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Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (/ænˈdroʊpɔːf, -pɒf/;[1] Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов, tr. Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov, IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ɐnˈdropəf]; 15 June [O.S. 2 June] 1914 – 9 February 1984)[2] was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Following the 18-year rule of the late Leonid Brezhnev, Andropov served in the post for only 15 months, from November 1982 until his own death in February 1984. Earlier in his career, Andropov served as the Soviet ambassador to Hungary
Hungary
from 1954 to 1957, during which time he was involved in the suppression of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, and then Chairman of the KGB
KGB
from 1967 until 1982.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career in the Communist Party 3 Suppression of the Hungarian Uprising 4 Chairman of the KGB

4.1 Crushing the Prague Spring 4.2 Investigation of Brezhnev assassination attempt 4.3 Suppression of the Soviet dissident movement 4.4 Repression 4.5 Abuse of psychiatry for political purposes 4.6 Role in the invasion of Afghanistan 4.7 Role in the non-invasion of Poland 4.8 Promotion of Gorbachev

5 Leader of the Soviet Union 6 Death and funeral 7 Personal life 8 Legacy 9 Attitudes to Andropov 10 Honours and awards 11 Andropov's speeches and works 12 References 13 Further reading

13.1 Primary sources

14 External links

Early life[edit] Andropov was born in Nagutskaya, Stavropol Region, Russian Empire, on 15 June 1914.[3][4] He was the son of a railway official, Vladimir Konstantinovich Andropov, who was of a noble Don Cossack family[5][6] and Yevgenia Karlovna Fleckenstein, the daughter of a Moscow watchmaker, Karl Franzovich Fleckenstein, who was of German descent and originally from Finland.[7] Andropov was educated at the Rybinsk Water Transport Technical College and graduated in 1936.[3] Both of his parents died early, leaving Yuri an orphan at the age of thirteen.[8] As a teenager he worked as a loader, a telegraph clerk, and a sailor for the Volga
Volga
steamship line.[6][8] Early career in the Communist Party[edit] At 16, Yuri Andropov, then a member of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (YCL, or Komsomol), was a worker in the town of Mozdok in the North Ossetian ASSR.[3] He became full-time Secretary of the YCL organization of the Water Transport Technical School in Rybinsk
Rybinsk
in the Yaroslavl Region
Yaroslavl Region
and was soon promoted to the post of organizer of the YCL Central Committee at the Volodarsky Shipyards in Rybinsk. In 1938, he was elected First Secretary of the Yaroslavl Regional Committee of the YCL, and was First Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol
Komsomol
in the Soviet Karelo-Finnish Republic from 1940 to 1944.[6] During World War II, Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finland. From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol
Komsomol
for Communist Party work. Between 1946 and 1951, he studied at the university of Petrozavodsk. In 1947, he was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR.[6][9] In 1951, Andropov was transferred, by the decision of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee, to its staff. He was appointed an inspector and then the head of a subdepartment of the Committee.[6] Suppression of the Hungarian Uprising[edit] In July 1954, he was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Hungary
Hungary
and held this position during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian uprising. He convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
that military intervention was necessary.[10] He is known as ‘The Butcher of Budapest’ for his ruthless suppression of the Hungarian uprising.[11] The Hungarian leaders were arrested and Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
and others executed. After these events, Andropov suffered from a "Hungarian complex", according to historian Christopher Andrew: "he had watched in horror from the windows of his embassy as officers of the hated Hungarian security service were strung up from lampposts. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. When other Communist regimes later seemed at risk – in Prague in 1968, in Kabul in 1979, in Warsaw in 1981, he was convinced that, as in Budapest in 1956, only armed force could ensure their survival".[10] Chairman of the KGB[edit] In 1957, Andropov returned to Moscow
Moscow
from Budapest in order to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers' Parties in Socialist
Socialist
Countries, a position he held until 1967. In 1961, he was elected full member of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee and was promoted to the Secretariat of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee in 1962. In 1967, he was relieved of his work in the Central Committee apparatus and appointed head of the KGB
KGB
on recommendation of Mikhail Suslov, at the same time promoted a Candidate Member of the Politburo. He gained additional powers in 1973, when he was promoted to full member of the Politburo. Crushing the Prague Spring[edit] During the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
events of 1968 in Czechoslovakia, Andropov was the main proponent of the "extreme measures". "The KGB
KGB
whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia could fall victim to NATO
NATO
aggression or to a coup".[10] At this time, agent Oleg Kalugin
Oleg Kalugin
reported from Washington that he gained access to "absolutely reliable documents proving that neither the CIA
CIA
nor any other agency was manipulating the Czechoslovak reform movement".[10] However his message was destroyed because it contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov.[10] Andropov ordered a number of active measures, collectively known as operation PROGRESS, against Czechoslovak reformers. Investigation of Brezhnev assassination attempt[edit] After the assassination attempt against Brezhnev in January 1969, Andropov led the interrogation of the captured gunman, Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin.[12][13] Ilyin was pronounced insane and sent to Kazan Psychiatric Hospital.[14] Suppression of the Soviet dissident movement[edit] See also: Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union Andropov aimed to achieve "the destruction of dissent in all its forms" and always insisted that "the struggle for human rights was a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the foundation of the Soviet state".[10] By the time he became Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party in 1982 Andropov had successfully suppressed dissent in the USSR by a mixture of repression, wide use of psychiatric prison hospitals, and pressure on rights activists and other dissidents to emigrate from the Soviet Union. These measures were meticulously documented throughout his time as KGB chairman by the underground Chronicle of Current Events, a samizdat publication which was itself finally forced out of existence with its last published issue, dated 30 June 1982.[15] Repression[edit] On 3 July 1967, he made a proposal to establish for dealing with the political opposition the KGB's Fifth Directorate[16]:29 (ideological counterintelligence).[17]:177 At the end of July, the directorate was established and entered in its files cases of all Soviet dissidents including Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[16] In 1968, Andropov as the KGB
KGB
Chairman issued his order "On the tasks of State security agencies in combating the ideological sabotage by the adversary", calling for struggle against dissidents and their imperialist masters.[10] Abuse of psychiatry for political purposes[edit] On 29 April 1969, he submitted to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
