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The Yi script
Yi script
(Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma [nɔ̄sū bū̠mā]; Chinese: 彝文; pinyin: Yí wén) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary. The script is also historically known in Chinese as Cuan Wen (Chinese: 爨文; pinyin: Cuàn wén) or Wei Shu (simplified Chinese: 韪书; traditional Chinese: 韙書; pinyin: Wéi shū) and various other names (夷字、倮語、倮倮文、畢摩文), among them "tadpole writing" (蝌蚪文).[1] This is to be distinguished from romanized Yi (彝文羅馬拼音 Yíwén Luómǎ pīnyīn) which was a system (or systems) invented by missionaries and intermittently used afterwards by some government institutions.[2][3] There was also a Yi abugida or alphasyllabary devised by Sam Pollard, the Pollard script for the Miao language, which he adapted into "Nasu" as well.[4][5] Present day traditional Yi writing can be sub-divided into five main varieties (Huáng Jiànmíng 1993); Nuosu (the prestige form of the Yi language centred on the Liangshan area), Nasu (including the Wusa), Nisu (Southern Yi), Sani (撒尼) and Azhe (阿哲).[6][7]

Contents

1 Classical Yi 2 Modern Yi

2.1 Syllabary

3 Yi in pinyin

3.1 Consonants

3.1.1 Plosive series 3.1.2 Affricate series

3.2 Vowels 3.3 Tones

4 Unicode 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Classical Yi[edit]

A classical Yi manuscript.

Classical Yi is a syllabic logographic system that was reputedly devised during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907) by someone called Aki (Chinese: 阿畸; pinyin: Āqí).[8] However, the earliest surviving examples of the Yi script
Yi script
only date back to the late 15th century and early 16th century, the earliest dated example being an inscription on a bronze bell dated to 1485.[9] There are tens of thousands of manuscripts in the Yi script, dating back several centuries, although most are undated. In recent years a number of Yi manuscript texts written in traditional Yi script
Yi script
have been published. The original script is said to have comprised 1,840 characters, but over the centuries widely divergent glyph forms have developed in different Yi-speaking areas, an extreme example being the character for "stomach" which exists in some forty glyph variants. Due to this regional variation as many as 90,000 different Yi glyphs are known from manuscripts and inscriptions. Although similar to Chinese in function, the glyphs are independent in form, with little to suggest that they are directly related. However, there are some borrowings from Chinese, such as the characters for numbers used in some Yi script traditions. Languages written with the classical script included Nuosu, Nisu, Wusa Nasu, and Mantsi. Modern Yi[edit] The Modern Yi script
Yi script
(ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma [nɔ̄sū bū̠mā] 'Nosu script') is a standardized syllabary derived from the classic script in 1974 by the local Chinese government. In 1980 it was made the official script of the Liangshan (Cool Mountain) dialect of the Nuosu Yi language of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, and consequently is known as Liangshan Standard Yi Script (涼山規範彝文 Liángshān guīfàn Yíwén). Other dialects of Yi do not yet have a standardized script. There are 756 basic glyphs based on the Liangshan dialect, plus 63 for syllables only used for words borrowed from Chinese. The native syllabary represents vowel and consonant-vowel syllables, formed of 43 consonants and 8 vowels that can occur with any of three tones, plus two "buzzing" vowels that can only occur as mid tone. Not all combinations are possible. Although the Liangshan dialect has four tones (and others have more), only three tones (high, mid, low) have separate glyphs. The fourth tone (rising) may sometimes occur as a grammatical inflection of the mid tone, so it is written with the mid-tone glyph plus a diacritic mark (a superscript arc). Counting syllables with this diacritic, the script represents 1,164 syllables. In addition there is a syllable iteration mark, ꀕ (represented as w in Yi pinyin) that is used to reduplicate a preceding syllable. Syllabary[edit] The syllabary of standard modern Yi is illustrated in the table below (view table as an image):[10]

  - b p bb nb hm m f v d t dd nd hn n hl l g k gg mg hx ng h w z c zz nz s ss zh ch rr nr sh r j q jj nj ny x y

