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Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (/ænˈdroʊpɔːf, -pɒf/;[1] Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов, tr. Júrij Vladímirovič Andrópov, IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ɐnˈdropəf]; 15 June [O.S. 2 June] 1914 – 9 February 1984)[2] was the sixth paramount leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the third General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Following the 18-year rule of Leonid Brezhnev, Andropov served in the post from November 1982 until his death in February 1984. Earlier in his career, Andropov served as the Soviet ambassador to Hungary
Hungary
from 1954 to 1957, during which time he was involved in the suppression of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising. Under the leadership of Leonid Brezhnev, he was named Chairman of the KGB
KGB
on 10 May 1967. In this position, he oversaw a massive crackdown on dissent that was carried out via mass arrests and the wholesale application of involuntary psychiatric commitments of people deemed "socially undesirable". As Brezhnev's health declined during the latter years of his leadership, Andropov formed a troika alongside Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko
Andrei Gromyko
and Defense Minister Dmitry Ustinov
Dmitry Ustinov
that ultimately came to dominate Soviet policymaking. Upon Brezhnev's death on 12 November 1982, Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
succeeded him as General Secretary and (by extension) leader of the Soviet Union. During his tenure, Andropov sought to eliminate corruption and inefficiency within the Soviet system by investigating longtime officials for violations of party discipline and criminalizing truancy in the workplace. However, upon suffering total renal failure in February 1983, Andropov's health began to deteriorate rapidly. On 9 February 1984, he died after leading the country for only 15 months.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career in the Communist Party 3 Suppression of the Hungarian Uprising 4 Chairmanship of the KGB
KGB
and Politburo career

4.1 Crushing the Prague Spring 4.2 Suppression of dissidents 4.3 Role in the invasion of Afghanistan 4.4 Role in the non-invasion of Poland 4.5 Promotion of Gorbachev

5 Leader of the Soviet Union

5.1 Domestic policy

5.1.1 Economy 5.1.2 Anti-corruption campaign

5.2 Foreign policy

6 Death and funeral 7 Personal life 8 Legacy 9 Attitudes to Andropov 10 Honours and awards 11 Speeches and works 12 References 13 Further reading

13.1 Primary sources

14 External links

Early life[edit] There has been much contention over his family background.[3] According to the official biography, Andropov was born in stanitsa Nagutskaya (modern-day Stavropol Krai
Stavropol Krai
of Russia) on 15 June 1914.[4][5] His father Vladimir Konstantinovich Andropov was a railway worker of Don Cossack
Don Cossack
descent who died from typhus in 1919. His mother Yevgenia Karlovna Fleckenstein (none of the official sources mentioned her name) was a school teacher who died in 1931.[6][7] She was born in the Ryazan
Ryazan
Governorate into a family of town dwellers and was abandoned on the doorstep of a Finnish citizen, a Jewish watchmaker Karl Franzevich Fleckenstein who lived in Moscow; he and his wife Eudokia Mikhailovna Fleckenstein adopted and raised her.[8][9] Later researches has shown that many details about Andropov's biography were largely falsified during his lifetime which has contributed to the confusion connected to his family history. His earliest documented name was Grigory Vladimirovich Andropov-Fyodorov; he changed it to Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
only several years later.[10] While his original birth certificate disappeared, it was established that Andropov was in fact born in Moscow
Moscow
where his mother had been working in a women's gymnasium since 1913 throughout 1914 and until 1917.[8][10] To make things more complicated, he named different dates of her death at various occasions: 1927, 1929, 1930 and 1931.[7][8] The story of her adoption was also highly likely a mystification. In 1937 Andropov went through a check when applied for the Communist Party membership, and it turned out that "the sister of his native maternal grandmother" (he called her his aunt) who was living with him and who supported the legend of his Ryazan
Ryazan
peasant origins was in fact his nurse who had been serving at Fleckensteins long before he was born.[7][8] It was also reported that his mother belonged to merchantry. In fact Karl Fleckenstein was a rich jewel merchant, owner of a jewellery store, and so was his wife who took over her husband's business after his accidental death in 1915 (he was confused for a German during the infamous anti-German pogrom in Moscow, although Andropov preferred to refer to it as anti-Jewish).[10][11] The whole family could've turned into lishentsy stripped of basic rights if she hadn't abandoned the store after another pogrom in 1917, invented herself a proletarian background and left Moscow
Moscow
for the Stavropol Governorate along with Andropov's mother.[7][8] He gave different versions of his father's fate: in one case he divorced his mother soon after his birth, in another — died of illness.[10] The "father" he referred to — Vladimir Andropov — was in fact his stepfather who lived and worked at Nagutskaya and died from typhus in 1919. The Fyodorov surname belonged to his second stepfather (since 1921) Viktor Fyodorov, a machinist assistant turned a school teacher. His real father remains unknown; he probably died in 1916 — a date written in Andropov's 1932 resume.[8][10] During the 1937 check it was reported that his father served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army. Andropov was thoroughly interviewed four times, yet he was so convincing that he managed to have dropped all charges. He joined the Communist Party in 1939.[7][8]

