HOME
The Info List - Yuga





Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Yuga
Yuga
in Hinduism
Hinduism
is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle. A complete Yuga
Yuga
starts with the Satya
Satya
Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga
Yuga
into a Kali
Kali
Yuga.[1] Our present time is a Kali
Kali
Yuga, which started at 3102 BCE with the end of the Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
(or Mahabharata
Mahabharata
war).[2]

Contents

1 Four yugas

1.1 Characteristics of each Yuga

2 Durations of the four Yugas 3 Decline 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Four yugas[edit] There are four Yugas in one cycle:

Satya
Satya
Yuga Treta Yuga Dwapara Yuga Kali
Kali
Yuga

Characteristics of each Yuga[edit]

Satya
Satya
Yuga
Yuga
(also known as Krita Yuga
Yuga
"Golden Age"): The first and best Yuga. It was the age of truth and perfection. The Krita Yuga
Yuga
was so named because there was but one religion, and all men were saintly: therefore they were not required to perform religious ceremonies. Humans were gigantic, powerfully built, honest, youthful, vigorous, erudite and virtuous. The Vedas
Vedas
were one. All mankind could attain to supreme blessedness. There was no agriculture or mining as the earth yielded those riches on its own. Weather was pleasant and everyone was happy. There were no religious sects. There was no disease, decrepitude or fear of anything.[citation needed] Treta Yuga: Is considered to be the second Yuga
Yuga
in order, however Treta means the "Third". In this age, virtue diminishes slightly. At the beginning of the age, many emperors rise to dominance and conquer the world. Wars become frequent and weather begins to change to extremities. Oceans and deserts are formed. People become slightly diminished compared to their predecessors. Agriculture, labour and mining become existent.[citation needed] Dvapara Yuga: Is considered to be the third Yuga
Yuga
in order. Dvapara means "two pair" or "after two". In this age, people become tainted with Tamasic qualities and aren't as strong as their ancestors. Diseases become rampant. Humans are discontent and fight each other. Vedas
Vedas
are divided into four parts. People still possess characteristics of youth in old age. Average lifespan of humans is around a few centuries. Kali
Kali
Yuga: The final age. It is the age of darkness and ignorance. People become sinners and lack virtue. They become slaves to their passions and are barely as powerful as their earliest ancestors in the Satya
Satya
Yuga. Society falls into disuse and people become liars and hypocrites. Knowledge is lost and scriptures are diminished. Humans eat forbidden and dirty food. The environment is polluted, water and food become scarce. Wealth is heavily diminished. Families become non-existent. By the end of Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
the average lifespan of humans will be as low as 70 years.[citation needed]

Durations of the four Yugas[edit]

Relationship between various time units in Hindu
Hindu
cosmology

According to one Puranic astronomical estimate, the four Yuga
Yuga
have the following durations:[3]

Satya
Satya
Yuga
Yuga
equals 1,728,000 Human years[4] Treta Yuga equals 1,296,000 Human years[4] Dvapara Yuga
Dvapara Yuga
equals 864,000 Human years[4] Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
equals 432,000 Human years[4]

Together, these four yuga constitute one Mahayuga
Mahayuga
and equal 4.32 million human years.[3] According to one version, there are 1,000 Mahayugas in one day of Brahma
Brahma
or 4.32 billion human years. A Mahakalpa consists of 100 years of Brahma.[3] According to Srimad Bhagavatam
Srimad Bhagavatam
3.11.19, which is dated around the 400–500 BC,[5] the Yugas are much longer, using a divine year in which one day is equal to one human year, thus:

one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years.[6]

The Viṣṇu Purāṇa Time
Time
measurement section of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa Book I Chapter III adds:

2 Ayanas (6-month periods, see above) = 1 human year or 1 day of the devas. 12,000 divine years = 4 Yugas (= 4,320,000 human years) = 1 Mahā-Yuga (also is equal to 12,000 Daiva (divine) Yuga). 2*12,000 = 24,000 divine year = 12000 revolutions of sun around its dual.