  [p] [pʰ] [b] [m͡b] [m̥] [m] [f] [v] [t] [tʰ] [d] [n͡d] [n̥] [n] [ɬ] [l] [k] [kʰ] [ɡ] [ŋ͡ɡ] [h] [ŋ] [x] [ɣ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [d͡z] [nd͡z] [s] [z] [t͡ʂ] [t͡ʂʰ] [d͡ʐ] [nd͡ʐ] [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡ɕ] [t͡ɕʰ] [d͡ʑ] [nd͡ʑ] [nʲ] [ɕ] [ʑ]

it [i̋] ꀀ ꀖ ꀸ ꁖ ꁶ ꂑ ꂮ ꃍ ꃢ ꄀ ꄚ ꄶ ꅑ ꅨ ꅽ ꆗ ꆷ ꇚ ꇸ ꈔ   ꉆ   ꉮ   ꊍ ꊮ ꋐ ꋭ ꌉ ꌪ             ꏠ ꏼ ꐘ ꐱ ꑊ ꑝ ꑱ

ix [ǐ] ꀁ ꀗ ꀹ ꁗ ꁷ ꂒ ꂯ ꃎ ꃣ ꄁ ꄛ ꄷ ꅒ ꅩ ꅾ ꆘ ꆸ ꇛ ꇹ ꈕ   ꉇ       ꊎ ꊯ ꋑ ꋮ ꌊ ꌫ             ꏡ ꏽ ꐙ ꐲ ꑋ ꑞ ꑲ

i [ī] ꀂ ꀘ ꀺ ꁘ ꁸ ꂓ ꂰ ꃏ ꃤ ꄂ ꄜ ꄸ ꅓ ꅪ ꅿ ꆙ ꆹ ꇜ ꇺ ꈖ   ꉈ       ꊏ ꊰ ꋒ ꋯ ꌋ ꌬ             ꏢ ꏾ ꐚ ꐳ ꑌ ꑟ ꑳ

ip [î] ꀃ ꀙ ꀻ ꁙ ꁹ ꂔ ꂱ ꃐ ꃥ ꄃ ꄝ ꄹ ꅔ ꅫ ꆀ ꆚ ꆺ ꇝ ꇻ     ꉉ       ꊐ ꊱ ꋓ ꋰ ꌌ ꌭ             ꏣ ꏿ ꐛ ꐴ ꑍ ꑠ ꑴ

iet [ɛ̋] ꀄ ꀚ   ꁚ         ꃦ         ꅬ     ꆻ ꇞ       ꉊ         ꊲ ꋔ                   ꏤ ꐀ ꐜ ꐵ ꑎ ꑡ ꑵ

iex [ɛ̌] ꀅ ꀛ ꀼ ꁛ ꁺ ꂕ ꂲ   ꃧ ꄄ ꄞ ꄺ ꅕ ꅭ ꆁ ꆛ ꆼ ꇟ ꇼ ꈗ ꈰ ꉋ ꉝ ꉯ   ꊑ ꊳ ꋕ ꋱ ꌍ ꌮ             ꏥ ꐁ ꐝ ꐶ ꑏ ꑢ ꑶ

ie [ɛ̄] ꀆ ꀜ ꀽ ꁜ ꁻ ꂖ ꂳ   ꃨ ꄅ ꄟ ꄻ ꅖ ꅮ ꆂ ꆜ ꆽ ꇠ ꇽ ꈘ ꈱ ꉌ ꉞ ꉰ   ꊒ ꊴ ꋖ ꋲ ꌎ ꌯ             ꏦ ꐂ ꐞ ꐷ ꑐ ꑣ ꑷ

iep [ɛ̂] ꀇ ꀝ ꀾ ꁝ ꁼ ꂗ ꂴ   ꃩ ꄆ ꄠ ꄼ   ꅯ ꆃ ꆝ ꆾ ꇡ ꇾ ꈙ   ꉍ ꉟ     ꊓ ꊵ ꋗ ꋳ ꌏ ꌰ             ꏧ ꐃ ꐟ ꐸ ꑑ ꑤ ꑸ

at [a̋] ꀈ ꀞ ꀿ ꁞ ꁽ ꂘ ꂵ ꃑ ꃪ ꄇ ꄡ ꄽ ꅗ ꅰ   ꆞ ꆿ ꇢ ꇿ ꈚ ꈲ ꉎ ꉠ ꉱ ꊀ ꊔ ꊶ ꋘ ꋴ ꌐ ꌱ ꍆ ꍡ   ꎔ ꎫ ꏆ              

