Yokohama (Japanese: 横浜, Hepburn: Yokohama, pronounced
[jokoꜜhama] ( listen)) is the second largest city in Japan
by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of
Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo
Bay, south of Tokyo, in the
Kantō region of the main island of
Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater
Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city
after the special wards of Tokyo.
Yokohama developed rapidly as
Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative
isolation in the mid-19th century, and is today one of its major ports
along with Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya, Hakata, Tokyo, and Chiba.
1.1 Opening of the Treaty Port (1859–1868)
1.2 Meiji and Taisho Periods (1868–1923)
1.3 Great Kanto earthquake and the Second World War (1923–1945)
1.4 Post-World War II growth
2.2.1 Historical population
2.3 Administrative divisions
3 Government and politics
3.1 International relations
4.1 Depictions of the city in popular media
5 Economy and infrastructure
5.1.1 Maritime transport
5.1.2 Rail transport
7 See also
9 External links
See also: Timeline of Yokohama
Opening of the Treaty Port (1859–1868)
Landing of Commodore Perry, officers, and men of the squadron to meet
the Imperial commissioners at
Yokohama 14 July 1853. Lithograph
by Sarony & Co., 1855, after Wilhelm Heine
Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo
Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little
contact with foreigners. A major turning point in Japanese history
happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south
Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan
open several ports for commerce, and the
Tokugawa shogunate agreed by
signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity.
It was initially agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign
ships would be the bustling town of
Kanagawa-juku (in what is now
Kanagawa Ward) on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo
Kyoto and Osaka. However, the
Tokugawa shogunate decided that
Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, and port
facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing
village of Yokohama. The
Port of Yokohama
Port of Yokohama was officially opened on
June 2, 1859.
Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners
initially occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai,
residential districts later expanding as the settlement grew to
incorporate much of the elevated
Yamate district overlooking the city,
commonly referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Foreign ships in
A foreign trading house in
Yokohama in 1861
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district (literally, inside
the barrier), was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying
extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound.
Interactions with the local population, particularly young samurai,
outside the settlement inevitably caused problems; the Namamugi
Incident, one of the events that preceded the downfall of the
shogunate, took place in what is now Tsurumi Ward in 1862, and
Bombardment of Kagoshima
Bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863.
To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in
military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade
increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city.
Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for
Japan including the
growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as
Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan
Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to
be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to
foreign residents in
Yokohama included European style horse racing in
1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire
destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and
smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued
to grow rapidly attracting both foreigners and local Japanese.
Meiji and Taisho Periods (1868–1923)
Street scene c. 1880.
Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for
trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western
influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment
of Japan's first daily newspaper (1870), first gas-powered street
lamps (1872) and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to
Yokohama to Shinagawa and
Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules
Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of
his widely read Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the
atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese
In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first
power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became
the basis for the
Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The
city was officially incorporated on April 1, 1889. By the time the
extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama
was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas
Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry.
Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the
city toward Kawasaki, which eventually grew to be the Keihin
Industrial Area. The growth of Japanese industry brought affluence,
and many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences
there, while the rapid influx of population from
led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato, then the largest slum in Japan.
Great Kanto earthquake and the Second World War (1923–1945)
Yokohama was destroyed on September 1, 1923 by the Great
Kantō earthquake. The
Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771
dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of
434,170. Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante
mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many
people believed that Koreans used black magic to cause the earthquake.
Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was
used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita
Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930.
Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.S. air raids
during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were
killed in a single morning on May 29, 1945 in what is now known as the
Yokohama Air Raid, when B-29s firebombed the city and in just
one hour and nine minutes reduced 42% of it to rubble.
Post-World War II growth
During the Korean War, the
United States Navy
United States Navy used Yokohama's port as
a transshipment base. This ship departed
Yokohama in 1951, carrying
war dead home to the U.S.
During the American occupation,
Yokohama was a major transshipment
base for American supplies and personnel, especially during the Korean
War. After the occupation, most local U.S. naval activity moved from
Yokohama to an American base in nearby Yokosuka.
The city was designated by government ordinance on September 1,
The city's tram and trolleybus system was abolished in 1972, the same
year as the opening of the first line of
Yokohama Municipal Subway.