Early career in the Communist Party[edit] Komsomol
Komsomol
membership card issued to Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
in 1939. Andropov was educated at the Rybinsk
Rybinsk
Water Transport Technical College and graduated in 1936.[4] As a teenager he worked as a loader, a telegraph clerk, and a sailor for the Volga
Volga
steamship line.[9][6] At 16, Yuri Andropov, then a member of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (YCL, or Komsomol), was a worker in the town of Mozdok in the North Ossetian ASSR.[4] He became full-time Secretary of the YCL organization of the Water Transport Technical School in Rybinsk
Rybinsk
in the Yaroslavl Region
Yaroslavl Region
and was soon promoted to the post of organizer of the YCL Central Committee at the Volodarsky Shipyards in Rybinsk. In 1938, he was elected First Secretary of the Yaroslavl Regional Committee of the YCL, and was First Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol
Komsomol
in the Soviet Karelo-Finnish Republic from 1940 to 1944.[9] According to the official biography, during World War II
World War II
Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finland, although modern researchers didn't manage to find any traces of his supposed partisan squad.[10] From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol
Komsomol
for Communist Party work. Between 1946 and 1951, he studied at the university of Petrozavodsk. In 1947, he was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR.[9][12] In 1951 Andropov was transferred to CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee. He was appointed an inspector and then the head of a subdepartment of the Committee.[9]

Suppression of the Hungarian Uprising[edit] In July 1954, he was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Hungary
Hungary
and held this position during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian uprising. He convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
that military intervention was necessary.[13] He is known as 'The Butcher of Budapest' for his ruthless suppression of the Hungarian uprising.[14] The Hungarian leaders were arrested and Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
and others executed. After these events, Andropov suffered from a "Hungarian complex", according to historian Christopher Andrew: "He had watched in horror from the windows of his embassy as officers of the hated Hungarian security service [the Államvédelmi Hatóság
Államvédelmi Hatóság
or AVH] were strung up from lampposts. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. When other Communist regimes later seemed at risk – in Prague in 1968, in Kabul in 1979, in Warsaw in 1981, he was convinced that, as in Budapest in 1956, only armed force could ensure their survival".[13]

Chairmanship of the KGB
KGB
and Politburo career[edit] Party identity card of Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
one month before becoming a full member of the Politburo in April 1973. In 1957, Andropov returned to Moscow
Moscow
from Budapest in order to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers' Parties in Socialist
Socialist
Countries, a position he held until 1967. In 1961, he was elected full member of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee and was promoted to the Secretariat of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee in 1962. In 1967, he was relieved of his work in the Central Committee apparatus and appointed head of the KGB
KGB
on recommendation of Mikhail Suslov, at the same time promoted a Candidate Member of the Politburo. He gained additional powers in 1973, when he was promoted to full member of the Politburo.

Crushing the Prague Spring[edit] During the events of the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
in 1968, Andropov was the main advocate for "extreme measures" being taken against Czechoslovakia. According to classified information released by Vasili Mitrokhin, "[t]he KGB
KGB
whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
could fall victim to NATO
NATO
aggression or to a coup".[13] At this time, agent Oleg Kalugin reported from Washington that he gained access to "absolutely reliable documents proving that neither the CIA
CIA
nor any other agency was manipulating the Czechoslovak reform movement".[13] However his message was destroyed because it contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov.[13] Andropov ordered a number of active measures, collectively known as operation PROGRESS, against Czechoslovak reformers.

Suppression of dissidents[edit] See also: Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Throughout his career, Andropov aimed to achieve "the destruction of dissent in all its forms" and insisted that "the struggle for human rights was a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the foundation of the Soviet state".[13] Towards this end, he launched a campaign to eliminate all opposition in the USSR through a mixture of mass arrests, involuntary commitments to psychiatric hospitals, and pressuring on rights activists to emigrate from the Soviet Union.These measures were meticulously documented throughout his time as KGB chairman by the underground Chronicle of Current Events, a samizdat publication which was itself finally forced out of existence with its last published issue, dated 30 June 1982.[15] On 3 July 1967, he made a proposal to establish the KGB's Fifth Directorate for dealing with the political opposition[16]:29 (ideological counterintelligence).[17]:177 At the end of July, the directorate was established and entered in its files cases of all Soviet dissidents including Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[16] In 1968, Andropov as the KGB
KGB
Chairman issued his order "On the tasks of State security agencies in combating the ideological sabotage by the adversary", calling for struggle against dissidents and their imperialist masters.[13] After the assassination attempt against Brezhnev in January 1969, Andropov led the interrogation of the captured gunman, Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin.[18][19] Ilyin was pronounced insane and sent to Kazan Psychiatric
Psychiatric
Hospital.[20] Later, on 29 April 1969, he submitted to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
an elaborated plan for creating a network of psychiatric hospitals to defend the "Soviet Government and socialist order" from dissidents.[17]:177 In January 1970 Andropov submitted an alarming account to his fellow Politburo members of the widespread threat of the mentally ill to stability and the security of the regime.[21] The proposal by Andropov to use psychiatry for struggle against dissidents was implemented.[22]:42 Andropov was in charge of the widespread deployment of psychiatric repression since he was the head of the KGB.[23]:187–188 According to Yuri Felshtinsky and Boris Gulko, the originators of the idea to use psychiatry for punitive purposes were the head of the KGB
KGB
(Andropov) and the head of the Fifth Directorate, Philipp Bobkov.[24] The repression of dissidents[25][26] included plans to maim the dancer Rudolf Nureyev, who had defected in 1961. There are some who believe that Andropov was behind the deaths of Fyodor Kulakov and Pyotr Masherov, the two youngest members of the Soviet leadership.[27] A declassified document revealed that Andropov as KGB
KGB
director gave the order to prevent unauthorized gatherings mourning the death of John Lennon.[28] In 1977, Andropov convinced Brezhnev that the Ipatiev House, where Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his family were murdered by communist revolutionaries, had become a site of pilgrimage for covert monarchists.[29] With the Politburo's approval the house, deemed to be not of "sufficient historical significance", was demolished in September 1977, less than a year before the 60th anniversary of the murders.[30]