While the long yuga count is the most popular, it does not correlate to any known celestial motion found in the Astronomical Almanac. The value of 24,000 years fits relatively close with the modern astronomical calculation of one full precession of the equinox, which takes 25,772 years.[note 1] Thus the yuga cycle may have some basis in known terrestrial cycles. Srimad Bhagavatam
Srimad Bhagavatam
3.11.19 describes the timespans of the demigods, in which a year of a yuga is a year of the demigods. It is this second sloka which appears to have been modified over the years. Decline[edit] The ages see a gradual decline of dharma, wisdom, knowledge, intellectual capability, life span, emotional and physical strength.

Satya
Satya
Yuga
Yuga
– Virtue reigns supreme. Human stature was 21 cubits. Average human lifespan was 100,000 years. Treta Yuga – There was 3 quarter virtue and 1 quarter sin. Normal human stature was 14 cubits. Average human lifespan was 10,000 years. Dwapara Yuga
Dwapara Yuga
– There was 1 half virtue & 1 half sin. Normal human stature was 7 cubits. Average human lifespan was 1,000 years. Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
– There is 1 quarter virtue & 3 quarter sin. Normal human stature is 3.5 cubits. Average human lifespan will be 100 years.

In the present days we may be said to live in a Kali
Kali
Yuga, which is said to have started in 3102 BCE[7] with the end of the Mahabharata war. This date is also considered by many Hindus to be the day that Krishna
Krishna
left Earth and went to his abode.[note 2] See also[edit]

Ayanamsa Hindu
Hindu
units of time List of numbers in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures Vedic-Puranic chronology

Notes[edit]

^ This phenomenon is observed as the stars moving retrograde across the sky at about 50 arc seconds per year, and is thought to produce periods of warm ages and ice ages known as the Milankovitch cycle. ^ According to Sri Yukteswar Giri, guru of Paramahansa Yogananda, The ascending phase of the Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
began in September 499 CE. Since September 1699, we have been in the ascending phase of the Dwapara Yuga. According to Sri Yukteswar, nobody wanted to announce the bad news of the beginning of the descending Kali
Kali
Yuga, so they kept adding years to the Dvapara date (at that time 2400 Dvapara) only retitling the epoch to Kali.[8]

References[edit] External links[edit]

Vedic knowledge online, Vedic Time
Time
System

v t e

Time
Time
in religion and mythology

Time
Time
and fate deities Eternity Eschatology Golden Age Divination Prophecy Calendar Fate

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
cosmology

Brahmanda Purana  Nasadiya Sukta Samudra manthan Loka Patala

Time

Kalpa (day or night of Brahma) Pralaya Manvantara
Manvantara
(age of a Manu) Mahayuga
Mahayuga
or Yuga
Yuga
(4'320'000 years) Satya
Satya
Yuga
Yuga
(1,728,000 years) Treta Yuga (1,296,000 years) Dvapara Yuga
Dvapara Yuga
(864,000 years) Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
(432,000 years) Manvantara
Manvantara
(life of Manu )= 71 * by 4,320,000 years Vaivasvata Manu Vivasvan

v t e

Legendary progenitors

Manu (Hinduism) Mannus (German) Adam, Noah, Abraham
Abraham
(Judaism, Christianity, Islam) Kintu (Uganda) Mashya and Mashyana
Mashya and Mashyana
(Zoroastrianism) Phoenix (Phoenicians) Nyatri Tsenpo
Nyatri Tsenpo
(Tibetan Buddhism) Nüwa
Nüwa
(China) Melampus (Greek Mythology) Wurugag and Waramurungundi (Australian Gunwinggu) Míl Espáine (Irish) Wau Rauh (Bali)

^ Mark L. Prophet, Elizabeth Clare Prophet. The Path to Immortality. Summit University Press.  ^ Giriwar Charan Agarwala. Age of Bhārata War. Motilal Banarsidass.  ^ a b c Bryan E. Penprase. The Power of Stars. Springer. p. 182.  ^ a b c d Hans Kng. "Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions". A&C Black.  ^ Kashi Nath Upadhyaya. "Early Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita". p. 58.  ^ pnd (15 July 2011). "SB 3.11.19". vedabase.com.  ^ Richter-Ushanas 1997, p. 16. ^ Yuk

.