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Yom Hazikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah (יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה; " Holocaust
Holocaust
and Heroism Remembrance Day"), known colloquially in Israel
Israel
and abroad as Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
(יום השואה) and in English as Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day, or Holocaust
Holocaust
Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust
Holocaust
as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and its collaborators, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. In Israel, it is a national memorial day. The first official commemorations took place in 1951, and the observance of the day was anchored in a law passed by the Knesset
Knesset
in 1959. It is held on the 27th of Nisan
Nisan
(April/May), unless the 27th would be adjacent to the Jewish Sabbath, in which case the date is shifted by a day.[1]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Commemoration

2.1 Israel 2.2 Abroad

3 Religious observances and liturgy

3.1 Orthodox Judaism 3.2 Conservative Judaism 3.3 Reform Judaism

4 Gregorian dates 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Origins[edit] The first Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day in Israel
Israel
took place on 28 December 1949, following a decision of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel that an annual memorial should take place on the Tenth of Tevet, a traditional day of mourning and fasting in the Hebrew calendar. The day was marked by the burial in a Jerusalem cemetery of ashes and bones of thousands of Jews brought from the Flossenbürg concentration camp and religious ceremonies held in honor of the victims. A radio program on the Holocaust
Holocaust
was broadcast that evening. The following year, in December 1950, the Rabbinate, organizations of former European Jewish communities and the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces held memorial ceremonies around the country; they mostly involved funerals, in which objects such as desecrated Torah
Torah
scrolls and the bones and ashes of the dead brought from Europe were interred. [2] In 1951, the Knesset
Knesset
began deliberations to choose a date for Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day. On 12 April 1951, after also considering as possibilities the Tenth of Tevet, the 14th of Nisan, which is the day before Passover
Passover
and the day on which the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising (April 19, 1943) had begun, and September 1, the date on which the Second World War had begun, the Knesset
Knesset
passed a resolution establishing the 27 Nisan
Nisan
in the Hebrew calendar, a week after Passover, and eight days before Israel
Israel
Independence Day as the annual Holocaust
Holocaust
and Ghetto Uprising Remembrance Day.[2][3][4] On 3 May 1951, the first officially organized Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day event was held at the Chamber of the Holocaust
Holocaust
on Mount Zion; the Israel
Israel
Postal Service issued a special commemorative envelope, and a bronze statue of Mordechai Anielewicz, the leader of the Warsaw Ghetto revolt, was unveiled at Yad Mordechai, a kibbutz named for him. From the following year, the lighting of six beacons in memory of the six million Jews killed by the Nazis became a standard feature of the official commemoration of Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day.[2] On 8 April 1959, the Knesset
Knesset
officially established the day when it passed the Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Day Law with the purpose of instituting an annual “commemoration of the disaster which the Nazis and their collaborators brought upon the Jewish people and the acts of heroism and revolt performed.” The law was signed by the Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, and the President of Israel, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. It established that the day would be observed by a two-minute silence when all work would come to a halt throughout the country, memorial gatherings and commemorative events in public and educational institutions would be held, flags would be flown at half mast, and programs relevant to the day would be presented on the radio and in places of entertainment. An amendment to the law in 1961 mandated that cafes, restaurants and clubs be closed on the day.[2][5] Commemoration[edit] Israel[edit] Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
opens in Israel
Israel
at sundown[6] in a state ceremony held in Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Square at Yad Vashem, the Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes Authority, in Jerusalem. During the ceremony the national flag is lowered to half mast, the President and the Prime Minister both deliver speeches, Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors light six torches symbolizing the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust
Holocaust
and the Chief Rabbis recite prayers.[7] On Yom HaShoah, ceremonies and services are held at schools, military bases and by other public and community organizations.[8] On the eve of Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
and the day itself, places of public entertainment are closed by law. Israeli television airs Holocaust documentaries and Holocaust-related talk shows, and low-key songs are played on the radio. Flags on public buildings are flown at half mast. At 10:00, an air raid siren sounds throughout the country and Israelis are expected to observe two minutes[9] of solemn reflection. Almost everyone stops what they are doing, including motorists who stop their cars in the middle of the road, standing beside their vehicles in silence as the siren is sounded.[10] Observance of the day is moved back to the Thursday before, if 27 Nisan
Nisan
falls on a Friday (as in 2008), or forward a day, if 27 Nisan falls on a Sunday (to avoid adjacency with the Jewish Sabbath). The fixed Jewish calendar ensures 27 Nisan
Nisan
does not fall on Saturday.[1]

Flags at half mast at sundown on Yom HaShoah

Sirens blare at 10:00 as motorists exit their cars and stand in silence in front of the Prime Minister's House in Jerusalem and throughout Israel
Israel
on Yom HaShoah

