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The Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
or Thunderbolt Army Group
Army Group
of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Yıldırım Ordular Grubu) or Army Group F (German: Heeresgruppe F) was one of the army groups of the Ottoman Army. It was formed during World War I. The Army Group
Army Group
was assigned to the German Asia Corps. Starting in June 1917, the Yildirim Army Group's first commander in chief was the former Prussian Minister of War and Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn. Von Falkenhayn was replaced by General of the Cavalry Otto Liman von Sanders
Otto Liman von Sanders
on 25 February 1918. After the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, Mustafa Kemal
Mustafa Kemal
took command until the Group's dissolution a few days later.

Contents

1 Tactics 2 World War I

2.1 Order of Battle, August 1917 2.2 Order of Battle, January 1918 2.3 Order of Battle, June 1918 2.4 Order of Battle, September 1918

3 After Mudros

3.1 Order of Battle, November 1918 3.2 Yildirim Troops Inspectorate, May 1919

4 References 5 External links

Tactics[edit] The army group included troops who used the latest Western-Front infiltration tactics; were equipped with close-combat gear, such as Stahlhelms and stick-grenades; and were supported by artillery and machine guns.[6][7] World War I[edit] Order of Battle, August 1917[edit] In August 1917, the army group was structured as follows:[8]

Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
(Müşir Erich von Falkenhayn)

Seventh Army, Syria
Syria
( Mirliva Mustafa Kemal
Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk)

III Corps

24th Division 50th Division

XV Corps

19th Division 20th Division

German Asia Corps

Sixth Army, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
( Mirliva Halil Kut)

XIII Corps

2nd Division 6th Division

XVIII Corps

14th Division 51st Division 52nd Division

46th Division

with the

42nd Division 48th Division 59th Division[9]

XX Corps at Huj

16th Division 54th Division 178th Infantry Regiment 3rd Cavalry Division

XXII Corps at Gaza

3rd Division 7th Division 53rd Division[10][11]

Order of Battle, January 1918[edit] In January 1918, the army group was structured as follows:[12]

Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
(Müşir Erich von Falkenhayn)

Seventh Army ( Mirliva Fevzi Çakmak)

III Corps

1st Division, 19th Division, 24th Division

XV Corps

26th Division, 53rd Division

3rd Cavalry Division German Asia Corps

Eighth Army (Ferik Cevat Çobanlı)

XXII Corps

3rd Division, 7th Division, 20th Division

16th Division, 54th Division, 2nd Caucasian Cavalry Division

Order of Battle, June 1918[edit] In June 1918, the army group was structured as follows:[13]

Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
(Müşir Otto Liman von Sanders)

Seventh Army ( Mirliva Fevzi Çakmak)

III Corps

1st Division, 24th Division, 3rd Cavalry Division

XV Corps

26th Division, 53rd Division, 19th Division

German Asia Corps

Eighth Army (Ferik Cevat Çobanlı)

XXII Corps

3rd Division, 7th Division, 20th Division

16th Division 54th Division 2nd Caucasian Cavalry Division

Order of Battle, September 1918[edit] In September 1918, the army group was structured as follows:[14]

Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
(Müşir Otto Liman von Sanders)

Fourth Army ( Mirliva Cemal Mersinli)

II Corps (Miralay Galatalı Şevket Bey)

62nd Division, Provisional Division x 3

Jordan Group

24th Division, 3rd Cavalry Division

VIII Corps (Miralay Yasin Hilmi Bey)

48th Division, Umman Provisional Division

Seventh Army ( Mirliva Mustafa Kemal
Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk)

III Corps (Miralay İsmet İnönü)

1st Division, 11th Division

XV Corps (Miralay Ali Fuat Cebesoy)

26th Division, 53rd Division

Eighth Army (Ferik Cevat Çobanlı)

XXII Corps (Miralay Refet Bele)

7th Division, 20th Division

Left Wing Corps ( Oberst
Oberst
Gustav von Oppen)