Landsat image of Yokohama
Construction of Minato Mirai 21 ("Port Future 21"), a major urban
development project on reclaimed land, started in 1983. Minato
Mirai 21 hosted the
Yokohama Exotic Showcase in 1989, which saw
the first public operation of maglev trains in
Japan and the opening
of Cosmo Clock 21, then the tallest
Ferris wheel in the world.
Yokohama Bay Bridge
Yokohama Bay Bridge opened in the same year.
Minato Mirai saw the opening of the
Yokohama Landmark Tower,
the second tallest building in Japan.
2002 FIFA World Cup
2002 FIFA World Cup final was held in June at the International
In 2009, the city marked the 150th anniversary of the opening of the
port and the 120th anniversary of the commencement of the City
Administration. An early part in the commemoration project
incorporated the Fourth
Tokyo International Conference on African
Development (TICAD IV) which was held in
Yokohama in May 2008.
In November 2010,
Yokohama hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC) meeting.
Yokohama features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot
and humid summers and chilly winters. Weatherwise,
Yokohama has a
mixed bag of rain, clouds and sun, although in Winter, it is
surprisingly sunny, more so than Southern Spain. Winter temperatures
rarely drop below freezing, while summer can get quite warm due to the
effects of humidiy. The coldest temperature was on 24 January 1927
when −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) was reached, whilst the hottest
day was 11 August 2013 at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The highest
monthly rainfall has been in October 2004 with 761.5 millimetres
(30.0 in), closely followed by July 1941 with 753.4 millimetres
(29.66 in), whilst December and January have recorded no
measurable precipitation three times each.
Climate data for Yokohama, Kanagawa (1981–2010 except for records)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average snowfall cm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: 
Source #2:  (records)
Kanagawa Prefectural Office
Minato Mirai at dusk
Rank among cities in Japan
6th, behind Kobe, Kyoto,
Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo
5th, surpassing Kobe
4th, the city government of Tokyo
having been disbanded in 1943
3rd, surpassing Kyoto
2nd, surpassing Nagoya
1st, surpassing Osaka
Yokohama's foreign population of nearly 78,000 includes Chinese,
Koreans, Filipinos, and Brazilians.
A map of Yokohama's wards
Yokohama has 18 wards (ku):
Naka-ku (中区) – administrative center
Government and politics
Yokohama Municipal Assembly consists of 92 members elected from a
total of 18 Wards. The LDP has minority control with 30 seats with
Democratic Party of
Japan with a close 29. The mayor is Fumiko
Hayashi, who succeeded
Hiroshi Nakada in September 2009.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan
Yokohama has sister-city relationships with eight cities
Cebu City, Philippines
San Diego, United States
Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Depictions of the city in popular media
Yukio Mishima's novel
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea is
set mainly in Yokohama. Mishima describes the city's port and its
houses, and the Western influences that shaped them.
From up on Poppy Hill
From up on Poppy Hill is a 2011
Studio Ghibli animated drama film
Gorō Miyazaki set in the
Yamate district of Yokohama. The
film is based on the serialized Japanese comic book of the same name.
The main setting of James Clavell's book Gai-Jin is in historical
Some of the events of Hitoshi Ashinano's manga
Yokohama Kaidashi Kikō
Yokohama and its surrounding areas.
Aya Fuse lives in the futuristic
Yokohama in Scott Westerfeld's novel
Dragonriders of Pern book series involves a spaceship
named the Yokohama.
One of the
Pretty Cure crossover movies takes place in Yokohama. In
the fourth movie of the series,
Pretty Cure All Stars New Stage:
Friends of the Future, the
Pretty Cure appear standing on top of the
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21 in Minato Mirai.
The main setting of the Japanese visual novel series Muv-Luv, first a
school and then, in an alternate history, a military base is built in
Yokohama with the objective of carrying out the Alternative IV Plan
meant to save humanity.
In Command and Conquer: Red Alert 3,
Yokohama is under siege by the
Soviet Union and Allied Nations to stop the Empire of The Rising Sun.
The player must defend
Yokohama and then lead a counterattack as the
It is the main port used in
Japan in Jules Verne's Around the World in
It is one of the area where players race in the arcade Wangan Midnight
Bungo Stray Dogs
Bungo Stray Dogs is set in Yokohama.
