Yeshiva
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A yeshiva (; he, ישיבה, , sitting; pl. , or ) is a
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal ...
that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
and the
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are a ...

Torah
, and
halacha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ), also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → ...
(Jewish law). The studying is usually done through daily ''
shiurim File:הרב חיים שלום דייטש מוסר שיעור בישיבת תורת אמת.jpg, ''Gemara Shiur'', Tomchei Temimim , Toras Emes Yeshiva Shiur (, he, שיעור , pl. shiurim, lit. "Lesson") is a lesson on any Torah study, Tora ...
'' (lectures or classes) as well as in study pairs called ''chavrusas'' (Aramaic language, Aramaic for 'friendship' or 'companionship'). ''Chavrusa''-style learning is one of the unique features of the yeshiva. In the United States and Israel, the different levels of yeshiva education have different names. In the United States, elementary-school students are enrolled in a ''cheder'', post-Bar and Bat Mitzvah, bar mitzvah-age students learn in a ''mesivta, metivta'', and undergraduate-level students learn in a ''Beth midrash, beit midrash'' or ''yeshiva gedola'' ( he, ישיבה גדולה, , large yeshiva' or 'great yeshiva). In Israel, elementary-school students are enrolled in a ''Talmud Torah'' or ''cheder'', post-bar mitzvah-age students learn in a ''yeshiva ketana'' ( he, ישיבה קטנה, , small yeshiva' or 'minor yeshiva), and high-school-age students learn in a ''yeshiva gedola''. A kollel is a yeshiva for married men. It is common for a kollel to pay a token stipend to its students. Students of Lithuanian Jews, Lithuanian and Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic yeshiva gedolas usually learn in yeshiva until they get married. Historically, yeshivas were attended by males only. Today, all non-Orthodox yeshivas are open to females. Although there are separate schools for Orthodox women and girls, (''midrasha'' or "seminary") these do not follow the same structure or curriculum as the traditional yeshiva for boys and men.


Etymology

Alternate spellings and names include ''yeshivah'' (; he, ישיבה, sitting (n.); ''metivta'' and ''mesivta'' ( arc, מתיבתא ''methivta''); ''beth midrash''; Talmudical academy, rabbinical academy and rabbinical school. The word
yeshiva
' is applied to the activity of learning in class, and hence to a learning "session." The transference in meaning of the term from the learning session to the institution itself appears to have occurred by the time of the great Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Sura (city), Sura and Pumbedita, which were known as ''shte ha-yeshivot'' (the two colleges).


History


Origins

The Mishnah tractate Megillah (Talmud), Megillah mentions the law that a town can only be called a "city" if it supports ten men (''batlanim'') to make up the required minyan, quorum for communal prayers. Likewise, every beth din ("house of judgement") was attended by a number of pupils up to three times the size of the court (Mishnah, tractate Sanhedrin (tractate), Sanhedrin). These might be indications of the historicity of the classical yeshiva. As indicated by the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
, adults generally took off two months a year, Elul and Adar, the months preceding the pilgrimage festivals of Sukkot and Pesach, called ''Yarḥei Kalla'' (Aramaic for "Kallah, Months of Kallah") to study. The rest of the year, they worked.


Geonic Period

The Geonic period takes its name from Gaon (Hebrew), ''Gaon'', the title bestowed on the heads of the three yeshivas in existence from the third to the thirteenth century. The Geonim acted as the principals of their individual yeshivot, and as spiritual leaders and high judges for the wider communities tied to them. The yeshiva conducted all official business in the name of its Gaon, and all correspondence to or from the yeshiva was addressed directly to the Gaon. Throughout the Geonic Period there were three yeshivot. These were named for the cities in which they were located: Jerusalem, Sura (city), Sura, and Pumbedita; the yeshiva of Jerusalem would later relocate to Cairo, and the yeshivot of Sura and Pumbedita to Baghdad, but retain their original names. Each Jewish community would associate itself with one of the three yeshivot; Jews living around the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean typically followed the yeshiva in Jerusalem, while those living in the Arabian Peninsula and modern-day Iraq and Iran typically followed one of the two yeshivot in Baghdad. There was however, no requirement for this, and each community could choose to associate with any of the yeshivot. The yeshiva served as the highest educational institution for the Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbis of this period. In addition to this, the yeshiva wielded immense power as the principal body for interpreting Halakha, Jewish law. In this regard, the community saw the Gaon of a yeshiva as the highest judge on all matters of Jewish law. Each yeshiva ruled differently on matters of ritual and law; the other yeshivot accepted these divisions, and all three ranked as equally orthodox. The yeshiva also served as an administrative authority, in conjunction with local communities, by appointing members to serve as the head of local congregations. Those appointed as the head of a congregation would serve as a go-between for the local congregation and the larger yeshiva it was attached to. These local leaders would also submit questions to the yeshiva to obtain final rulings on issues of dogma, ritual, or law. Each congregation was expected to follow only one yeshiva to prevent conflict with different rulings issued by different yeshivot. The yeshivot were financially supported through a number of means. There were fixed, but voluntary, yearly contributions made to the yeshivas; these annual contributions were collected and handled by the local leaders appointed by the yeshiva. Private gifts and donations from individuals were also common, especially during holidays, and could consist of money or goods. The yeshiva of Jerusalem was finally forced into exile in Cairo in 1127, and eventually dispersed entirely. Likewise, the yeshivot of Sura and Pumbedita were dispersed following the Mongols, Mongol invasions of the 13th century. After the scattering of the yeshiva, education in Jewish religious studies became the responsibility of individual synagogues. No organization ever came to replace the three great yeshivot of Jerusalem, Sura and Pumbedita.