16th Division, 19th Division German Asia Corps

2nd Caucasian Cavalry Division

After Mudros[edit] Order of Battle, November 1918[edit] In November 1918, the army group was structured as follows:[15]

Yildirim Army Group
Army Group
( Mirliva Mustafa Kemal
Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk)

Second Army ( Mirliva Nihat Anılmış)

XII Corps

23rd Division

XV Corps

41st Division, 44th Division

Seventh Army ( Mirliva Ali Fuat Cebesoy, deputy)

III Corps

11th Division, 24th Division

XX Corps

1st Division, 43rd Division

Yildirim Troops Inspectorate, May 1919[edit] In April 1919, Şevket Turgut Pasha, Cevat Çobanlı
Cevat Çobanlı
and Fevzi Çakmak hold a secret meeting in Constantinople. They prepared a report called "Trio Oath" (Üçler Misâkı) and decided to establish army inspectorate for the defense of homeland. In late April, Fevzi Çakmak submitted this report to the Minister of War Şakir Pasha. On April 30, 1919, the War Ministry and Sultan Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
ratified the decision about the establishing of army inspectorates that had been accepted by the Chief of General Staff[16] And then the First Army Troops Inspectorate (stationed in Constantinople, Fevzi Çakmak), the Yildirim Troops Inspectorate (stationed in Konya, Cemal Mersinli, later Second Army Inspectorate) Inspectorate, the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate (stationed in Erzurum, Mustafa Kemal
Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk, later Third Army Inspectorate) was formed. Additionally, the Rumeli
Rumeli
Military Troops Inspectorate (Nureddin Pasha) would be established and the XIII Corps would be under the direction of the Ministry of War.[17] In May 1919, the army inspectorate was structured as follows:[18][19]

Yildirim Troops Inspectorate (Yıldırım Kıt'aatı Müfettişliği, Konya, Inspector: Ferik Cemal Mersinli)

XII Corps (Niğde, Miralay Selâhaddin Bey)

11th Division 41st Division 7th Cavalry Regiment 20th Cavalry Regiment

XX Corps (Ankara, Mirliva Ali Fuat Cebesoy)

23rd Division 24th Division

XVII Corps (Smyrna, Mirliva Ali Nadir Pasha, transferred from the First Army Troops Inspectorate after the Occupation of Smyrna)

56th Division 57th Division

References[edit]

^ a b Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 169. ^ a b T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1972, p. 9. (in Turkish) ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 48. (in Turkish) ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 193. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 194. ^ Hadaway, Stuart (2015). From Gaza to Jerusalem: The Campaign for Southern Palestine 1917. Stroud: The History Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7509-6661-0. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ Faulkner, Neil (24 May 2016). Lawrence of Arabia's War: The Arabs, the British and the Remaking of the Middle East in WWI. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 482. ISBN 978-0-300-19683-2. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 170. ^ Falls24 ^ Erickson 2001 p. 163 ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 35 ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 181. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 188. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 197. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 202. ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 105. (in Turkish) ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 106. (in Turkish) ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 333. (in Turkish) ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, pp. 110–111. (in Turkish)

External links[edit]

v t e

Ottoman Forces during World War I

Army groups

Caucasus Army Group Yildirim Army Group Eastern Army Group

Army

1st Army 2nd Army 3rd Army 4th Army 5th Army 6th Army 7th Army 8th Army 9th Army

Corps

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII XXV Iraq Area Halil I Kaf. II Kaf. Hejaz

Fortified areas

Dardanelles Bosporus Chataldja Adrianople Smyrna Erzurum Kars

Infantry divisions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 1 Kaf. 2 Kaf. 3 Kaf. 5 Kaf. 9 Kaf. 10 Kaf. 11 Kaf. 36 Kaf. 37 Kaf.

Other divisions

1 Cav. 2 Cav. 3 Cav. Van Gendarmerie

Others

1st Exp. 5th Exp. German Asia Africa Hejaz Exp. 1st Pro. 2nd Pro. Islam. 57. Re

.