an elaborated plan for creating a network of psychiatric hospitals to defend the "Soviet Government and socialist order" from dissidents.[17]:177 In January 1970 Andropov submitted an alarming account to his fellow Politburo members of the widespread threat of the mentally ill to stability and the security of the regime.[18] The proposal by Andropov to use psychiatry for struggle against dissidents was implemented.[19]:42 Andropov was in charge of the widespread deployment of psychiatric repression since he has headed the KGB.[20]:187–188 According to Yuri Felshtinsky and Boris Gulko, the originators of the idea to use psychiatry for punitive purposes were the head of the KGB
KGB
Andropov and the head of the Fifth Directorate Philipp Bobkov.[21] The repression of dissidents[22][23] included plans to maim the dancer Rudolf Nureyev, who had defected in 1961. There are some who believe that Andropov was behind the deaths of Fyodor Kulakov and Pyotr Masherov, the two youngest members of the Soviet leadership.[24] A declassified document revealed that Andropov as KGB
KGB
director gave the order to prevent unauthorized gatherings mourning the death of John Lennon.[25] Role in the invasion of Afghanistan[edit] Andropov opposed the decision to intervene militarily in Afghanistan on 24 December 1979.[26] Among his concerns was that the international community would blame the USSR for this action.[27] The invasion led to the extended Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
(1979–1989) and a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow
Moscow
by 66 countries, something of concern to Andropov since spring 1979.[28] Role in the non-invasion of Poland[edit] On 10 December 1981, in the face of Poland's Solidarity movement, Andropov, along with Mikhail Suslov
Mikhail Suslov
and Wojciech Jaruzelski,[29] persuaded Brezhnev that it would be counterproductive for the Soviet Union to invade Poland by repeating Prague 1968.[30] This effectively marked the end of the Brezhnev Doctrine.[31] Promotion of Gorbachev[edit] From 1980 to 1982, while still chairman of the KGB, Andropov opposed plans to occupy Poland after the emergence of the Solidarity movement and promoted reform-minded party cadres including Mikhail Gorbachev.[8] Andropov was the longest-serving KGB
KGB
chairman and did not resign as head of the KGB
KGB
until May 1982, when he was again promoted to the Secretariat to succeed Mikhail Suslov
Mikhail Suslov
as secretary responsible for ideological affairs. Leader of the Soviet Union[edit] Two days after Leonid Brezhnev's death, on 12 November 1982, Andropov was elected General Secretary of the CPSU, the first former head of the KGB
KGB
to become General Secretary. His appointment was received in the West with apprehension, in view of his roles in the KGB
KGB
and in Hungary. At the time his personal background was a mystery in the West, with major newspapers printing detailed profiles of him that were inconsistent and in several cases fabricated.[32] During his rule, Andropov attempted to improve the economy by raising management effectiveness without changing the principles of socialist economy. In contrast to Brezhnev's policy of avoiding conflicts and dismissals, he began to fight violations of party, state and labour discipline, which led to significant personnel changes during an anti-corruption campaign against many of Brezhnev's cronies.[8] During 15 months in office, Andropov dismissed 18 ministers, and 37 first secretaries of obkoms, kraikoms and Central Committees of Communist Parties of Soviet Republics; criminal cases on highest party and state officials were started. For the first time, the facts about economic stagnation and obstacles to scientific progress were made available to the public and criticised.[33] In foreign policy, the war continued in Afghanistan, although Andropov - who felt the invasion was a mistake - did half-heartedly explore options for a negotiated withdrawal. Andropov's rule was also marked by deterioration of relations with the United States. U.S. plans to deploy Pershing missiles in Western Europe in response to the Soviet SS-20
SS-20
missiles were contentious. However, when Paul Nitze, the American negotiator, suggested a compromise plan for nuclear missiles in Europe in the celebrated "walk in the woods" with Soviet negotiator Yuli Kvitsinsky, the Soviets never responded.[34] Kvitsinsky would later write that, despite his own efforts, the Soviet side was not interested in compromise, instead calculating that peace movements in the West would force the Americans to capitulate.[35] On 8 March 1983, during Andropov's reign as General Secretary, U.S. President Ronald Reagan famously labeled the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
an "evil empire". The same month, on 23 March, Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative. Reagan claimed this research program into ballistic missile defense would be "consistent with our obligations under the ABM Treaty". However, Andropov was dismissive of this claim, and said that "It is time they [Washington] stopped... search[ing] for the best ways of unleashing nuclear war... Engaging in this is not just irresponsible. It is insane".[36] In August 1983, Andropov made a sensational announcement that the country was stopping all work on space-based weapons. One of his most notable acts during his short time as leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was in response to a letter from a 10-year-old American child from Maine named Samantha Smith, inviting her to the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Soviet-U.S. arms control talks on intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe were suspended by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in November 1983 and by the end of the year, the Soviets had broken off all arms control negotiations.[37] Cold War
Cold War
tensions were exacerbated by Soviet fighters downing a civilian jet liner, Korean Air Flight KAL-007, which carried 269 passengers and crew, including a congressman from Georgia, Larry McDonald. KAL 007 had strayed over the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 1 September 1983 on its way from Anchorage, Alaska, to Seoul, South Korea. Andropov was advised by his Defence Minister Dmitriy Ustinov
Dmitriy Ustinov
and by the head of the KGB
KGB
Viktor Chebrikov
Viktor Chebrikov
to keep secret the fact that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
held in its possession the sought-after "black box" from KAL 007. In his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
recalled that when Andropov was the leader, Gorbachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, the chairman of Gosplan, asked him for access to real budget figures. "You are asking too much," Andropov responded. "The budget is off limits to you."[38] Death and funeral[edit] In February 1983, Andropov suffered total renal failure. In August 1983, he entered the Central Clinical Hospital in western Moscow
Moscow
on a permanent basis, where he would spend the remainder of his life. In late January 1984, Andropov's health deteriorated sharply and due to growing toxicity in his blood, he had periods of failing consciousness. He died on 9 February 1984 at 16:50 in his hospital room at age 69.[39] Few of the top Soviet leaders, not even all the Politburo members, learned of his death on that day. According to the Soviet post mortum medical report, Andropov suffered from several medical conditions: interstitial nephritis, nephrosclerosis, residual hypertension and diabetes, which were worsened by chronic kidney deficiency. A four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced. Andropov was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko, who seemed to mirror Andropov's tenure. Chernenko had already been afflicted with severe health problems when he ascended to the USSR's top spot, and served an even shorter time in office (13 months). Like Andropov, Chernenko spent much of his time hospitalized, and also died in office, in March 1985. Personal life[edit]