The Japanese mixed-media project
Hamatora takes place in Yokohama.
The final battle in Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters
All-Out Attack takes place in Yokohama.
Yokohama F. Marinos !
Yokohama F. Marinos (J.League
Yokohama FC !
Yokohama FC (J.League Division 2), YSCC
(J.League Division 3)
Yokohama DeNA BayStars
Velodrome: Kagetsu-en Velodrome
Tennis: Ai Sugiyama
Economy and infrastructure
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June
The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping,
biotechnology, and semiconductor industries.
Nissan moved its
Yokohama from Chūō,
Tokyo in 2010.
Yokohama is serviced by the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, a high-speed rail
line with a stop at Shin-
Yokohama Station is also a
major station, with two million passengers daily. The Yokohama
Municipal Subway provides metro services.
Yokohama is the world's 31st largest seaport in terms of total cargo
volume, at 121,326 freight tons as of 2011[update], and is ranked 37th
in terms of TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units).
Yokohama facility was recognised as the most
productive container terminal in the world averaging 163 crane moves
per hour, per ship between the vessel's arrival and departure at the
■ Tōkaidō Main Line
Yokohama – Totsuka –
■ Yokosuka Line
Yokohama – Hodogaya – Higashi-Totsuka – Totsuka –
■ Keihin-Tōhoku Line
– Tsurumi – Shin-Koyasu – Higashi-Kanagawa – Yokohama
■ Negishi Line
Yokohama – Sakuragichō –
Kannai – Ishikawachō –
Negishi – Isogo – Shin-Sugita – Yōkōdai – Kōnandai –
Higashi-Kanagawa – Ōguchi – Kikuna – Shin-
Yokohama – Kozukue
– Kamoi – Nakayama – Tōkaichiba – Nagatsuta –
■ Nambu Line
– Yakō –
■ Tsurumi Line
Main Line : Tsurumi – Kokudō – Tsurumi-Ono – Bentembashi
– Asano – Anzen –
Umi-Shibaura Branch : Asano – Shin-Shibaura – Umi-Shibaura
■ Tōkaidō Shinkansen
Keikyu Main Line
– Tsurumi-Ichiba – Keikyū Tsurumi – Kagetsuen-mae – Namamugi
– Keikyū Shin-Koyasu – Koyasu – Kanagawa-Shinmachi –
Naka-Kido – Kanagawa –
Yokohama – Tobe – Hinodechō –
Koganechō – Minami-Ōta – Idogaya – Gumyōji – Kami-Ōoka –
Byōbugaura – Sugita – Keikyū Tomioka – Nōkendai –
Kanazawa-Bunko – Kanazawa-Hakkei –
Keikyu Zushi Line
Kanazawa-Hakkei – Mutsuura –
■ Tokyu Corporation
■ Tōyoko Line
– Hiyoshi – Tsunashima – Ōkurayama – Kikuna – Myōrenji –
Hakuraku – Higashi-Hakuraku – Tammachi – Yokohama
■ Meguro Line
■ Den-en-toshi Line
– Tama-Plaza – Azamino – Eda – Ichigao – Fujigaoka –
Aobadai – Tana – Nagatsuta –
■ Kodomonokuni Line
Nagatsuta – Onda – Kodomonokuni
■ Sagami Railway
Railway Main Line
Yokohama – Hiranumabashi – Nishi-
Yokohama – Tennōchō –
Hoshikawa – Wadamachi – Kamihoshikawa – Nishiya – Tsurugamine
– Futamatagawa – Kibōgaoka – Mitsukyō – Seya –
■ Izumino Line
Futamatagawa – Minami-Makigahara – Ryokuentoshi – Yayoidai –
Izumino – Izumi-chūō – Yumegaoka
Yokohama Minatomirai Railway
■ Minatomirai Line
Yokohama – Shin-Takashima –
Minato Mirai – Bashamichi –
Nihon-ōdōri – Motomachi-Chūkagai
Yokohama City Transportation Bureau
■ Blue Line
– Shimoiida – Tateba – Nakada – Odoriba – Totsuka – Maioka
– Shimonagaya – Kaminagaya – Kōnan-Chūō – Kami-Ōoka –
Gumyōji – Maita – Yoshinochō – Bandōbashi –
Kannai – Sakuragichō – Takashimachō –
Yokohama – Mitsuzawa-shimochō – Mitsuzawa-kamichō –
Katakurachō – Kishine-kōen – Shin-
Yokohama – Kita
Yokohama – Nippa – Nakamachidai – Center Minami – Center
Kita – Nakagawa – Azamino
■ Green Line
Nakayama – Kawawachō – Tsuzuki-Fureai-no-Oka – Center Minami
– Center Kita – Kita-Yamata – Higashi-Yamata – Takata –
Hiyoshi-Honchō – Hiyoshi
Yokohama New Transit
■ Kanazawa Seaside Line