Role in the invasion of Afghanistan[edit] Andropov opposed the decision to intervene militarily in Afghanistan on 24 December 1979.[31] Among his concerns was that the international community would blame the USSR for this action.[32] The invasion led to the extended Soviet–Afghan War (1979–1989) and a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow
Moscow
by 66 countries, something of concern to Andropov since spring 1979.[33]

Role in the non-invasion of Poland[edit] On 10 December 1981, in the face of Poland's Solidarity movement, Andropov, along with Mikhail Suslov
Mikhail Suslov
and Wojciech Jaruzelski,[34] persuaded Brezhnev that it would be counterproductive for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to invade Poland
Poland
by repeating Prague 1968.[35] This effectively marked the end of the Brezhnev Doctrine.[36]

Promotion of Gorbachev[edit] From 1980 to 1982, while still chairman of the KGB, Andropov opposed plans to occupy Poland
Poland
after the emergence of the Solidarity movement and promoted reform-minded party cadres including Mikhail Gorbachev.[6] Andropov was the longest-serving KGB
KGB
chairman and did not resign as head of the KGB
KGB
until May 1982, when he was again promoted to the Secretariat to succeed Mikhail Suslov
Mikhail Suslov
as secretary responsible for ideological affairs.

Leader of the Soviet Union[edit] Andropov (seated second from right in the front row) presides over the USSR's 60th Anniversary shortly after succeeding Brezhnev as its leader. Two days after Leonid Brezhnev's death, on 12 November 1982, Andropov was elected General Secretary of the CPSU, the first former head of the KGB
KGB
to become General Secretary. His appointment was received in the West with apprehension, in view of his roles in the KGB
KGB
and in Hungary. At the time his personal background was a mystery in the West, with major newspapers printing detailed profiles of him that were inconsistent and in several cases fabricated.[37]

Domestic policy[edit] Economy[edit] At home, Andropov attempted to improve the nation's economy by increasing its workforce's efficiency. He cracked down on Soviet laborers' lack of discipline by decreeing the arrest of absentee employees and penalties for tardiness.[38] For the first time, the facts about economic stagnation and obstacles to scientific progress were made available to the public and open to criticism.[39] Furthermore, the KGB
KGB
Chairman-turned-Gensek gave select industries greater autonomy from state regulations[40] and enabled factory managers to retain control over more of their profits.[41] Such policies resulted in a 4% rise in industrial output and increased investment in new technologies such as robotics.[42] Despite such reforms, Andropov refused to consider any changes that sought to dispense with the command economy introduced under Joseph Stalin. In his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
recalled that when Andropov was the leader, Gorbachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, the chairman of Gosplan, asked him for access to real budget figures. "You are asking too much," Andropov responded. "The budget is off limits to you."[43]

Anti-corruption campaign[edit] In contrast to Brezhnev's policy of avoiding conflicts and dismissals, he began to fight violations of party, state and labour discipline, which led to significant personnel changes during an anti-corruption campaign against many of Brezhnev's cronies.[6] During 15 months in office, Andropov dismissed 18 ministers and 37 first secretaries of obkoms, kraikoms and Central Committees of Communist Parties of Soviet Republics, and criminal cases against high level party and state officials were started.

Foreign policy[edit] A photograph of Korean Air Lines HL7442, the airliner shot down by Soviet aircraft after drifting into prohibited airspace during the KAL 007 Flight. In foreign policy, the conflict in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
continued even though Andropov—who now felt the invasion was a mistake—half-heartedly explored options for a negotiated withdrawal. Andropov's rule was also marked by deterioration of relations with the United States. During a much-publicized "walk in the woods" with Soviet dignitary Yuli Kvitsinsky, American diplomat Paul Nitze
Paul Nitze
suggested a compromise for reducing nuclear missiles in Europe on both sides that was ultimately ignored by the Politburo.[44] Kvitsinsky would later write that, despite his own efforts, the Soviet leadership was not interested in compromise, instead calculating that peace movements in the West would force the Americans to capitulate.[45] On 8 March 1983, during Andropov's reign as General Secretary, U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
famously labeled the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
an "evil empire". The same month, on 23 March, Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative. Reagan claimed this research program into ballistic missile defense would be "consistent with our obligations under the ABM Treaty". However, Andropov was dismissive of this claim, and said that "It is time they [Washington] stopped ... search[ing] for the best ways of unleashing nuclear war. ... Engaging in this is not just irresponsible. It is insane".[46] In August 1983, Andropov made an announcement that the country was stopping all work on space-based weapons. One of his most notable acts during his short time as leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was in response to a letter from a 10-year-old American child from Maine named Samantha Smith, inviting her to the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Soviet–U.S. arms control talks on intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe were suspended by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in November 1983 and by the end of the year, the Soviets had broken off all arms control negotiations.[47] Cold War
Cold War
tensions were exacerbated by Soviet fighters downing a civilian jet liner, Korean Air Flight KAL-007, which carried 269 passengers and crew, including a congressman from Georgia, Larry McDonald. KAL 007 had strayed over the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 1 September 1983 on its way from Anchorage, Alaska, to Seoul, South Korea. Andropov was advised by his Defence Minister Dmitriy Ustinov
Dmitriy Ustinov
and by the head of the KGB
KGB
Viktor Chebrikov
Viktor Chebrikov
to keep secret the fact that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
held in its possession the sought-after black box from KAL 007.

