I (named i /aɪ/, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
1 History 2 Use in writing systems
2.1 English 2.2 Other languages
3 Other uses 4 Forms and variants 5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 Related characters
7.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 7.2 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets
8 See also 9 References 10 External links
Egyptian hieroglyph ꜥ Phoenician Yodh Etruscan I Greek Iota
In the Phoenician alphabet, the letter may have originated in a hieroglyph for an arm that represented a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ʕ/) in Egyptian, but was reassigned to /j/ (as in English "yes") by Semites, because their word for "arm" began with that sound. This letter could also be used to represent /i/, the close front unrounded vowel, mainly in foreign words. The Greeks adopted a form of this Phoenician yodh as their letter iota (⟨Ι, ι⟩) to represent /i/, the same as in the Old Italic alphabet. In Latin (as in Modern Greek), it was also used to represent /j/ and this use persists in the languages that descended from Latin. The modern letter 'j' originated as a variation of 'i', and both were used interchangeably for both the vowel and the consonant, coming to be differentiated only in the 16th century. The dot over the lowercase 'i' is sometimes called a tittle. In the Turkish alphabet, dotted and dotless I are considered separate letters, representing a front and back vowel, respectively, and both have uppercase ('I', 'İ') and lowercase ('ı', 'i') forms. Use in writing systems
Pronunciation of the name of the letter ⟨i⟩ in European languages
In Modern English spelling, ⟨i⟩ represents several different
sounds, either the diphthong /aɪ/ ("long" ⟨i⟩) as in kite, the
short /ɪ/ as in bill, or the ⟨ee⟩ sound /iː/ in the last
syllable of machine. The diphthong /aɪ/ developed from Middle English
/iː/ through a series of vowel shifts. In the Great
The capitalized “I” first showed up about 1250 in the northern and midland dialects of England, according to the Chambers Dictionary of Etymology. Chambers notes, however, that the capitalized form didn’t become established in the south of England “until the 1700s (although it appears sporadically before that time). Capitalizing the pronoun, Chambers explains, made it more distinct, thus “avoiding misreading handwritten manuscripts.”
Other languages In many languages' orthographies, ⟨i⟩ is used to represent the sound /i/ or, more rarely, /ɪ/.
Language Pronunciation in IPA Notes
French /i/ See French orthography.
German /ɪ/, /iː/, /i/ See German orthography.
Italian /i/ Pronounced as long [iː] in stressed and open syllables, [i] when in a closed stressed syllable or unstressed. See Italian orthography.
Character I i
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 73 U+0049 105 U+0069
UTF-8 73 49 105 69
Numeric character reference I I i i
ASCII1 73 49 105 69
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings
NATO phonetic Morse code
American manual alphabet
Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet
I with diacritics:
Ị ị Ĭ ĭ
U+1D35 ᴵ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL I
U+1D62 ᵢ LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER I
Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets
𐤉 : Semitic letter Yodh, from which the following symbols originally derive
Ι ι: Greek letter Iota, from which the following letters derive
Ⲓ ⲓ : Coptic letter Yota
І і :
ᛁ : Runic letter isaz, which probably derives from old Italic I
𐌹 : Gothic letter iiz
I (other) Tittle
^ Brown & Kiddle (1870) The institutes of English grammar, p. 19.
Ies is the plural of the English name of the letter; the plural of the
letter itself is rendered I's, Is, i's, or is.
^ "The Latin Alphabet". du.edu.
^ "Frequency Table". cornell.edu. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
^ O’Conner, Patricia T.; Kellerman, Stewart (2011-08-10). "Is
capitalizing "I" an ego thing?". Grammarphobia. Retrieved 23 December
^ Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). Illustrated Introduction to Latin
Epigraphy. University of California Press. p. 44. Retrieved 3
^ King, David A. (2001). The Ciphers of the Monks. p. 282. In the
course of time, I, V and X became identical with three letters of the
alphabet; originally, however, they bore no relation to these
^ Svetunkov, Sergey (2012-12-14). Complex-Valued Modeling in Economics
and Finance. Springer Science & Business Media.
^ a b c Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add
additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic
Media related to I at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of I at Wiktionary
v t e
History Spread Romanization Roman numerals
Classical Latin alphabet ISO basic Latin alphabet phonetic alphabets
International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA
Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter I with diacritics
Í í i̇́ Ì ì i̇̀ Ĭ ĭ Î î Ǐ ǐ Ïï Ḯḯ Ĩĩ i̇̃ Į į Į́ į̇́ Į̃ į̇̃ Ī ī Ī̀ ī̀ Ỉ ỉ Ȉ ȉ I̋ i̋ Ȋ ȋ Ị ị Ḭ ḭ Ɨ ɨ ᶖ
İ i I ı
ch cz dž dz gh ij ll ly nh ny sh sz th
Keyboard layouts (list)
QWERTY QWERTZ AZERTY
ISO/IEC 646 Unicode Western Latin character sets
precomposed Latin characters in Unicode letters used in mathematics