Play media

Video: Two minutes in silence in Tel Aviv

Abroad[edit]

The March of the Living
The March of the Living
from Auschwitz to Birkenau is held annually on Yom HaShoah

Jewish communities and individuals throughout the world commemorate Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
in synagogues as well as in the broader Jewish community. Many hold their commemorative ceremonies on the closest Sunday to Yom HaShoah as a more practical day for people to attend, while some mark the day on 19 April, the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
uprising. Jewish schools also hold Holocaust-related educational programs on or near Yom HaShoah.[11][12] Commemorations typically include memorial services and communal vigils and educational programs. These programs often include talks by Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors (although this is becoming less common as time passes and there are fewer survivors who remain alive), candle-lighting ceremonies, the recitation of memorial prayers, the Mourner's Kaddish and appropriate songs and readings. Some communities read the names of Holocaust
Holocaust
victims or show Holocaust-themed films.[12] Since 1988 in Poland, a memorial service has been held after a 3-kilometer walk by thousands of participants from Auschwitz to Birkenau in what has become known as "The March of the Living" .[13][14] Religious observances and liturgy[edit] In the last few decades all the prayerbooks of Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
have developed similar liturgies to be used on Yom HaShoah. The siddurim of these groups add passages that are meant to be added to standard weekday service, as well as stand-alone sections. These liturgies generally include:

Lighting of a candle (often each member of the congregation lights one) Modern poems, including "I believe in the sun even when it is not shining..." El Malei Rahamim (God, full of mercy, dwelling on high) Mourner's Kaddish.

In response to the lack of liturgy dedicated to Yom HaShoah, Daniel Gross composed, in 2009, I Believe: A Shoah Requiem, a complete musical liturgy dedicated to the observance of Yom HaShoah. An a cappella oratorio scored for cantor, soprano solo, adult chorus and children's chorus, I Believe features several traditional prayer texts such as the Mourner's Kaddish (Kaddish Yatom) and the El Malei memorial prayer, and also includes the poetry of Paul Celan and Primo Levi. On April 7, 2013, I Believe had its world premiere[15] presentation at Orchestra Hall at the Max M. Fisher Music Center in Detroit, Michigan. Orthodox Judaism[edit] While there are Orthodox Jews who commemorate the Holocaust
Holocaust
on Yom HaShoah, others in the Orthodox community, especially Haredim, including Hasidim, remember the victims of the Holocaust
Holocaust
on traditional days of mourning which were already in place before the Holocaust, such as Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
in the summer, and the Tenth of Tevet in the winter, because in the Jewish tradition the month of Nisan
Nisan
is considered a joyous month associated with Passover
Passover
and messianic redemption. Some ultra-Orthodox rabbis recommend adding piyyutim (religious poems) written by contemporary rabbis to the liturgy of Tisha B’Av; some adherents follow this advice.[16][17] Conservative Judaism[edit]

A lit Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
Yellow Candle

In 1981, members of the Federation of Jewish Men's Clubs FJMC, a branch of the mainstream Conservative/Masorti movement, created a special memorial project specifically for Yom HaShoah. A dedicated yahrzeit candle was conceived, with yellow wax and a barbed-wire Star of David logo reminiscent of the armbands Jews were forced to wear during the Holocaust. This object has come to be known as the Yellow Candle (TM). Approximately 200,000 candles are distributed around the world each year, along with relevant prayers and meditations. In 1984, Conservative Rabbi
Rabbi
David Golinkin
David Golinkin
wrote an article in Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
journal suggesting a program of observance for the holiday, including fasting. In his article he noted that while private fasts are indeed prohibited during the month of Nisan
Nisan
(a major Orthodox objection to the placement of the day), communal fasts for tragedies befalling Jewish communities had indeed been declared throughout the pre-Modern period. Another prominent Conservative Jewish figure shared the Orthodox sentiment about not adopting Yom HaShoah. Ismar Schorsch, former Chancellor of Conservative Judaism's Jewish Theological Seminary of America held that Holocaust
Holocaust
commemoration should take place on Tisha b'Av.[18] The Masorti (Conservative) movement in Israel
Israel
has created Megillat HaShoah, a scroll and liturgical reading for Yom HaShoah. This publication was a joint project of Jewish leaders in Israel, the United States and Canada. In 2011, the FJMC introduced a related Yellow Candle concept for use on Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(The Night of Shattered Glass) and other important Shoah commemoration dates. Called the Ner Katan, FJMC's new version consists of six Yellow Candles provided for communal observances and ceremonies. More recently Conservative rabbis and lay leaders in the US, Israel and Canada collaborated to write Megillat Hashoah (The Holocaust Scroll). It contains personal recollections of Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors. A responsa was written by Rabbi
Rabbi
David Golinkin
David Golinkin
expressing the view that not only is it legitimate for the modern Jewish community to write a new scroll of mourning, it was also incumbent to do so.[19] Reform Judaism[edit] Reform Jewish congregations have tended to commemorate the memory of the Holocaust
Holocaust
either on International Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day or on Yom HaShoah. These commemorations of the Holocaust
Holocaust
have used a ceremony that is loosely modeled after a  Passover
Passover
Seder. The focus of the seder has changed with time. The earlier Holocaust seders commemorated the losses of the Holocaust
Holocaust
through a reenactment events from the Holocaust[20] and through the lighting of six yahrzeit candles to reflect the approximately 6 million Jews murdered.[21] More modern Haggadot for Yom HaShoah, such as Gathering from the Whirlwind,[22][23] have concentrated on renewal,[24] remembrance, and the continuity of Jewish life. In 1988 the American Reform movement published Six Days of Destruction ( Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
and Rabbi
Rabbi
Albert Friedlander). Narratives from Holocaust survivors are juxtaposed with the six days of creation found in Genesis.[25] Gregorian dates[edit] Upcoming dates of observance:[26]