ax [ǎ] ꀉ ꀟ ꁀ ꁟ ꁾ ꂙ ꂶ ꃒ ꃫ ꄈ ꄢ ꄾ ꅘ ꅱ ꆄ ꆟ ꇀ ꇣ ꈀ ꈛ ꈳ ꉏ ꉡ ꉲ ꊁ ꊕ ꊷ ꋙ ꋵ ꌑ ꌲ ꍇ ꍢ ꍼ ꎕ ꎬ ꏇ              

a [ā] ꀊ ꀠ ꁁ ꁠ ꁿ ꂚ ꂷ ꃓ ꃬ ꄉ ꄣ ꄿ ꅙ ꅲ ꆅ ꆠ ꇁ ꇤ ꈁ ꈜ ꈴ ꉐ ꉢ ꉳ ꊂ ꊖ ꊸ ꋚ ꋶ ꌒ ꌳ ꍈ ꍣ ꍽ ꎖ ꎭ ꏈ              

ap [â] ꀋ ꀡ ꁂ ꁡ ꂀ ꂛ ꂸ ꃔ ꃭ ꄊ ꄤ ꅀ ꅚ ꅳ ꆆ ꆡ ꇂ ꇥ ꈂ ꈝ ꈵ ꉑ ꉣ ꉴ ꊃ ꊗ ꊹ ꋛ ꋷ ꌓ ꌴ ꍉ ꍤ   ꎗ ꎮ ꏉ              

uot [ɔ̋]             ꂹ       ꄥ           ꇃ ꇦ   ꈞ   ꉒ ꉤ ꉵ                 ꍥ         ꏨ ꐄ         ꑹ

uox [ɔ̌] ꀌ ꀢ ꁃ ꁢ   ꂜ ꂺ     ꄋ ꄦ ꅁ   ꅴ ꆇ ꆢ ꇄ ꇧ ꈃ ꈟ ꈶ ꉓ ꉥ ꉶ ꊄ ꊘ ꊺ   ꋸ ꌔ   ꍊ ꍦ ꍾ   ꎯ ꏊ ꏩ ꐅ ꐠ ꐹ ꑒ ꑥ ꑺ

uo [ɔ̄] ꀍ ꀣ ꁄ ꁣ   ꂝ ꂻ     ꄌ ꄧ ꅂ   ꅵ ꆈ ꆣ ꇅ ꇨ ꈄ ꈠ ꈷ ꉔ ꉦ ꉷ ꊅ ꊙ ꊻ   ꋹ ꌕ   ꍋ ꍧ ꍿ   ꎰ ꏋ ꏪ ꐆ ꐡ ꐺ ꑓ ꑦ ꑻ

uop [ɔ̂] ꀎ ꀤ ꁅ ꁤ   ꂞ ꂼ       ꄨ ꅃ     ꆉ ꆤ ꇆ ꇩ ꈅ ꈡ ꈸ ꉕ   ꉸ ꊆ ꊚ ꊼ     ꌖ   ꍌ ꍨ     ꎱ ꏌ ꏫ ꐇ ꐢ   ꑔ   ꑼ

ot [ő] ꀏ ꀥ ꁆ ꁥ ꂁ ꂟ ꂽ   ꃮ ꄍ ꄩ ꅄ ꅛ ꅶ ꆊ   ꇇ ꇪ ꈆ ꈢ ꈹ ꉖ ꉧ ꉹ   ꊛ ꊽ     ꌗ ꌵ ꍍ ꍩ ꎀ   ꎲ ꏍ ꏬ ꐈ ꐣ ꐻ ꑕ ꑧ ꑽ

ox [ǒ] ꀐ ꀦ ꁇ ꁦ ꂂ ꂠ ꂾ ꃕ ꃯ ꄎ ꄪ ꅅ ꅜ ꅷ ꆋ ꆥ ꇈ ꇫ ꈇ ꈣ ꈺ ꉗ ꉨ ꉺ ꊇ ꊜ ꊾ ꋜ ꋺ ꌘ ꌶ ꍎ ꍪ ꎁ ꎘ ꎳ ꏎ ꏭ ꐉ ꐤ ꐼ ꑖ ꑨ ꑾ

o [ō] ꀑ ꀧ ꁈ ꁧ ꂃ ꂡ ꂿ ꃖ ꃰ ꄏ ꄫ ꅆ ꅝ   ꆌ ꆦ ꇉ ꇬ ꈈ ꈤ ꈻ ꉘ ꉩ ꉻ ꊈ ꊝ ꊿ ꋝ   ꌙ ꌷ ꍏ ꍫ ꎂ ꎙ ꎴ ꏏ ꏮ ꐊ ꐥ ꐽ ꑗ ꑩ ꑿ