Death and funeral[edit] Grave of Andropov at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow. In February 1983, Andropov suffered total renal failure. In August 1983, he entered the Central Clinical Hospital in western Moscow
Moscow
on a permanent basis, where he would spend the remainder of his life. In late January 1984, Andropov's health deteriorated sharply and due to growing toxicity in his blood, he had periods of falling consciousness. He died on 9 February 1984 at 16:50 in his hospital room at age 69.[48] Few of the top Soviet leaders, not even all the Politburo members, learned of his death on that day. According to the Soviet post mortem medical report, Andropov suffered from several medical conditions: interstitial nephritis, nephrosclerosis, residual hypertension and diabetes, which were worsened by chronic kidney deficiency. A four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced. Andropov was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko, who seemed to mirror Andropov's tenure. Chernenko had already been afflicted with severe health problems when he ascended to the USSR's top spot, and served an even shorter time in office (13 months). Like Andropov, Chernenko spent much of his time hospitalized, and also died in office, in March 1985.

Personal life[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Andropov lived at 26 Kutuzovsky Prospekt, the same building in which Suslov and Brezhnev also lived. He was first married to Nina Ivanovna; she was born not far from the local farm in which Andropov was born. In 1983 she was diagnosed with cancer and underwent a successful operation. He met his second wife, Tatyana Filipovna, during World War II on the Karelian Front when she was Komsomol
Komsomol
secretary. She had suffered a nervous breakdown during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Andropov's chief guard informed Tatyana about the death of her husband. She was too grief-stricken to join in the procession and during the funeral her relatives helped her to walk. Before the lid could be closed on Andropov's coffin, she bent to kiss him. She touched his hair and then kissed him again. In 1985, a respectful 75-minute film was broadcast in which Tatyana (not even seen in public until Andropov's funeral) reads love poems written by her husband. Tatyana became ill and died in November 1991.

Legacy[edit] Andropov's legacy remains the subject of much debate in Russia
Russia
and elsewhere, both among scholars and in the popular media. He remains the focus of television documentaries and popular non-fiction, particularly around important anniversaries. As KGB
KGB
head, Andropov was ruthless against dissent, and author David Remnick, who covered the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for the Washington Post
Washington Post
in the 1980s, called Andropov "profoundly corrupt, a beast".[49] Alexander Yakovlev, later an advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and the ideologist of perestroika, said: "In a way I always thought Andropov was the most dangerous of all of them, simply because he was smarter than the rest."[49] However, it was Andropov himself who recalled Yakovlev back to high office in Moscow
Moscow
in 1983 after a ten-year exile as ambassador to Canada after attacking Russian chauvinism. Yakovlev was also a close colleague of Andropov associate KGB
KGB
General Yevgeny Primakov, later Prime Minister of Russia. Andropov began to follow a trend of replacing elderly officials with considerably younger replacements. According to his former subordinate Securitate
Securitate
general Ion Mihai Pacepa,

In the West, if Andropov is remembered at all, it is for his brutal suppression of political dissidence at home and for his role in planning the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. By contrast, the leaders of the former Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
intelligence community, when I was one of them, looked up to Andropov as the man who substituted the KGB
KGB
for the Communist party
Communist party
in governing the Soviet Union, and who was the godfather of Russia's new era of deception operations aimed at improving the badly damaged image of Soviet rulers in the West.[50] Despite Andropov's hard-line stance in Hungary
Hungary
and the numerous banishments and intrigues for which he was responsible during his long tenure as head of the KGB, he has become widely regarded by many commentators as a reformer, especially in comparison with the stagnation and corruption during the later years of his predecessor, Leonid Brezhnev. Andropov, "a throwback to a tradition of Leninist asceticism",[49] was appalled by the corruption during Brezhnev's regime, and ordered investigations and arrests of the most flagrant abusers. The investigations were so frightening that several members of Brezhnev's circle "shot, gassed or otherwise did away with themselves."[49] He was certainly generally regarded as inclined to more gradual and constructive reform than was Gorbachev; most of the speculation centres around whether Andropov would have reformed the USSR in a manner which did not result in its eventual dissolution. The Western media favored Andropov because of his supposed passion for Western music and scotch.[51] However, these were unproven rumours. It is also questionable whether Andropov spoke any English at all.[52] The short time he spent as leader, much of it in a state of extreme ill health, leaves debaters few concrete indications as to the nature of any hypothetical extended rule. The 2002 Tom Clancy novel Red Rabbit
Red Rabbit
focuses heavily on Andropov during his tenure of KGB
KGB
chief, when his health is slightly better. It mirrors his secrecy in that British and American intelligence know little about him, not even able to confirm he was a married man. The novel also depicts Andropov as being a fan of Marlboros and starka vodka, almost never available to ordinary Soviet citizens.

