Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the
Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to
/yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand),
is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926. It
is a public limited company which is 99.98% owned by the Finnish
state, and employs around 3,200 people in Finland.
Yle shares many of
its organizational characteristics with its UK counterpart, the BBC,
on which it was largely modelled.
For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the
revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by
the owners of radio sets (1927–1976) and television sets
(1958–2012), as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting
licence fees payable by private television broadcasters. Since the
beginning of 2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public
broadcasting tax (known as the
Yle tax), which is collected annually
from private individuals and corporations together with their other
By far the largest part of the
Yle tax is collected from individual
taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as
well as persons with an annual income of less than €7,813 are
exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to
€50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a
yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. The rationale
for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the
development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the
Internet, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the
fee to the ownership of a specific device.
Yle receives no advertising
revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.
Yle has a status that could be described as that of a non-departmental
public body. It is governed by a parliamentary governing council.
Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million.
Yle operates four national television channels, 13 radio channels and
services, and 25 regional radio stations. As
constitutionally bilingual — around 5.5% of the population speaks
Swedish as their mother-tongue —
Yle provides radio and TV
programming in Swedish through its Swedish-language department,
Svenska Yle. As is customary in Finnish television and cinemas,
foreign films and shows are generally subtitled on Yle's channels.
Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for young children who have not
yet learned to read, as well as many nature and history documentaries
("to avoid spoiling beautiful pictures").
In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known
services is Nuntii Latini, the news in Latin, which is broadcast
worldwide and made available over the Internet.
Yle was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European
Broadcasting Union in 1950.
Yle hosted the Eurovision Song Contest
2007 in Helsinki.
5.1 Decision to close shortwave
5.1.1 Parliamentary question about shortwave
6 List of Yle's managing directors
7 Notable news anchors
8 See also
10 External links
10.1 Streaming video and audio
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August
Yle's headquarters, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila,
Suomen Yleisradio (~ Finland's General Radio) was founded in Helsinki
on 29 May, 1926. The first radio programme was transmitted on 9
September in that year, and this is the date generally considered to
be the birthday of regular broadcasting activities in Finland.
However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's broadcasts became available
throughout the country. After this the broadcasting network was
developed and by the beginning of the 1930s, 100,000 households were
able to listen to
Yle made its first television broadcast tests, and the
following year regular TV programming was started under the name
Suomen Televisio (Finland's Television), which was later renamed Yle
TV1.. The popularity of television in the country grew rapidly. In
Yle obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio, which were merged to
Colour television broadcasts began in 1969, and all television
programmes were broadcast in colour within the following ten years.
In the 2000s,
Yle has founded a number of new radio and television
channels. In 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A
completely new digital channel,
Yle Teema (~
Yle Theme) was
introduced, and the Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska Television,
~ Finland's Swedish Television) was moved from reserved analogue
channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5, which was later
Yle Fem. In addition to these four channels (TV1, TV2,
Teema, and Fem), a fifth channel, called YLE24, was launched in 2001
for 24-hour news programming. However, this channel was replaced by
YLE Extra, a channel attempting to cater to the youth, which was in
turn decommissioned in 2007. Until 4 August, 2008, the fifth
channel was used to broadcast
Yle TV1 with Finnish subtitles broadcast
on programmes in foreign languages (without having to enable the
digital set-top box's subtitle function).
TV1 is the oldest of Yle's channels and also the flagship TV channel
of the institution. It serves as the main news, current affairs and
factual journalism outlet for Yle, and is also used to broadcast a
number of documentaries, drama, cultural, and educational programmes.
Satirical entertainment, cinema, and shows of British production are
also included in its programming.
TV2, founded in 1964, is the main channel for sports programmes and
children's and teenagers' broadcasting. The channel is also used to
broadcast drama, entertainment, and factual programmes. Emphasis in
current affairs output is on domestic items, regional content and
citizen journalism. TV2 is allocated for the broadcasting of the
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest in Finland.