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Andropov in military uniform during World War II

Andropov lived at 26 Kutuzovsky Prospekt, the same building in which Suslov and Brezhnev also lived. He was first married to Nina Ivanovna; she was born not too far away from the local farm in which Andropov was born. In 1983 she was diagnosed with cancer and underwent a successful operation. He met his second wife, Tatyana Filipovna, during World War II
World War II
on the Karelian Front when she was Komsomol secretary. She had suffered a nervous breakdown during the Hungarian revolution. Andropov's chief guard informed Tatyana about the death of her husband. She was too grief-stricken to join in the procession and during the funeral her relatives helped her to walk. Before the lid could be closed on Andropov's coffin, she bent to kiss him. She touched his hair and then kissed him again. In 1985, a respectful 75-minute film was broadcast in which Tatyana (not even seen in public until Andropov's funeral) reads love poems written by her husband. Tatyana became ill and died in November 1991. Legacy[edit] Andropov's legacy remains the subject of much debate in Russia and elsewhere, both among scholars and in the popular media. He remains the focus of television documentaries and popular non-fiction, particularly around important anniversaries. As KGB
KGB
head, Andropov was ruthless against dissent, and author David Remnick, who covered the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for the Washington Post
Washington Post
in the 1980s, called Andropov "profoundly corrupt, a beast".[40] Alexander Yakovlev, later an advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and the ideologist of perestroika, said "In a way I always thought Andropov was the most dangerous of all of them, simply because he was smarter than the rest."[40] However, it was Andropov himself who recalled Yakovlev back to high office in Moscow
Moscow
in 1983 after a ten-year exile as ambassador to Canada after attacking Russian chauvinism. Yakovlev was also a close colleague of Andropov associate KGB
KGB
General Yevgeny Primakov, later Prime Minister of Russia. Andropov began to follow a trend of replacing elderly officials with considerably younger replacements. According to his former subordinate Securitate
Securitate
general Ion Mihai Pacepa,

"In the West, if Andropov is remembered at all, it is for his brutal suppression of political dissidence at home and for his role in planning the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. By contrast, the leaders of the former Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
intelligence community, when I was one of them, looked up to Andropov as the man who substituted the KGB
KGB
for the Communist party
Communist party
in governing the Soviet Union, and who was the godfather of Russia's new era of deception operations aimed at improving the badly damaged image of Soviet rulers in the West."[41]

Andropov and Wojciech Jaruzelski, General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party