2017: Monday, April 24 2018: Thursday, April 12 2019: Thursday, May 2 2020: Tuesday, April 21 2021: Thursday, April 8 2022: Thursday, April 28

See also[edit]

Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust International Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day

References[edit]

^ a b "Remembrance Day Calendar". United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Retrieved April 15, 2015.  ^ a b c d Gilad, Elon (27 April 2014). "The History of Holocaust Remembrance Day". Ha'Aretz. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Naor, Mordechai (1998). "1951". The Twentieth Century in Eretz Israel. Translated by Krausz, Judith (English ed.). Cologne, Germany: Konenmann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. pp. 299–300. ISBN 9783895085956.  ^ "Marking Yom HaShoah: Calendars And Memory, God And History". The New York Jewish Week. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ "Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Day Law" [English translation] (PDF). Sefer Ha-Hukkim (in Hebrew). Jerusalem, Israel: The Knesset (No. 280): 112. 17 April 1959. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ In the Jewish calendar the day begins in the evening and ends in the following evening. ^ " Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Day, April 18–19, 2012". Yad Vashem. Retrieved April 20, 2012.  ^ Schechter, Jack (2014). Journey of a Rabbi: Vision and Strategies for the Revitalization of Jewish Life. UPA. p. 464. ISBN 9780761863991.  ^ "Siren brings Israel
Israel
to a halt as country marks Holocaust Remembrance Day". The Jerusalem Post JPost.com. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ Harman, Danna (April 28, 2014). "WATCH: Israelis Pause in Silence as Siren Sounds for Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day". Haaretz. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ "Yom Hashoah: Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day". My Jewish Learning. 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ a b "Jewish Holidays: Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
- Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day". Jewish Virtual Library. 2018.  ^ "Thousands walk from Auschwitz to Birkenau in March of the Living". Jerusalem Post. May 5, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ "About the March". March of the Living. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Gary Graff. Interfaith Shoah Requiem at Orchestra Hall ^ "Yom Hashoah: Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ Feinstein, Moshe (1996). Igros Moshe, Volume 8, Yoreh Deah, Siman 57. New York. p. 289.  ^ " Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day (Yom Ha-Shoah)". Jewish Virtual Library. 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011.  ^ "Megillat HaShoah: The Holocaust
Holocaust
Scroll". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.  ^ "A seder for Yom Hashoah". washingtonjewishweek.com. Retrieved April 20, 2017.  ^ "Seder Yom Hashoah – Welcome". www.sederyomhashoah.com. Retrieved April 20, 2017.  ^ "Gathering from The Whirlwind".  ^ "Changing face of Holocaust
Holocaust
education TJP". tjpnews.com. Retrieved April 20, 2017.  ^ Reporter, Janice Arnold, Staff (April 10, 2012). "Third seder created to commemorate Holocaust
Holocaust
– The Canadian Jewish News". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved April 20, 2017.  ^ "Six Days of Destruction". Science Direct. Retrieved April 23, 2017.  ^ "Yom HaShoah". Hebrew Calendar. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yom HaShoah.

Yom Hashoah on the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
from the Israeli Knesset
Knesset
(in English) Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
from the Israeli Knesset
Knesset
(in Hebrew) The Forum for Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
(UK) Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day (Yom Ha-Shoah) at the Jewish Virtual Library 27th of Nisan
Nisan
as standard dates on HebCal United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum – Days of Remembrance Moshe Yaalon, Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day April 2007. Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust

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