Yle Teema & Fem
Yle Teema & Fem (~
Yle Theme & Five) combines the operations
of the previously separate Teema and Fem channels. Teema & Fem is
Yle's channel for culture, education, and science. It focuses on
recordings of performing arts, classical music, art, and history
documentaries, films, and theme broadcasts. The channel also
broadcasts Swedish-language full service channel broadcasting news,
factual and children's programmes and entertainment. It also shows
many Nordic films and series and Sami-language Ođđasat. Finnish
subtitles are available for most programmes, they can be enabled using
the digital set-top box. Outside prime time, Teema & Fem shows
selected broadcasts from Sveriges Television, Sweden's equivalent of
Finland is Digital satellite channel showing a selection of Yle's
programmes in Sweden.
Yle Text-TV (Finnish:
Yle Teksti-tv) shows news, sport and programme
information round the clock. Theme pages on the weather, traffic, work
As of January 2014, all of Yle's TV-channels except TV
available in high definition.
Radio 1: A radio channel for culture, in-depth current affairs,
and other speech-based programmes. Classical music (concerts by the
Radio Symphony Orchestra), jazz, folk, world music, and
religious music also feature.
YleX: A fast-tempo programme-flow channel featuring new music and in
tune with popular culture, targeted at 17- to 27-year-olds. The
percentage of music is 70%. New domestic and foreign pop and rock and
several special music programmes.
Radio Suomi: The national and regional news, service and contact
channel, also sport and entertainment. Musical fare comprising
domestic and foreign hits, adult and nostalgic pop.
Yle Puhe (formerly
Radio Peili): The news and current affairs
channel presenting talk programmes from Yle's other radio and
television channels. Classical jazz. Also broadcast on digital
Yle X3M: The Swedish-language youth channel for current affairs debate
and popular culture, broadcasting also news. New pop and rock and
special music programmes.
Yle Vega: News, current affairs and culture in Swedish for all
audience groups, also offering culture and regional programmes. Adult
pop, jazz and classical music.
Yle Sámi Radio: A Sami-language network covering most of Lapland.
Produced in co-operation with SVT and NRK.
Yle phased out DAB broadcasts by the end of 2005. Three channels
continued to be available as DVB audio services. DVB audio services
were shutdown on 30th of June 2016
Yle Klassinen: The 24-hour digital supplementary service of classical
music also broadcast on digital television.
Yle Mondo: Broadcasts in English and other languages, mostly compiled
from international radio services.
Yle Mondo is available on FM in
Helsinki and throughout the country as an audio attached to Digital
Until the end of 2012, Finnish citizens paid
Yle a license fee for the
use of a television, set at 252 euros per year in 2012. The license
fee was per location, which could hold several sets (e.g. in a living
room as well as a bedroom). The public broadcasting tax, also known as
Yle tax, replaced the license fee in 2013. The tax ranges from 50
euros to 140 euros per person and per year, depending on income.
Minors and persons with low income are exempt from the tax.
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Yle was a legal monopoly until 1985, when local radio
stations were permitted, and maintained a national monopoly until
1995, when national radio networks were allowed.
In the past,
Yle has been seen in
Finland as a "red" or leftist
medium. This was true especially in 1965–1969, during the term of
Director-General Eino S. Repo, who got the position with the backing
of the Agrarian League and President
Kekkonen (who was a member of the
Agrarian Party), as he was Kekkonen's personal friend. He was accused
of favouring leftist student radicalism and young left leaning
reporters with programs critical of capitalism that demanded reforms
Finland closer to the Soviet Union, and
Yle was given the
nickname "Reporadio". After his resigning, he was demoted to the
position of director of radio broadcasting, on the communist-led
People's Democratic League mandate.
Repo resigned in 1969, but according to Yle, the "political
mandate" remained, as Erkki Raatikainen was named director directly
from the Social Democratic Party office. Subsequently, all directors
after him until 2010 were Social Democrats. This was ended by
appointment of the right-wing National Coalition Party's Lauri Kivinen
as director in 2010.
Finlandization and the leftist radicalization of the 1970s, Yle
contributed to Kekkonen's policy of "neutrality" by broadcasting the
programme Näin naapurissa about the Soviet Union. This programme was
produced in cooperation with the Soviets and as such, supported Soviet
propaganda without criticism.