Attitudes to Andropov[edit] In a message read out at the opening of a new exhibition dedicated to Andropov, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
called him "a man of talent with great abilities."[53] Putin has praised Andropov's "honesty and uprightness."[54] According to Russian historian Nikita Petrov, "He was a typical Soviet jailer who violated human rights. Andropov headed the organisation which persecuted the most remarkable people of our country."[55] From Petrov's point, it was a shame for the country that the persecutor of intelligentsia, the persecutor of freedom of thought, a man of whom as an oppressor of freedom legends were composed, became leader of the country.[56] According to Roy Medvedev, the year that Andropov spent in power was memorable for increasing repression against dissidents.[56] During most of his KGB
KGB
career, Andropov crushed dissident movements, isolated people in psychiatric hospitals, sent them to prison and deported them from the Soviet Union.[57] According to political scientist Georgy Arbatov, Andropov bears responsibility for many injustices in the 1970s and early 1980s: for deportations, for political arrests, for persecuting dissidents, for the abuse of psychiatry, for notorious cases such as the persecution of academician Andrei Sakharov.[58][59] According to Dmitri Volkogonov
Dmitri Volkogonov
and Harold Shukman, it was Andropov who approved the numerous trials of human rights activists such as Andrei Amalrik, Vladimir Bukovsky, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Alexander Ginzburg, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Pyotr Grigorenko, Anatoly Shcharansky, and others.[60] According to Soviet dissident Yuri Glazov, Andropov was a paradigmatic Homo Sovieticus and personally conducted disinformation campaigns against his main opponents and dissidents Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[61] According to Natalya Gorbanevskaya, now for some reason, we usually say that after Andropov's coming to power dissident movement went into decline, as if it itself went into decline.[62] The movement did not go into decline but was strangled.[62] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, repression was most severe, a lot of people were picked up for a second time, and when you are taken away for a second time, then your term is longer, and the camp regime is not strict but specific, and when Andropov became General Secretary, he introduced an Article under which for violations of camp regime you could be put into not only to a punishment cell but received an additional term up to three years, that is a person for his two or three remarks could be sent not home but to another camp, with [non-political] criminals.[62] And in those years there were a lot of deaths in camps not from hunger-strikes, but just from a disease, lack of medical care, etc.[62] Various people who closely knew Andropov, including Vladimir Medvedev, Aleksandr Chuchyalin, Vladimir Kryuchkov[63] and Roy Medvedev, remembered him for his politeness, calmness, unselfishness, patience, intelligence and exceptionally sharp memory.[64] According to Chuchyalin, while working at Kremlin Andropov would read ca. 600 pages per day and remember everything he had read.[65] Andropov read English literature and could communicate in Finnish, English and German.[66]

Honours and awards[edit] Soviet Awards

Hero of Socialist
Socialist
Labor, 1974[9]

Order of Lenin, four times[9]

Order of the October Revolution[9]

Order of the Red Banner, 1944[9]

Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
of Labour, three times (incl. 1944)[9]

Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War", 1st class

Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"

Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin"

Honorary Member of the KGB, 1973 Foreign Awards

Order of the Sun of Liberty (Afghanistan)

Hero of the People's Republic of Bulgaria

Order of Georgi Dimitrov
Order of Georgi Dimitrov
(Bulgaria)

Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary

Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia)

Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
(Mongolia)

Jubilee Medal "50 Years Anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution"

Speeches and works[edit] Ленинизм озаряет наш путь [Leninism illumes our way] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1964..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em Ленинизм — наука и искусство революционного творчества [Leninism is science and art of revolutionary creativity] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1976. Коммунистическая убежденность — великая сила строителей нового мира [Communist firm belief is a great power of builders of new world] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1977. "Доклад на торжественном заседании по случаю столетия со дня рождения Ф.Э. Дзержинского" [The report at the solemn meeting on the occasion of the centenary of F.E. Dzerzhinsky's birth]. Izvestiya (in Russian). 10 October 1977. Шестьдесят лет СССР: доклад на совместном торжественном заседании Центрального Комитета КПСС, Верховного Совета СССР и Верховного Совета РСФСР, в Кремлевском Дворце съездов, 21 декабря 1982 года [The sixty years of the USSR: a report of a joint solemn meeting of the CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee, the USSR Supreme Soviet and the RSFSR Supreme Soviet in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, 21 December 1982] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1982. "Text of Andropov's speech at Brezhnev's funeral". The New York Times. 16 November 1982. Speeches and writings. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press. 1983. ISBN 978-0080312873. Selected speeches and articles. Moscow: Progress Publishers. 1984. ASIN B003UHCKTO. Speeches, articles, interviews. A Selection. South Asia Books. 1984. ISBN 978-0836411652. Учение Карла Маркса и некоторые вопросы социалистического строительства в СССР [The teaching of Karl Marx and some issues of socialist building in the USSR] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1983. Ленинизм — неисчерпаемый источник революционной энергии и творчества масс. Избранные речи и статьи [Leninism is an inexhaustible source of revolutionary energy and creativity of masses. Selected speeches and articles] (in Russian). Moscow: Издательство политической литературы. 1984. Andropov, Y.V. (1995). "The birth of samizdat". Index on Censorship. 24 (3): 62–63. doi:10.1080/03064229508535948. References[edit] This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Biography of Yuri Andropov" (PDF). Soviet Life
Soviet Life
(323): 1B. 1983. Retrieved 19 August 2013.

^ "Andropov". Random House
Random House
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

^ Profile of Yuri Andropov

^ Aktürk, Şener (12 November 2012). Regimes of Ethnicity and Nationhood in Germany, Russia, and Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-85169-5.

^ a b c Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 25.  – via Questia (subscription required)

^ Kavanagh, Dennis (1998). "Andropov, Yuri". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 15. Retrieved 31 August 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)

^ a b c d A Dictionary of 20th Century Communism. Edited by Silvio Pons and Robert Service. Princeton University Press. 2010.

^ a b c d e Leonid Mlechin. Yuri's childhood and other mysteries from the life of the Chairman article from the Sovershenno Sekretno newspaper № 5, 2008 (in Russian)

^ a b c d e f g Babichenko, Denis (3 October 2005). Легендарная личность [Legendary Personality]. Itogi (in Russian) (40): 30–34.

^ a b c d e f g h i j "Biography of Yuri Andropov" (PDF). Soviet Life (323): 1B. 1983. Retrieved 19 August 2013.

^ a b c d e f Alexander Ostrovsky (2010). Who Appointed Gorbachev? — Moscow: Algorithm, p. 187 ISBN 978-5-699-40627-2

^ Page 1007 scan from the Vsya Moskva city directory, 1914 (in Russian)

^ БИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ УКАЗАТЕЛЬ

^ a b c d e f g Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB
KGB
in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7.