op [ô] ꀒ ꀨ ꁉ ꁨ ꂄ ꂢ ꃀ ꃗ ꃱ ꄐ ꄬ ꅇ ꅞ ꅸ ꆍ ꆧ ꇊ ꇭ ꈉ ꈥ ꈼ ꉙ ꉪ ꉼ ꊉ ꊞ ꋀ ꋞ ꋻ ꌚ ꌸ ꍐ ꍬ ꎃ ꎚ ꎵ ꏐ ꏯ ꐋ ꐦ ꐾ ꑘ ꑪ ꒀ

et [ɯ̋]                                   ꇮ ꈊ ꈦ                       ꍑ ꍭ ꎄ ꎛ ꎶ                

ex [ɯ̌] ꀓ ꀩ   ꁩ     ꃁ   ꃲ ꄑ ꄭ ꅈ ꅟ ꅹ ꆎ ꆨ ꇋ ꇯ ꈋ ꈧ ꈽ ꉚ ꉫ ꉽ ꊊ ꊟ ꋁ ꋟ ꋼ ꌛ ꌹ ꍒ ꍮ ꎅ ꎜ ꎷ ꏑ              

e [ɯ̄] ꀔ ꀪ   ꁪ     ꃂ     ꄒ ꄮ ꅉ ꅠ ꅺ ꆏ ꆩ ꇌ ꇰ ꈌ ꈨ ꈾ ꉛ ꉬ ꉾ ꊋ ꊠ ꋂ ꋠ ꋽ ꌜ ꌺ ꍓ ꍯ ꎆ ꎝ ꎸ ꏒ              

ep [ɯ̂]   ꀫ   ꁫ         ꃳ ꄓ ꄯ ꅊ ꅡ ꅻ ꆐ ꆪ ꇍ ꇱ ꈍ ꈩ ꈿ ꉜ ꉭ ꉿ ꊌ ꊡ ꋃ ꋡ   ꌝ ꌻ ꍔ ꍰ ꎇ ꎞ ꎹ ꏓ              

ut [ű]   ꀬ ꁊ ꁬ ꂅ ꂣ ꃃ ꃘ ꃴ ꄔ ꄰ ꅋ ꅢ ꅼ ꆑ ꆫ ꇎ ꇲ ꈎ ꈪ ꉀ         ꊢ ꋄ     ꌞ ꌼ ꍕ   ꎈ ꎟ ꎺ ꏔ ꏰ ꐌ ꐧ   ꑙ   ꒁ

ux [ǔ]   ꀭ ꁋ ꁭ ꂆ ꂤ ꃄ ꃙ ꃵ ꄕ ꄱ ꅌ ꅣ   ꆒ ꆬ ꇏ ꇳ ꈏ ꈫ ꉁ         ꊣ ꋅ ꋢ ꋾ ꌟ ꌽ ꍖ ꍱ ꎉ ꎠ ꎻ ꏕ ꏱ ꐍ ꐨ ꐿ ꑚ   ꒂ

u [ū]   ꀮ ꁌ ꁮ ꂇ ꂥ ꃅ ꃚ ꃶ ꄖ ꄲ ꅍ ꅤ   ꆓ ꆭ ꇐ ꇴ ꈐ ꈬ ꉂ         ꊤ ꋆ ꋣ ꋿ ꌠ ꌾ ꍗ ꍲ ꎊ ꎡ ꎼ ꏖ ꏲ ꐎ ꐩ ꑀ ꑛ   ꒃ

up [û]   ꀯ ꁍ ꁯ ꂈ ꂦ ꃆ ꃛ ꃷ ꄗ ꄳ ꅎ ꅥ   ꆔ ꆮ ꇑ ꇵ ꈑ ꈭ ꉃ         ꊥ ꋇ ꋤ ꌀ ꌡ ꌿ ꍘ ꍳ ꎋ ꎢ ꎽ ꏗ ꏳ ꐏ ꐪ ꑁ ꑜ   ꒄ

urx [ǔ̠]   ꀰ ꁎ ꁰ ꂉ ꂧ ꃇ ꃜ ꃸ ꄘ ꄴ ꅏ ꅦ   ꆕ ꆯ ꇒ ꇶ ꈒ ꈮ ꉄ         ꊦ ꋈ ꋥ ꌁ ꌢ   ꍙ ꍴ ꎌ ꎣ ꎾ ꏘ ꏴ ꐐ ꐫ ꑂ     ꒅ