Despite Andropov's hard-line stance in Hungary
Hungary
and the numerous banishments and intrigues for which he was responsible during his long tenure as head of the KGB, he has become widely regarded by many commentators as a reformer, especially in comparison with the stagnation and corruption during the later years of his predecessor, Leonid Brezhnev. Andropov, "a throwback to a tradition of Leninist asceticism",[40] was appalled by the corruption during Brezhnev's regime, and ordered investigations and arrests of the most flagrant abusers. The investigations were so frightening that several members of Brezhnev's circle "shot, gassed or otherwise did away with themselves."[40] He was certainly generally regarded as inclined to more gradual and constructive reform than was Gorbachev; most of the speculation centres around whether Andropov would have reformed the USSR in a manner which did not result in its eventual dissolution. The Western media favored Andropov because of his supposed passion for Western music and scotch.[42] However, these were unproven rumours. It is also questionable whether Andropov spoke any English at all.[43] The short time he spent as leader, much of it in a state of extreme ill health, leaves debaters few concrete indications as to the nature of any hypothetical extended rule. The 2002 Tom Clancy novel Red Rabbit focuses heavily on Andropov during his tenure of KGB
KGB
chief, when his health is slightly better. It mirrors his secrecy in that British and American intelligence know little about him, not even able to confirm he was a married man. The novel also depicts Andropov as being a fan of Marlboros and starka vodka, almost never available to ordinary Soviet citizens. Attitudes to Andropov[edit] In a message read out at the opening of a new exhibition dedicated to Andropov, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
called him "a man of talent with great abilities."[44] Putin has praised Andropov's "honesty and uprightness."[45] According to Russian historian Nikita Petrov, "He was a typical Soviet jailer who violated human rights. Andropov headed the organisation which persecuted the most remarkable people of our country."[46] From Petrov's point, it was a shame for the country that the persecutor of intelligentsia, the persecutor of freedom of thought, a man of whom as an oppressor of freedom legends were composed, became leader of the country.[47] According to Roy Medvedev, the year that Andropov spent in power was memorable for increasing repression against dissidents.[47] During most of his KGB
KGB
career, Andropov crushed dissident movements, isolated people in psychiatric hospitals, sent them to prison and deported them from the Soviet Union.[48] According to political scientist Georgy Arbatov, Andropov bears responsibility for many injustices in the 1970s and early 1980s: for deportations, for political arrests, for persecuting dissidents, for the abuse of psychiatry, for notorious cases such as the persecution of academician Andrei Sakharov.[49][50] According to Dmitri Volkogonov
Dmitri Volkogonov
and Harold Shukman, it was Andropov who approved the numerous trials of human rights activists such as Andrei Amalrik, Vladimir Bukovsky, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Alexander Ginzburg, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Pyotr Grigorenko, Anatoly Shcharansky, and others.[51] According to Soviet dissident Yuri Glazov, Andropov was a paradigmatic Homo Sovieticus and personally conducted disinformation campaigns against his main opponents and dissidents Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[52] According to Natalya Gorbanevskaya, now for some reason, we usually say that after Andropov's coming to power dissident movement went into decline, as if it itself went into decline.[53] The movement did not go into decline but was strangled.[53] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, repression was most severe, a lot of people were picked up for a second time, and when you are taken away for a second time, then your term is longer, and the camp regime is not strict but specific, and when Andropov became General Secretary, he introduced an Article under which for violations of camp regime you could be put into not only to a punishment cell but received an additional term up to three years, that is a person for his two or three remarks could be sent not home but to another camp to criminals.[53] And in those years there were a lot of deaths in camps not from hunger-strikes, but just from a disease, lack of medical care, etc.[53] Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet Awards

Hero of Socialist
Socialist
Labor, 1974[6]

Order of Lenin, four times[6]

Order of the October Revolution[6]

Order of the Red Banner, 1944[6]

Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
of Labour, three times (incl. 1944)[6]

Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War", 1st class

Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"

Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin"

Honorary Member of the KGB, 1973

Foreign Awards

Order of the Sun of Liberty (Afghanistan)

Hero of the People's Republic of Bulgaria

Order of Georgi Dimitrov
Order of Georgi Dimitrov
(Bulgaria)

Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary

Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia)

Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
(Mongolia)

Jubilee Medal "50 Years Anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution"

Andropov's speeches and works[edit]

Ленинизм озаряет наш путь [Leninism illumes our way] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1964.  Ленинизм — наука и искусство революционного творчества [Leninism is science and art of revolutionary creativity] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1976.  Коммунистическая убежденность — великая сила строителей нового мира [Communist firm belief is a great power of builders of new world] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1977.  "Доклад на торжественном заседании по случаю столетия со дня рождения Ф.Э. Дзержинского" [The report at the solemn meeting on the occasion of the centenary of F.E. Dzerzhinsky's birth]. Izvestiya
Izvestiya
(in Russian). 10 October 1977.  Шестьдесят лет СССР: доклад на совместном торжественном заседании Центрального Комитета КПСС, Верховного Совета СССР и Верховного Совета РСФСР, в Кремлевском Дворце съездов, 21 декабря 1982 года [The sixty years of the USSR: a report of a joint solemn meeting of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee, the USSR Supreme Soviet and the RSFSR Supreme Soviet in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, 21 December 1982] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1982.  "Text of Andropov's speech at Brezhnev's funeral". The New York Times. 16 November 1982.  Speeches and writings. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press. 1983. ISBN 008031287X.  Selected speeches and articles. Moscow: Progress Publishers. 1984. ASIN B003UHCKTO.  Speeches, articles, interviews. A Selection. South Asia Books. 1984. ISBN 083641165X.  Учение Карла Маркса и некоторые вопросы социалистического строительства в СССР [The teaching of Karl Marx and some issues of socialist building in the USSR] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1983.  Ленинизм — неисчерпаемый источник революционной энергии и творчества масс. Избранные речи и статьи [Leninism is an inexhaustible source of revolutionary energy and creativity of masses. Selected speeches and articles] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1984.  "The birth of samizdat". Index on Censorship. 24 (3): 62–63. 1995. doi:10.1080/03064229508535948. 

