. ^ "Comunita' degli Italiani di Zara (in Italian)".  ^ a b Graovac Matassi 2014, p. 171. ^ a b Graovac Matassi 2014, p. 174. ^ James Gow, The Serbian Project and its Adversaries, p. 159. C. Hurst & Co, 2003 ^ "Zadar". Hrvatska enciklopedija.  ^ Zadar
Zadar
Region Tourist Board, Episcopal complex and Roman forum in Zadar, accessed 5 September 2017 ^ " Zadar
Zadar
(Croatia) - Sea Organ". YouTube. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2011-09-16.  ^ a b "Arsenal Zadar
Zadar
- Koncerti, izložbe, konferencije, događaji." Arsenal Zadar. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Stare hrvatske novine - pregledavanje - naslov". dnc.nsk.hr. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Museum of Ancient Glass – Zadar
Zadar
Sightseeing in Zadar". Inyourpocket.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "56. Glazbene večeri u sv. Donatu - Zadar
Zadar
Hrvatska". www.donat-festival.com. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "International Choirs Competition". natjecanjezborova.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "SAS Output". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 2011-07-02.  ^ "SAS Output". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 2009-05-06.  ^ "Tankerska plovidba d.d." www.tankerska.hr. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "ADRIS grupa - Cromaris". www.cromaris.hr. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ dimedia.hr. "Maraska- Maraska". www.maraska.hr. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Aluflexpack novi". Aluflexpack novi. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Arsenal Holdings". arsenalholdings.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ Bozsoki, Agnes. "Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora" [Partner and Twin Cities List]. City of Székesfehérvár
Székesfehérvár
(in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2013-08-05.  ^ " Banská Bystrica
Banská Bystrica
Sister Cities". © 2001-2008. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2008.  ^ " Zadar
Zadar
i Milwaukee
Milwaukee
dva su grada bratska!". Zadarski list. 2015-02-28. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zara". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia
Croatia
(First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House
Random House
Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010.  Begonja, Zlatko (July 2005). "Iza obzorja pobjede: sudski procesi "narodnim neprijateljima" u Zadru 1944.-1946". Journal of Contemporary History (in Croatian). Zagreb: Croatian Institute of History. 37 (1). ISSN 0590-9597. Retrieved 2013-02-06.  Graovac Matassi, Vera (2014). "Contemporary Urban Changes in Croatia
Croatia
- The Case Study of Zadar". In Calcatinge, Alexandru. Critical Spaces: Contemporary Perspectives in Urban, Spatial and Landscape Studies. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643904959. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zadar.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zadar.

Zadar
Zadar
Tourist Board ZD portal City of Zadar
Zadar
official web page (in Croatian) Zadar
Zadar
Airport The University of Zadar Old postcards of Zara/ Zadar
Zadar
(it.) Photo Gallery of Zadar
Zadar
town

v t e

County seats of Croatia

   

Bjelovar, Bjelovar-Bilogora Slavonski Brod, Brod-Posavina Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik-Neretva Pazin, Istria

Karlovac, Karlovac Koprivnica, Koprivnica-Križevci Krapina, Krapina-Zagorje Gospić, Lika-Senj

Čakovec, Međimurje Osijek, Osijek-Baranja Požega, Požega-Slavonia Rijeka, Primorje-Gorski Kotar

Sisak, Sisak-Moslavina Split, Split-Dalmatia Šibenik, Šibenik-Knin Varaždin, Varaždin

Virovitica, Virovitica-Podravina Vukovar, Vukovar-Srijem Zadar, Zadar Zagreb, Zagreb

v t e

Subdivisions of Zadar
Zadar
County

Cities and towns

Benkovac Biograd na Moru Nin Obrovac Pag Zadar
Zadar
(seat)

Municipalities

Bibinje Galovac Gračac Jasenice Kali Kolan Kukljica Lišane Ostrovičke Novigrad Pakoštane Pašman Polača Poličnik Posedarje Povljana Preko Privlaka Ražanac Sali Stankovci Starigrad Sukošan Sveti Filip i Jakov Škabrnja Tkon Vir Vrsi Zemunik
Zemunik
Donji

v t e

Cities and towns of Croatia
Croatia
by population

100,000+

Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb

35,000+

Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar

10,000+

Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Croatia

Cathedral of St. James, Šibenik Dubrovnik Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica, Poreč Plitvice Lakes Split with the Palace of Diocletian Stari Grad Plain Trogir Stećak
Stećak
1

Dubravka Cista Velika

Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries 2

Zadar Šibenik

Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe 3

Paklenica Sjeverni Velebit

1 shared with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Serbia 2 shared with Italy
Italy
and Montenegro 3 shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine

v t e

Illyrian-related topics

Culture

Daunian pottery Desilo
Desilo
pottery- Desilo
Desilo
shipyard Messapian pottery Peucetii pottery Devollite pottery Gradistë belt-plate Trebeništa masks Vače situla Vače belt-plate Soleto Map Monte Saraceno woman Illyrian religion Illyrian clothing Illyrian coinage Illyrian fibulae Spectacle brooch Daunian stele

Warfare

Desilo
Desilo
shipyard Illyrian Wars Alexander's Balkan campaign War of the Batons Sica Sibyna Illyrian type helmet Enchele kingdom

Language

Illyrian languages Messapian language

Cities & settlements

Daorson Desilo Byllis Shkodër Rhizon Damastion Delminium Ugento Dimale Albanopolis Oria Zadar Salvia, Liburnia Chinna, Dalmatia Meteon Bassania Epicaria

Authority control

GN

.