ur [ū̠]   ꀱ ꁏ ꁱ ꂊ ꂨ ꃈ ꃝ ꃹ ꄙ ꄵ ꅐ ꅧ   ꆖ ꆰ ꇓ ꇷ ꈓ ꈯ ꉅ         ꊧ ꋉ ꋦ ꌂ ꌣ   ꍚ ꍵ ꎍ ꎤ ꎿ ꏙ ꏵ ꐑ ꐬ ꑃ     ꒆ

yt [ɿ̋]   ꀲ ꁐ ꁲ ꂋ   ꃉ ꃞ ꃺ             ꆱ ꇔ                 ꊨ ꋊ ꋧ ꌃ ꌤ ꍀ ꍛ ꍶ ꎎ ꎥ ꏀ ꏚ ꏶ ꐒ ꐭ ꑄ   ꑫ ꒇ

yx [ɿ̌]   ꀳ ꁑ ꁳ ꂌ ꂩ ꃊ ꃟ ꃻ             ꆲ ꇕ                 ꊩ ꋋ ꋨ ꌄ ꌥ ꍁ ꍜ ꍷ ꎏ ꎦ ꏁ ꏛ ꏷ ꐓ ꐮ ꑅ   ꑬ ꒈ

y [ɿ̄]   ꀴ ꁒ ꁴ ꂍ ꂪ ꃋ ꃠ ꃼ             ꆳ ꇖ                 ꊪ ꋌ ꋩ ꌅ ꌦ ꍂ ꍝ ꍸ ꎐ ꎧ ꏂ ꏜ ꏸ ꐔ ꐯ ꑆ   ꑭ ꒉ

yp [ɿ̂]   ꀵ ꁓ ꁵ ꂎ ꂫ ꃌ ꃡ ꃽ             ꆴ ꇗ                 ꊫ ꋍ ꋪ ꌆ ꌧ ꍃ ꍞ ꍹ ꎑ ꎨ ꏃ ꏝ ꏹ ꐕ ꐰ ꑇ   ꑮ ꒊ

yrx [ɿ̠̌]   ꀶ ꁔ   ꂏ ꂬ     ꃾ             ꆵ ꇘ                 ꊬ ꋎ ꋫ ꌇ ꌨ ꍄ ꍟ ꍺ ꎒ ꎩ ꏄ ꏞ ꏺ ꐖ   ꑈ   ꑯ ꒋ

yr [ɿ̠̄]   ꀷ ꁕ   ꂐ ꂭ     ꃿ             ꆶ ꇙ                 ꊭ ꋏ ꋬ ꌈ ꌩ ꍅ ꍠ ꍻ ꎓ ꎪ ꏅ ꏟ ꏻ ꐗ   ꑉ   ꑰ ꒌ

Yi in pinyin[edit]

Trilingual signs, in Chinese, Yi (syllabic script), and Hani (alphabetic) on the Lihaozhai Township government office. Jianshui County, Yunnan. The Yi and Hani texts apparently have a syllable-to-syllable correspondence to the Chinese text.

The expanded pinyin letters used to write Yi are: Consonants[edit] The consonant series are tenuis stop, aspirate, voiced, prenasalized, voiceless nasal, voiced nasal, voiceless fricative, voiced fricative, respectively. In addition, hl, l are laterals, and hx is [h]. V, w, ss, r, y are the voiced fricatives. With stops and affricates, voicing is shown by doubling the letter. Plosive series[edit]

Labial: b [p], p [pʰ], bb [b], nb [m͡b], hm [m̥], m [m], f [f], v [v] Alveolar: d [t], t [tʰ], dd [d], nd [n͡d], hn [n̥], n [n], hl [ɬ], l [l] Velar: g [k], k [kʰ], gg [ɡ], mg [ŋ͡ɡ], hx [h], ng [ŋ], h [x], w [ɣ]

Affricate series[edit]

Alveolar: z [t͡s], c [t͡sʰ], zz [d͡z], nz [nd͡z], s [s], ss [z] Retroflex: zh [t͡ʂ], ch [t͡ʂʰ], rr [d͡ʐ], nr [nd͡ʐ], sh [ʂ], r [ʐ] Palatal: j [t͡ɕ], q [t͡ɕʰ], jj [d͡ʑ], nj [nd͡ʑ], ny [nʲ], x [ɕ], y [ʑ]

Vowels[edit]

Vowels

Transliteration i ie a uo o e u ur y yr

IPA transcription i ɛ a ɔ o ɯ u u̠ ɿ ɿ̱̠

Tones[edit] An unmarked syllable has mid level tone (33), e.g. ā (or alternatively a˧). Other tones are shown by a final consonant:

t : high level tone (55), e.g. a̋ (or alternatively a˥) x : high rising tone (34), e.g. ǎ (or alternatively a˧˦) p : low falling tone (21), e.g. â (or alternatively a˨˩)