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Biography of Yuri Andropov" (PDF). Soviet Life. Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republics (323): 1B. 1983. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 

^ "Andropov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Profile of Yuri Andropov ^ a b c Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 25.   – via Questia (subscription required) ^ Dennis Kavanagh (1998). "Andropov, Yuri". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 15. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required) ^ The noble families from Don ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Biography of Yuri Andropov" (PDF). Soviet Life. Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republics (323): 1B. 1983. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ Babichenko, Denis (3 October 2005). Легендарная личность [Legendary Personality]. Itogi (in Russian) (40): 30–34.  ^ a b c d A Dictionary of 20th Century Communism. Edited by Silvio Pons and Robert Service. Princeton University Press. 2010. ^ БИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ УКАЗАТЕЛЬ ^ a b c d e f g Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB
KGB
in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7. ^ "He may be an economic liberal, but Putin is an Andropov at heart". The Scotsman. 27 June 2004.  ^ "Eurasian Secret Services Daily Review". Axis Information and Analysis (AIA). 25 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.  ^ McCauley, Martin (2014). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union. Routledge. p. 354. ISBN 1-31786-783-1.  ^ Albats, Yevgenia (1995). KGB: State Within a State. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 191. ISBN 1-85043-995-8.  ^ A Chronicle of Current Events, April 1968 to June 1982. ^ a b Nuti, Leopoldo (2009). The Crisis of Détente
Détente
in Europe: From Helsinki to Gorbachev, 1975–1985. Taylor & Francis. p. 29. ISBN 0-415-46051-4.  ^ a b Albats, Yevgenia (1995). KGB: state within a state. I.B.Tauris. p. 177. ISBN 1-85043-995-8.  ^ "Report from Krasnodar Region KGB", 22 January 1970, Pb 151/XIII, The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial. ^ Коротенко, Ада; Аликина, Наталия (2002). Советская психиатрия: Заблуждения и умысел (in Russian). Киев: Издательство «Сфера». p. 42. ISBN 966-7841-36-7.  ^ Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). Soviet Psychiatric Abuse: The Shadow Over World Psychiatry. Westview Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 0-8133-0209-9.  ^ Felshtinsky, Yuri; Gulko, Boris (2013). The KGB
KGB
Plays Chess: The Soviet Secret Police and the Fight for the World Chess Crown. SCB Distributors. ISBN 1936490013.  ^ Letter by Andropov to the Central Committee (10 July 1970), English translation Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Order to leave the message by Kreisky without answer; facsimile, in Russian. (Указание оставить без ответа ходатайство канцлера Бруно Крейского (Bruno Kreisky) об освобождении Орлова (29 июля 1983) ^ Seliktar, Ofira (2004). Politics, Paradigms, and Intelligence Failures: Why So Few Predicted the Collapse of the Soviet Union. M. E. Sharpe. p. 95. ISBN 0-7656-1464-2.  ^ "Memorandum from the KGB
KGB
Regarding the Planning of a Demonstration in Memory of John Lennon". Wilson Center Digital Archive. 20 December 1980. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ The worsening situation in Afghanistan, Politburo meeting, 17-18 March 1979, The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial. ^ Minutes of the CPSU
CPSU
Politburo meeting, 17 March 1979, in Russian. ^ Andropov to Central Committee, 25 April 1979, "Anti-Soviet activities with regard to 1980 Olympic Games", The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial. ^ Brown, Archie The Rise & Fall of Communism
Communism
(2009) p.435 ^ Rutland, Peter; Pomper, Philip (17 August 2011). "Stalin caused the Soviet collapse". The Moscow
Moscow
Times.  ^ Wilfried Loth. Moscow, Prague and Warsaw: Overcoming the Brezhnev Doctrine. Cold War
Cold War
History 1, no. 2 (2001): 103–118. ^ "The Andropov Hoax". Edward Jayepstein. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ Great Russian Encyclopedia
Great Russian Encyclopedia
(2005), Moscow: Bol'shaya Rossiyskaya Enciklopediya Publisher, vol. 1, p. 742. ^ Matlock, Jack F., Jr. (2005). Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. New York: Random House. pp. 41–46. ISBN 0-8129-7489-1.  ^ Kwizinskij, Julij A. (1993). Vor dem Sturm: Erinnerungen eines Diplomaten. Berlin: Siedler Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88680-464-1.  ^ Pravda, 27 March 1983 ^ Church, George J. (1 January 1984). "Person of the Year 1983: Ronald Reagan and Yuri Andropov". TIME. Retrieved 2 January 2008.  ^ Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996). Memoirs. Doubleday. p. 147. ISBN 0385480199.  ^ Burns, John F. (11 February 1984). "ANDROPOV IS DEAD IN MOSCOW AT 69; REAGAN ASKS 'PRODUCTIVE' CONTACTS AND NAMES BUSH TO ATTEND FUNERAL". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 July 2017.  ^ a b c d Remnick, David, Lenin's Tomb:The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York; Random House, 1993, p. 191. ^ No Peter the Great. Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
is in the Andropov mold, by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review, 20 September 2004. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the successor states Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 449. ^ Edward Jay Epstein The Andropov Hoax The New Republic
The New Republic
7 February 1983 ^ Miletitch, Nicolas (29 July 2014). "Andropov birth centenary evokes nostalgia for Soviet hardliner". The Daily Star (Lebanon).  ^ "Putin puts Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
back on his pedestal". The Irish Times. 16 June 2004.  ^ "Andropov birth centenary evokes nostalgia for Soviet hardliner". Gulf News. 29 July 2014.  ^ a b Кара-Мурза, Владимир (10 February 2009). "Как изменилась оценка обществом ставленников спецслужб в госвласти со времен Андропова?" [How has society's assessment of security services proteges in state power changed since the time of Andropov?] (in Russian). Radio Liberty.  ^ Cichowlas, Ola (2013). "In Russia, it is deja-vu all over again: how Russians fell back in love with the KGB
KGB
and Stalin". The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs. 22 (2): 111–124.  ^ Arbatov, Georgy (1992). The System: An Insider's Life in Soviet Politics. Times Books. p. 270. ISBN 081291970X.  ^ Neimanis, George (Summer 1993). "The view from inside: A review essay". Journal of Baltic Studies. 24 (2): 201–206. doi:10.1080/01629779300000071.  ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri; Shukman, Harold (1998). Autopsy for an empire: the seven leaders who built the Soviet regime. Simon and Schuster. p. 342. ISBN 0684834200.  ^ Tismaneanu, Vladimir (18 August 2014). "Who was Yuri Andropov? Ideologue, policeman, apparatchik: why a deceased Soviet butcher has an ever-growing mini-cult following". FrontPage Magazine.  ^ a b c d Кашин, Олег (22 May 2008). "Хроника утекших событий. Наталья Горбаневская: немонотонная речь" [A Chronicle of Past Events. Natalya Gorbanevskaya: non-monotonous speech]. Русская жизнь (in Russian). 