^ "He may be an economic liberal, but Putin is an Andropov at heart". The Scotsman. 27 June 2004.

^ "A Chronicle of Current Events". A Chronicle of Current Events.

^ a b Nuti, Leopoldo (2009). The Crisis of Détente
Détente
in Europe: From Helsinki to Gorbachev, 1975–1985. Taylor & Francis. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-415-46051-4.

^ a b Albats, Yevgenia (1995). KGB: state within a state. I.B.Tauris. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-85043-995-0.

^ "Eurasian Secret Services Daily Review". Axis Information and Analysis (AIA). 25 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.

^ McCauley, Martin (2014). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union. Routledge. p. 354. ISBN 978-1-31786-783-8.

^ Albats, Yevgenia (1995). KGB: State Within a State. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-85043-995-0.

^ ""Report from Krasnodar Region KGB", 22 January 1970, Pb 151/XIII, The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial".

^ Коротенко, Ада; Аликина, Наталия (2002). Советская психиатрия: Заблуждения и умысел (in Russian). Киев: Издательство «Сфера». p. 42. ISBN 978-966-7841-36-2.

^ Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). Soviet Psychiatric
Psychiatric
Abuse: The Shadow Over World Psychiatry. Westview Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-8133-0209-6.

^ Felshtinsky, Yuri; Gulko, Boris (2013). The KGB
KGB
Plays Chess: The Soviet Secret Police and the Fight for the World Chess Crown. SCB Distributors. ISBN 978-1936490011.

^ Letter by Andropov to the Central Committee (10 July 1970), English translation Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Order to leave the message by Kreisky without answer; facsimile, in Russian. (Указание оставить без ответа ходатайство канцлера Бруно Крейского (Bruno Kreisky) об освобождении Орлова (29 июля 1983)" (PDF).

^ Seliktar, Ofira (2004). Politics, Paradigms, and Intelligence Failures: Why So Few Predicted the Collapse of the Soviet Union. M. E. Sharpe. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7656-1464-3.

^ "Memorandum from the KGB
KGB
Regarding the Planning of a Demonstration in Memory of John Lennon". Wilson Center Digital Archive. 20 December 1980. Retrieved 16 August 2013.

^ Robert K. Massie (13 August 1995), THE LAST ROMANOV MYSTERY, retrieved 6 June 2019

^ Pringle, p. 261; Pringle, Robert W. Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015. ISBN 978-1-4422-5318-6 (e-book)

^ "The worsening situation in Afghanistan, Politburo meeting, 17-18 March 1979, The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial".

^ Minutes of the CPSU
CPSU
Politburo meeting, 17 March 1979, in Russian.

^ "Andropov to Central Committee, 25 April 1979, "Anti-Soviet activities with regard to 1980 Olympic Games", The Bukovsky Archives: Communism
Communism
on Trial".

^ Brown, Archie The Rise & Fall of Communism
Communism
(2009) p.435

^ Rutland, Peter; Pomper, Philip (17 August 2011). "Stalin caused the Soviet collapse". The Moscow
Moscow
Times.

^ Wilfried Loth. Moscow, Prague and Warsaw: Overcoming the Brezhnev Doctrine. Cold War
Cold War
History 1, no. 2 (2001): 103–118.

^ "The Andropov Hoax". Edward Jayepstein. Retrieved 30 March 2013.

^ Sakwa, Richard (1998). Soviet Politics in Perspective. Routledge. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-415-16992-9.

^ Great Russian Encyclopedia
Great Russian Encyclopedia
(2005), Moscow: Bol'shaya Rossiyskaya Enciklopediya Publisher, vol. 1, p. 742.

^ Brown, Archie (1996). The Gorbachev Factor. Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-19-288052-9.

^ Sakwa, Richard (1998). Soviet Politics in Perspective. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-415-16992-9.

^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colossus:History and Aftermath. M.E. Sharpe. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-7656-0396-8.

^ Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996). Memoirs. Doubleday. p. 147. ISBN 978-0385480192.

^ Matlock, Jack F., Jr. (2005). Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. New York: Random House. pp. 41–46. ISBN 978-0-8129-7489-8.

^ Kwizinskij, Julij A. (1993). Vor dem Sturm: Erinnerungen eines Diplomaten. Berlin: Siedler Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88680-464-1.

^ Pravda, 27 March 1983

^ Church, George J. (1 January 1984). "Person of the Year 1983: Ronald Reagan and Yuri Andropov". TIME. Retrieved 2 January 2008.

^ Burns, John F. (11 February 1984). "ANDROPOV IS DEAD IN MOSCOW AT 69; REAGAN ASKS 'PRODUCTIVE' CONTACTS AND NAMES BUSH TO ATTEND FUNERAL". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 July 2017.

^ a b c d Remnick, David, Lenin's Tomb:The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York; Random House, 1993, p. 191.

^ No Peter the Great. Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
is in the Andropov mold, by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review, 20 September 2004.

^ Suny, Ronald Grigor, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the successor states Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 449.

^ Edward Jay Epstein The Andropov Hoax The New Republic
The New Republic
7 February 1983

^ Miletitch, Nicolas (29 July 2014). "Andropov birth centenary evokes nostalgia for Soviet hardliner". The Daily Star (Lebanon).

^ "Putin puts Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
back on his pedestal". The Irish Times. 16 June 2004.

^ "Andropov birth centenary evokes nostalgia for Soviet hardliner". Gulf News. 29 July 2014.