Unicode[edit] The Unicode
Unicode
block for Modern Yi is Yi syllables (U+A000 to U+A48C), and comprises 1,164 syllables (syllables with a diacritic mark are encoded separately, and are not decomposable into syllable plus combining diacritical mark) and one syllable iteration mark (U+A015, incorrectly named YI SYLLABLE WU). In addition, a set of 55 radicals for use in dictionary classification are encoded at U+A490 to U+A4C6 (Yi Radicals).[11] Yi syllables and Yi radicals were added as new blocks to Unicode
Unicode
Standard with version 3.0.[12] Classical Yi - which is an ideographic script like the Chinese characters - has not yet been encoded in Unicode, but a proposal to encode 88,613 Classical Yi characters was made in 2007.[13] See also[edit]

Chinese family of scripts Mojikyo Nisoish languages

References[edit]

^ 中国少数民族文化遗产集粹 2006- Page 9 "... 汉文史料中分别称彝文为"夷字"、"爨文"、"韪书"、"蝌蚪文"、"倮倮文"、"毕摩文"等,中华人民共和国成立后随族称的规范,统称为彝族文字,简称为彝文。" ^ 秦和平 基督宗教在西南民族地区的传播史 2003 - Page 49 "另外,基督教之所以能够传播于民族地区,民族文字的创制及使用起到关键作用。据调查,传教士创制的文字有苗文、摆夷(傣)文、傈僳文、怒文、景颇文、佤文、彝文、拉祜文等等。它们利用罗马拼音字母系统对该民族语言或文字加以注音所产生,..." ^ Benoît Vermander L'enclos à moutons: un village nuosu au sud-ouest de la Chine 2007 Page 8 "Si les Nuosu vivent sur le territoire chinois, s'ils sont citoyens chinois et gouvernés de fait par le Parti-État chinois, l'univers culturel dans lequel ... Par ailleurs, un système de transcription formé sur l'alphabet latin a été également mis au point ..." ^ Miao abiguda table ^ -Annual report of the American Bible Society American Bible Society 1949- Volume 133 - Page 248 "In the Nasu New Testament the so-called "Pollard" Script is used. Its alphabet was invented by the late Mr. Pollard, a British missionary, who worked in Yunnan and Kweichow Provinces. Since the publication of the first edition of 5,000, more ..." ^ Halina Wasilewska in ed. Nathan Hill Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages IV 2012 Page 449 "... the writing as the basis and which corresponds to the classification of the Yi languages, present day traditional Yi writing can be sub-divided into five main varieties (Huáng Jiànmíng 1993), i.e. the Nuosu, Nasu, Nisu, Sani and Azhe varieties." ^ 黄建明 Huáng Jiànmíng 彝族古籍文献概要 1993 Yizu guji wenxian gaiyao [Outline of classical literature of Yi nationality]. By Huang Jianming. Yunnan minzu chubanshe, 1993. ^ Wu Zili 武自立, Chuantong Yiwen 传统彝文 (Traditional Yi Script); in Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Wenzi (Beijing, 1991) ^ Ma Xueliang 马学良, Han Zang Yu Gailun 汉藏语概论 (A General Introduction to Sino-Tibetan Languages) (Beijing, 1991) page 568 ^ Liangshan Yiyu Yuyan Gailun 凉山彝语语言概论 (Chengdu, 1983) ^ Unicode
Unicode
Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide 2003 Page 402 "The Yi language is related to Tibetan and Burmese and is written with its own script, called, not surprisingly, the Yi script, but sometimes known as Cuan or Wei.23 Classical Yi is an ideographic script, like the Chinese characters. 23. My sources for this section are the Unicode
Unicode
standard and Dingxu Shi, "The Yi Script," in The World's Writing Systems, pp. 239-243." ^ Andy Deitsch, David Czarnecki Java Internationalization 2001 Page 352 "Table 12-1. Additional Blocks Added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard Version 3.0 Block Name Description ... Yi syllables - The Yi syllabary used to write the Yi language spoken in Western China. Yi radicals - The radicals that make up the Yi syllabary." ^ Preliminary Proposal to encode Classical Yi Characters (134 MB)

External links[edit]

Yi script
Yi script
and language at Omniglot Pronunciation of Yi Consonant and Vowel

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Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary)

.