Further reading[edit]

Beichman, Arnold; Bernstam, Mikhail (1983). Andropov, New Challenge to the West. Stein and Day. ISBN 0812829212. OCLC 9464732.  Bialer, Seweryn (3 February 1983). "The Andropov succession". The New York Review of Books.  Ebon, Martin (1983). The Andropov file: the life and ideas of Yuri V. Andropov, general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070188610.  Epstein, Edward (7 February 1983). "The Andropov hoax". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 25 February 2002.  Glazov, Yuri (1985). "Yuri Andropov: a recent leader of Russia". The Russian mind since Stalin's death. D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 180–221. ISBN 9027718288.  Goodman, Elliot (Summer 1984). "The Brezhnev-Andropov legacy: implications for the future". Survey. 28 (2): 34–69.  Granville, Johanna (2004). The first domino: international decision making during the Hungarian crisis of 1956. Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 1585442984.  Gribanov, Alexander; Kowell, Masha (2009). " Samizdat
Samizdat
according to Andropov". Poetics Today. 30 (1): 89–106. doi:10.1215/03335372-2008-004.  Herman, Victor (September 1983). "In Stalin's footsteps: Yuri Andropov: rise of a dictator". Imprimis.  Medvedev, Roy (1 January 1984). "Andropov and the dissidents: the internal atmosphere under the new Soviet leadership". Dissent. 31 (1): 97–102.  "П.Л. Капица и Ю.В. Андропов об инакомыслии" [P.L. Kapitsa and Yu.V. Andropov about dissent]. Kommunist (in Russian) (7). 1991.  Sayle, Timothy (August 2009). "Andropov's Hungarian complex: Andropov and the lessons of history". Cold War
Cold War
History. 9 (3): 427–439. doi:10.1080/14682740902764528.  Solovyov, Vladimir; Klepikova, Elena (1983). Yuri Andropov: a secret passage into the Kremlin. Macmillan. ISBN 0026122901.  Whelan, Joseph (1983). Andropov and Reagan as negotiators: contexts and styles in contrast. Congressional Research Service The Library of Congress. ASIN B00DDVND9I.  Авторханов, Абдурахман (1986). От Андропова к Горбачёву: Дела и дни Кремля [From Andropov to Gorbachev: Deeds and days of the Kremlin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-PRESS. ISBN 2-85065-088-9. 

Primary sources[edit]

Johanna Granville, trans., "Soviet Archival Documents on the Hungarian Revolution, 24 October – 4 November 1956", Cold War
Cold War
International History Project Bulletin, no. 5 (Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, D.C.), Spring 1995, pp. 22–23, 29–34.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuri Andropov.