^ a b Кара-Мурза, Владимир (10 February 2009). "Как изменилась оценка обществом ставленников спецслужб в госвласти со времен Андропова?" [How has society's assessment of security services proteges in state power changed since the time of Andropov?] (in Russian). Radio Liberty.

^ Cichowlas, Ola (2013). "In Russia, it is deja-vu all over again: how Russians fell back in love with the KGB
KGB
and Stalin". The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs. 22 (2): 111–124.

^ Arbatov, Georgy (1992). The System: An Insider's Life in Soviet Politics. Times Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-0812919707.

^ Neimanis, George (Summer 1993). "The view from inside: A review essay". Journal of Baltic Studies. 24 (2): 201–206. doi:10.1080/01629779300000071.

^ Volkogonov, Dmitri; Shukman, Harold (1998). Autopsy for an empire: the seven leaders who built the Soviet regime. Simon and Schuster. p. 342. ISBN 978-0684834207.

^ Tismaneanu, Vladimir (18 August 2014). "Who was Yuri Andropov? Ideologue, policeman, apparatchik: why a deceased Soviet butcher has an ever-growing mini-cult following". FrontPage Magazine.

^ a b c d Кашин, Олег (22 May 2008). "Хроника утекших событий. Наталья Горбаневская: немонотонная речь" [A Chronicle of Past Events. Natalya Gorbanevskaya: non-monotonous speech]. Русская жизнь (in Russian).

^ Kryuchkov, Vladimir (2004). Личность и власть. ISBN 5-09-013785-4.

^ Medvedev, Vladimir (1994). Человек за спиной. Russlit. pp. 120–121. ISBN 5865080520.

^ Личный пульмонолог Черненко: чтобы генсек дышал, мы применяли космические технологии. TASS (14 February 2019)

^ Рой Медведев: Андропов не дожил до своей оттепели... kp.ru

Further reading[edit] Beichman, Arnold; Bernstam, Mikhail (1983). Andropov, New Challenge to the West. Stein and Day. ISBN 978-0812829211. OCLC 9464732. Bialer, Seweryn (3 February 1983). "The Andropov succession". The New York Review of Books. Ebon, Martin (1983). The Andropov file: the life and ideas of Yuri V. Andropov, general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0070188617. Epstein, Edward (7 February 1983). "The Andropov hoax". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 25 February 2002. Glazov, Yuri (1985). "Yuri Andropov: a recent leader of Russia". The Russian mind since Stalin's death. D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 180–221. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5341-3_10. ISBN 978-9027718280. Goodman, Elliot (Summer 1984). "The Brezhnev-Andropov legacy: implications for the future". Survey. 28 (2): 34–69. Granville, Johanna (2004). The first domino: international decision making during the Hungarian crisis of 1956. Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 978-1585442980. Gribanov, Alexander; Kowell, Masha (2009). " Samizdat
Samizdat
according to Andropov". Poetics Today. 30 (1): 89–106. doi:10.1215/03335372-2008-004. Herman, Victor (September 1983). "In Stalin's footsteps: Yuri Andropov: rise of a dictator". Imprimis. Medvedev, Roy (1 January 1984). "Andropov and the dissidents: the internal atmosphere under the new Soviet leadership". Dissent. 31 (1): 97–102. "П.Л. Капица и Ю.В. Андропов об инакомыслии" [P.L. Kapitsa and Yu.V. Andropov about dissent]. Kommunist (in Russian) (7). 1991. Sayle, Timothy (August 2009). "Andropov's Hungarian complex: Andropov and the lessons of history". Cold War
Cold War
History. 9 (3): 427–439. doi:10.1080/14682740902764528. Solovyov, Vladimir; Klepikova, Elena (1983). Yuri Andropov: a secret passage into the Kremlin. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0026122900. Whelan, Joseph (1983). Andropov and Reagan as negotiators: contexts and styles in contrast. Congressional Research Service The Library of Congress. ASIN B00DDVND9I. Авторханов, Абдурахман (1986). От Андропова к Горбачёву: Дела и дни Кремля [From Andropov to Gorbachev: Deeds and days of the Kremlin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-PRESS. ISBN 978-2-85065-088-8. Primary sources[edit] Johanna Granville, trans., "Soviet Archival Documents on the Hungarian Revolution, 24 October – 4 November 1956", Cold War
Cold War
International History Project Bulletin, no. 5 (Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, D.C.), Spring 1995, pp. 22–23, 29–34. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuri Andropov.

List of Andropov documents related to Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and other dissidents The KGB's 1967 Annual Report, signed by Andropov by CNN Похороны Андропова (Andropov's funeral, in Russian, 21 min) on YouTube