The appointment of
Lauri Kivinen in 2010 excited much adverse comment
as he was previously head of the Nokia Siemens group which had sold
monitoring equipment to the Iranian Secret Service, allowing them to
arrest political dissidents throughout the unrest in the fall of
Kimmo Wilska was fired on 13 August
2010 - after pretending to be caught drinking on-camera following
an alcohol-related news story on
Yle News. Wilska's stunt was not well
Yle management who fired him that same day. Wilska
received a lot of support after his termination.
Yle has been criticized for buying lots of
responded to criticism emphasizing suitability of series to channels
with no ad breaks, quality and low price of
HBO programming and
stating that American programs even with
HBO form only 7% of Yle
Decision to close shortwave
The broadcasts on shortwave from
Yle were closed at the end of 2006.
Expatriate organisations had been campaigning for a continued service,
but their efforts did not succeed in maintaining the service or even
in slowing the process. The decision also affected a high-powered
medium wave on 963 kHz (312m). A smaller medium wave covering the
Finland region (558 kHz, 538m) remained on air for a few
Parliamentary question about shortwave
In November 2005, MP Pertti Hemmilä (N) submitted a question in
Parliament about the plans of
Yle to end its availability on
international shortwave bands. In his question, Hemmilä took up the
low cost of the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living
abroad. In her response the Minister of Transport and Communications,
Susanna Huovinen (S) noted that
Yle would now be available via other
means, such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the
Yle is not under government control, but under indirect
parliamentary supervision. 
List of Yle's managing directors
J. V. Vakio (until 1935 Hj. W. Walldén) 1927–1945
Hella Wuolijoki 1945–1949
Einar Sundström 1950–1964
Eino S. Repo
Eino S. Repo 1965–1969
Erkki Raatikainen 1970–1979
Sakari Kiuru 1980–1989
Reino Paasilinna 1990–1994
Arne Wessberg 1994–2005
Mikael Jungner 2005–2010
Lauri Kivinen 2010– Incumbent
Notable news anchors
List of radio stations in Finland
Television in Finland
Media of Finland
^ "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel. Retrieved 23
Radio Listening In
Finland 2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03.
p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
Yle tax in force next year". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
^ "Yleisradio - yle.fi".
Yle lopettaa yhden tv-kanavan". mtv.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved
Yle Teksti-tv". Yle. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
^ "New YLE tax law causes mixed feelings".
Helsinki Times. 4 July
2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
^ "Elävä arkisto - yle.fi".
^ Jukka Lindfors. "Näin naapurissa".
^ Petra Himberg. "Kohuankkuri Kimmo Wilska".
^ "Why public service company wastes money on
HBO programs? (in
Finnish)". Yle. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
^ Recollections of international radio from
Finland "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yleisradio.
Official website (in Finnish)
Svenska.yle.fi – Svenska Yle. Official site in Swedish
Yle News – News in English
Yle Sápmi – News in Sámi (Lappish)
Yle Novosti – News in Russian
Nuntii Latini – News in Latin
Streaming video and audio
Yle Areena – in Finnish
Yle Arenan – in Swedish
Yle Elävä arkisto – the Living Archive in Finnish
Yle Arkivet – the Archive in Swedish
Yle TV1 (HD)
Yle TV2 (HD)
Yle Teema & Fem (HD)
Yle Sámi Radio
Members of the European Broadcasting Union
Associate members and
ABC (United States)
All India Radio
Canal 13 (Chile)
Members of the World
Akashvani (All India Radio)
KBS World Radio
Radio External Service
Radio Algeria International
Radio Exterior de España
Radio France Internationale
Radio Havana Cuba
Radio New Zealand International
Radio Romania International
Radio Slovakia International
Radio Taiwan International
Radio Thailand World Service
Radio Tunis International
Radiodifusión Argentina al Exterior
United Nations Radio
Voice of Korea
Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Voice of the Strait
Voice of Turkey
World of Radio
Coordinates: 60°12′11″N 24°55′32″E / 60.203135°N
24.92549°E / 60.203135; 24.92549 (Iso Paja)
ISNI: 0000 0004 0487 0599
BNF: cb123667655 (data)