List of Andropov documents related to Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and other dissidents The KGB's 1967 Annual Report, signed by Andropov by CNN Похороны Андропова [Andropov's funeral, in Russian, 21 min] on YouTube

Government offices

Preceded by Vladimir Semichastny Chairman of the State Committee for State Security 1967–1982 Succeeded by Vitaly Fyodorchuk

Party political offices

Preceded by Leonid Brezhnev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1982–1984 Succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko

Political offices

Preceded by Vasili Kuznetsov Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1983–1984 Succeeded by Vasili Kuznetsov

Awards and achievements

Preceded by The Computer Time's Men of the Year (with Ronald Reagan) 1983 Succeeded by Peter Ueberroth

v t e

History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Organization

Congress Conference General Secretary Politburo Secretariat Orgburo Central Committee Control Commission Auditing Commission Komsomol Young Pioneers Pravda

Congress

1st (1898) 2nd (1903) 3rd (1905) 4th (1906) 5th (1907) 6th (1917) 7th (1918) 8th (1919) 9th (1920) 10th (1921) 11th (1922) 12th (1923) 13th (1924) 14th (1925) 15th (1927) 16th (1930) 17th (1934) 18th (1939) 19th (1952) 20th (1956) 21st (1959) 22nd (1961) 23rd (1966) 24th (1971) 25th (1976) 26th (1981) 27th (1986) 28th (1990)

Conference

1st (1905) 2nd (1906) 3rd (August 1907) 4th (November 1907) 5th (1908) 6th (1912) 7th (1917) 8th (1919) 9th (1920) 10th (May 1921) 11th (December 1921) 12th (1922) 13th (1924) 14th (1925) 15th (1926) 16th (1929) 17th (1932) 18th (1941) 19th (1988)

Party leadership

Party leaders

Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
(1912–1924) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1929–1953) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1953–1964) Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
(1964–1982) Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1982–1984) Konstantin Chernenko
Konstantin Chernenko
(1984–1985) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1985–1991)

Politburo

Aug.–Oct. 1917 Oct.–Dec. 1917 6th (1917–18) 7th (1918–19) 8th (1919–20) 9th (1920–21) 10th (1921–22) 11th (1922–23) 12th (1923–24) 13th (1924–25) 14th (1926–27) 15th (1927–30) 16th (1930–34) 17th (1934–39) 18th (1939–52) 19th (1952–56) 20th–21st (1956–61) 22nd (1961–66) 23rd (1966–71) 24th (1971–76) 25th (1976–81) 26th (1981–86) 27th (1986–90) 28th (1990–91)

Secretariat

6th (1917–18) 7th (1918–19) 8th (1919–20) 9th (1920–21) 10th (1921–22) 11th (1922–23) 12th (1923–24) 13th (1924–25) 14th (1926–27) 15th (1927–30) 16th (1930–34) 17th (1934–39) 18th (1939–52) 19th (1952–56) 20th–21st (1956–61) 22nd (1961–66) 23rd (1966–71) 24th (1971–76) 25th (1976–81) 26th (1981–86) 27th (1986–90) 28th (1990–91)

Orgburo

7th (Jan.–Mar. 1919) 8th (1919–20) 9th (1920–21) 10th (1921–22) 11th (1922–23) 12th (1923–24) 13th (1924–26) 14th (1926–27) 15th (1927–30) 16th (1930–34) 17th (1934–39) 18th (1939–52)

Central Control Commission

9th (1920–21) 10th (1921–22) 11th (1922–23) 12th (1923–24) 13th (1924–25) 14th (1926–27) 15th (1927–30) 16th (1930–34) 17th (1934–39) 18th (1939–52) 19th (1952–56) 20th–21st (1956–61) 22nd (1961–66) 23rd (1966–71) 24th (1971–76) 25th (1976–81) 26th (1981–86) 27th (1986–90) 28th (1990–91)

Central Committee

1st (1898–1903) 2nd (1903–05) 3rd (1905–06) 4th (1906–07) 5th (1907–12) 6th (1912–17) 7th (Apr.–Aug. 1917) 8th (1917–18) 9th (1918–19) 10th (1919–20) 11th (1920–21) 12th (1921–22) 13th (1922–23) 14th (1923–24) 15th (1924–25) 16th (1926–27) 17th (1927–30) 18th (1930–34) 19th (1934–39) 20th (1939–41) 21st (1941–52) 19th (1952–56) 20th (1956–61) 22nd (1961–66) 23rd (1966–71) 24th (1971–76) 25th (1976–81) 26th (1981–86) 27th (1986–90) 28th (1990–91)

Central Auditing Commission

8th–9th (1919–21) 10th–12th (1921–24) 13th (1924–25) 14th (1926–27) 15th (1927–30) 16th (1930–34) 17th (1934–39) 18th (1939–52) 19th (1952–56) 20th–21st (1956–61) 22nd (1961–66) 23rd (1966–71) 24th (1971–76) 25th (1976–81) 26th (1981–86) 27th (1986–90)

Departments of the Central Committee

Administrative Organs Agriculture Chemical Industry Construction Culture Defence Industry Foreign Cadres General Heavy Industry Information International Light- and Food Industry Machine Industry Organisational-party Work Planning and Financial Organs Political Administration of the Ministry of Defence Propaganda Science and Education Trade and Consumers' Services Transportation-Communications