Government offices

Preceded byVladimir Semichastny

Chairman of the State Committee for State Security1967–1982

Succeeded byVitaly Fyodorchuk

Party political offices

Preceded byLeonid Brezhnev

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union1982–1984

Succeeded byKonstantin Chernenko

Political offices

Preceded byVasili Kuznetsov

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet1983–1984

Succeeded byVasili Kuznetsov

Awards and achievements

Preceded byThe Computer

Time's Men of the Year (with Ronald Reagan)1983

Succeeded byPeter Ueberroth

vteHistory of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionOrganization Congress Conference General Secretary Politburo Secretariat Central Committee Orgburo Control Commission Auditing Commission Komsomol Young Pioneers Pravda Congress 1st (1898) 2nd (1903) 3rd (1905) 4th (1906) 5th (1907) 6th (1917) 7th (1918) 8th (1919) 9th (1920) 10th (1921) 11th (1922) 12th (1923) 13th (1924) 14th (1925) 15th (1927) 16th (1930) 17th (1934) 18th (1939) 19th (1952) 20th (1956) 21st (1959) 22nd (1961) 23rd (1966) 24th (1971) 25th (1976) 26th (1981) 27th (1986) 28th (1990) Conference 1st (1905) 2nd (1906) 3rd (August 1907) 4th (November 1907) 5th (1908) 6th (1912) 7th (1917) 8th (1919) 9th (1920) 10th (May 1921) 11th (December 1921) 12th (1922) 13th (1924) 14th (1925) 15th (1926) 16th (1929) 17th (1932) 18th (1941) 19th (1988) Party leadershipParty leaders Vladimir Lenin
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Leonid Brezhnev
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Yuri Andropov
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vtePolitics of the Soviet Union
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Soviet Union
portal vteTime Persons of the Year1927–1950 Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
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Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950) 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser
Donald A. Glaser
/ Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller
Edward Teller
/ Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
(1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso
Ella Grasso
/ Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos
(1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000) 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017) The Guardians: Jamal Khashoggi
Jamal Khashoggi
/ Maria Ressa
Maria Ressa
/ Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo / Staff of The Capital (2018) Book vteCold War USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II 1940s Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Jamaican conflict Dekemvriana Percentages agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Al-Wathbah uprising 1947–1949 Palestine war 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine 1948 Arab–Israeli War 1948 Palestinian exodus Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion 1950s Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Algerian War Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Jebel Akhdar War Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Cyprus Emergency Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Yemeni–Adenese clan violence Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Ifni War Operation Gladio Arab Cold War Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising 1959 Mosul uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split 1960s Congo Crisis Simba rebellion 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Iraqi–Kurdish conflict First Iraqi–Kurdish War Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Portuguese Colonial War Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence Cuban Missile Crisis El Porteñazo Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Assassination of John F. Kennedy Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War Rhodesian Bush War South African Border War Transition to the New Order
Transition to the New Order
(Indonesia) Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ Conflict Greek military junta of 1967–1974 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Biafran War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution 1969 Libyan coup d'état Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move 1970s Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Western Sahara conflict Nicaraguan Revolution Cambodian Civil War Vietnam War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Corrective Revolution (Egypt) 1971 Turkish military memorandum 1971 Sudanese coup d'état Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 Communist insurgency in Bangladesh Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Second Iraqi–Kurdish War Turkish invasion of Cyprus Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Western Sahara War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Libyan–Egyptian War Uganda–Tanzania War German Autumn Korean Air Lines Flight 902 NDF Rebellion Chadian–Libyan conflict Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution Sino-Vietnamese War New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union 1980s Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts Peruvian conflict 1980 Turkish coup d'état Gulf of Sidra incident Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident South Yemen Civil War Toyota War 1988 Black Sea bumping incident Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity Soviet reaction Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende 1990s Mongolian Revolution of 1990 Gulf War German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Frozen conflicts Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Puerto Rico Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute Foreign policy Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War IdeologiesCapitalism Liberalism Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism Communism Socialism Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism Other Imperialism Anti-imperialism Nationalism Ultranationalism Chauvinism Ethnic nationalism Racism Zionism Fascism Neo-Nazism Islamism Totalitarianism Authoritarianism Autocracy Liberal democracy Illiberal democracy Guided democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy White nationalism White separatism Apartheid Organizations NATO Warsaw Pact ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi Propaganda Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia Races Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race See also Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War List of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
agents in the United States Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA
CIA
and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II Russian Revolution War on terror

Category Commons Timeline List of conflicts

vteSoviet–Afghan War Part of the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Cold War BelligerentsAlliance Soviet Union Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mujahideen Islamic Unity of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Mujahideen Jamiat-e Islami Shura-e Nazar Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin Maktab al-Khidamat Hezb-e Islami Khalis Hezb-e Wahdat Ittehad i-Islami LeadersAlliance Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Mujahideen Ahmad Shah Massoud Abdul Ali Mazari Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Haq Abdul Rahim Wardak Burhanuddin Rabbani Events by year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Military operations Operation Storm-333 3 Hoot uprising Siege of Khost Panjshir offensives Siege of Urgun Battle of Maravar Pass Badaber uprising Battles of Zhawar Battle of Jaji Battle of Arghandab (1987) Operation Magistral Battle for Hill 3234 Operation Arrow Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan Related topics Soviet aircraft losses War in popular culture Military equipment used by Mujahideen Afghanistan
Afghanistan
War Memorial, Kiev Films about war The 9th Company Afghan Breakdown Afghantsi All Costs Paid The Beast Cargo 200 Charlie Wilson's War The Kite Runner The Living Daylights The Magic Mountain Peshavar Waltz Rambo III

Category Portal Multimedia

vteRevolutions of 1989Internalbackground Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies Internationalbackground Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Reforms Uskoreniye Perestroika Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine Glasnost Socialism
Socialism
with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới Governmentleaders Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre Oppositionmethods Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action Oppositionleaders Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Viktor Orbán Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II Oppositionmovements Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces Eventsby locationCentral and Eastern Europe Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Soviet Union Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Elsewhere Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen Individualevents 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 1988 Polish strikes Polish Round Table Agreement April 9 tragedy Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Baltic Way Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Fall of the Berlin Wall Malta Summit Black January Helsinki Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union Later events Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars Pink Tide

Authority control BIBSYS: 90086274 BNF: cb11963057s (data) CiNii: DA00527994 GND: 118649310 ISNI: 0000 0001 1453 1337 LCCN: n82156220 LNB: 000076856 NDL: 00431538 NKC: jn20000600249 NLA: 36578406 NSK: 000165880 SELIBR: 35970 SNAC: w6w80h53 SUDOC: 027630773 VIAF: 98361393 WorldCat Identities
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