Shin-Sugita – Nambu-Shijō – Torihama – Namiki-Kita –
Namiki-Chūō – Sachiura – Sangyō-Shinkō-Center – Fukuura –
Shidai-Igakubu – Hakkeijima – Uminokōen-Shibaguchi –
Uminokōen-Minamiguchi – Nojimakōen – Kanazawa-Hakkei
Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the city of
Yokohama. There are nine public high schools which are operated by the
Yokohama City Board of Education, and a number of public high
schools which are operated by the Kanagawa Prefectural Board of
Yokohama National University
Yokohama National University is a leading university in
Yokohama which is also one of the highest ranking national
universities in Japan.
Yokohama official web site (in English)
^ Der Große Brockhaus. 16. edition. Vol. 6. F. A. Brockhaus,
Wiesbaden 1955, p. 82
Yokohama city website it is fresh". City.yokohama.jp.
^ Arita, Erika, "Happy Birthday Yokohama!", The
Japan Times, May 24,
2009, p. 7.
^ Fukue, Natsuko, "Chinese immigrants played vital role",
May 28, 2009, p. 3.
^ Matsutani, Minoru, "
Yokohama – city on the cutting edge", Japan
Times, May 29, 2009, p. 3.
^ Galbraith, Michael (16 June 2013). "Death threats sparked Japan's
first cricket game".
Japan Times. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
^ a b Interesting Tidbits of Yokohama[History of Yokohama] Yokohama
Convention & Visitors Bureau Retrieved on February 7, 2009
Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006).
Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake
and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 143.
^ Hammer, pp. 149-170.
Yokohama Weather, When to Go and
Yokohama Climate Information".
world-guides.com. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
平年値（年・月ごとの値） ("Historical Climate data for
Japan Meteorological Agency.
^ "観測史上1～10位の値（ 年間を通じての値）". Japan
Osaka was once more populous than
Yokohama is today.
Retrieved July 26, 2010.
^ "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports".
Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original
on May 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
^ "Partner Cities of
Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon.
Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver.
Nissan To Create New Global and Domestic Headquarters in Yokohama
City by 2010". Japancorp.net. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
^ "Ports & World Trade". www.aapa-ports.org.
^ "Chinese Ports Lead the World in Berth Productivity, JOC Group Inc.
Data Shows". Press Release. AXIO Data Group. JOC Inc. 24 June 2014.
Retrieved 20 March 2015.
Yokohama city website". City.yokohama.jp. Retrieved
Hammer, Joshua (2006).
Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake
and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon
& Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6465-5 (cloth).
Heilbrun, Jacob. "Aftershocks". The New York Times, September 17,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yokohama.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Yokohama.
Official Website (in Japanese)
Yokohama Tourism Website (in English)
Geographic data related to
Yokohama at OpenStreetMap
Articles Related to Yokohama
Wards of Yokohama
Wards of Kawasaki
Wards of Sagamihara
List of mergers in Kanagawa Prefecture
Lat. and Long. 35°27′N 139°38′E / 35.450°N 139.633°E
/ 35.450; 139.633
Metropolitan cities of Japan
Special wards of Tokyo※
Note: ※ also a prefectural capital
World's fifty most-populous urban areas
Manila (Metro Manila)
New York City
Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)
Greater Buenos Aires
Rio de Janeiro
Ho Chi Minh City
Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)
ISNI: 0000 0004 0389 2294