Republican branches

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Bukhara Estonia Georgia Karelo-Finland Kazakhstan Khorezm Kirghizia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Transcaucasia Turkestan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

See also

General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class Siberian Social-Democratic Union Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania Union of Russian Social Democrats Abroad

v t e

Heads of state of the Soviet Union

Heads of state

Kalinin (1922–1946) Shvernik (1946–1953) Voroshilov (1953–1960) Brezhnev (1960–1964) Mikoyan (1964–1965) Podgorny (1965–1977) Brezhnev (1977–1982) Andropov (1983–1984) Chernenko (1984–1985) Gromyko (1985–1988) Gorbachev (1988–1991)

Vice heads of state

Kuznetsov (1977–1986) Demichev (1986–1988) Lukyanov (1988–1990) Yanayev (1990–1991)

Presidents of Russian SFSR Presidents of Russia

v t e

Leaders of the ruling Communist parties of the Eastern Bloc

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Georgy Malenkov Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev

Party of Labour of Albania

Enver Hoxha Ramiz Alia

Bulgarian Communist Party

Georgi Dimitrov Valko Chervenkov Todor Zhivkov Petar Mladenov

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Klement Gottwald Antonín Novotný Alexander Dubček Gustáv Husák Miloš Jakeš Karel Urbánek

Socialist
Socialist
Unity Party of Germany

Wilhelm Pieck Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker Egon Krenz

Hungarian Working People's Party Hungarian Socialist
Socialist
Workers' Party

Mátyás Rákosi Ernő Gerő János Kádár Károly Grósz

Polish Workers' Party Polish United Workers' Party

Bolesław Bierut Edward Ochab Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Stanisław Kania Wojciech Jaruzelski Mieczysław Rakowski

Romanian Communist Party

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe Apostol Nicolae Ceaușescu

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Josip Broz Tito (1980–1990, rotating leadership)

v t e

Politics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1964–1985)

Events (1964–1982)

Collective leadership Glassboro Summit Conference Six Day War Prague Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968 Red Square demonstration Brezhnev Doctrine Brezhnev assassination attempt Sino-Soviet border conflict Détente 1973 oil crisis Fall of Saigon Vladivostok Summit Helsinki Accords 1977 Moscow
Moscow
bombings 1977 Soviet Constitution 1978 Georgian demonstrations Cambodian–Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics Reaction to 1980–1981 Polish crisis Exercise Zapad Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev Legacy of Leonid Brezhnev

Events (1982–1985)

RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 1983 false nuclear alarm incident Able Archer 83 1984 Summer Olympics boycott Friendship Games

Politburo members

22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th

Aliyev Andropov Brezhnev Chebrikov Chernenko Demichev Dolgikh Efremov Gorbachev Grechko Grishin Gromyko Kirilenko Kiselyov Kunayev Kosygin Kulakov Kuznetsov Masherov Mazurov Mikoyan Mzhavanadze Pelše Podgorny Polyansky Ponomarev Rashidov Romanov Shcherbytsky Shelepin Shelest Shevardnadze Shvernik Solomentsev Suslov Tikhonov Ustinov Voronov Vorotnikov

Leaders

The Troika (Brezhnev Kosygin Podgorny) Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko

Governments

Kosygin's 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tikhonov's 1st 2nd

National economy

Reforms

OGAS 1965 1973 1979 Food Programme 1984

Five-year plans

8th plan 9th plan 10th plan 11th plan

Brezhnev's family

Churbanov (son-in-law) Galina (daughter) Lyubov (niece) Viktoria (wife) Yakov (brother) Yuri (son)

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA
CIA
and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Soviet–Afghan War

Part of the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Cold War

Belligerents

Alliance

Soviet Union Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Mujahideen

Islamic Unity of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Mujahideen Jamiat-e Islami

Shura-e Nazar

Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin

Maktab al-Khidamat

Hezb-e Islami Khalis Hezb-e Wahdat Ittehad i-Islami

Leaders

Alliance

Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum

Mujahideen

Ahmad Shah Massoud Abdul Ali Mazari Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Haq Abdul Rahim Wardak Burhanuddin Rabbani

Events by year

1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

Military operations

Operation Storm-333 3 Hoot uprising Siege of Khost Panjshir offensives Siege of Urgun Battle of Maravar Pass Badaber uprising Battles of Zhawar Battle of Jaji Battle of Arghandab (1987) Operation Magistral Battle for Hill 3234 Operation Arrow Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

Related topics

Soviet aircraft losses War in popular culture Military equipment used by Mujahideen Afghanistan
Afghanistan
War Memorial, Kiev

Films about war

The 9th Company Afghan Breakdown Afghantsi All Costs Paid The Beast Cargo 200 Charlie Wilson's War The Kite Runner The Living Daylights The Magic Mountain Peshavar Waltz Rambo III

Category Portal Multimedia

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Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 98361393 LCCN: n82156220 ISNI: 0000 0001 1453 1337 GND: 118649310 SELIBR: 35970 SUDOC: 027630773 BNF: cb11963057s (data) NLA: 36578406 NDL: 00431538 NKC: jn20000600

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