Post-Geonic Period to the 19th century

After the Geonic Period Jews went on to establishing more Yeshiva academies in Europe and in Northern Africa. One of these include the History of the Jews in Kairouan, Kairuan yeshiva in Spain (Hebrew: ישיבת קאירואן) that was established by Chushiel Ben Elchanan (Hebrew: חושיאל בן אלחנן) in 974. Traditionally, every town rabbi had the right to maintain a number of full-time or part-time pupils in the town's beth midrash (study hall), which was usually adjacent to the synagogue. Their cost of living was covered by community taxation. After a number of years, the students who received ''semikha'' (rabbinical ordination) would either take up a vacant rabbinical position elsewhere or join the workforce.


Lithuanian yeshivas

Organised Torah study was revolutionised by Chaim Volozhin, an influential 18th-century Lithuanian leader of Judaism and disciple of the Vilna Gaon. In his view, the traditional arrangement did not cater to those who were looking for more intensive study. With the support of his teacher, Volozhin gathered many interested students and started a yeshiva in the town of Valozhyn, located in modern-day Belarus. The Volozhin yeshiva was closed some 60 years later in 1892 due to the Russian government's demands for the introduction of certain secular studies. Thereafter, a number of yeshivot opened in other towns and cities, most notably Yeshivas Knesses Yisrael (Slabodka), Slabodka, Panevėžys, Mir yeshiva (Poland), Mir, Brisk tradition and Soloveitchik dynasty, Brisk, and Telshe yeshiva, Telz. Many prominent contemporary ''yeshivot'' in the United States and Israel are continuations of these institutions, and often bear the same name. In the 19th century, Israel Salanter initiated the Mussar movement in non-Hasidic Lithuanian Jewry, which sought to encourage yeshiva students and the wider community to spend regular times devoted to the study of Jewish ethical works. Concerned by the new social and religious changes of the Haskalah (the Jewish Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment), and other emerging political ideologies (such as Zionism) that often opposed traditional Judaism, the masters of Mussar saw a need to augment Talmudic study with more personal works. These comprised earlier classic Jewish ethical texts (mussar literature), as well as a new literature for the movement. By focusing the student on self-understanding and introspection, often with profound psychological insight, the spiritual aims of Judaism could be internalized. After early opposition, the Lithuanian yeshiva world saw the need for this new component in their curriculum, and set aside times for individual mussar study and mussar talks ("mussar shmues"). A ''mashgiach ruchani'' (spiritual mentor) encouraged the personal development of each student. To some degree, this Lithuanian movement arose in response, and as an alternative, to the separate mystical study of the Hasidic Judaism world. Hasidism began in the previous century within traditional Jewish life in Ukraine, and spread to Hungary, Poland and Russia. As the 19th Century brought upheavals and threats to traditional Judaism, the Mussar teachers saw the benefit of the new spiritual focus in Hasidism, and developed their alternative ethical approach to spirituality. Some variety developed within Lithuanian yeshivas to methods of studying Talmud and ''mussar'', for example whether the emphasis would be placed on ''beki'ut'' (breadth) or ''iyyun'' (depth). ''Pilpul'', a type of in-depth analytical and casuistic argumentation popular from the 16th to 18th centuries that was traditionally reserved for the profound nuances of investigative Talmudic study, was not always given a place. The new analytical approach of the Brisker method, developed by Chaim Soloveitchik, has become widely popular; however, there are other approaches such as those of Mir yeshiva (Poland), Mir, Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yisrael Meir HaKohen, Chofetz Chaim, and Telshe yeshiva, Telz. In ''mussar'', different schools developed, such as Slabodka and Novardok Yeshiva, Novhardok, though today, a decline in devoted spiritual self-development from its earlier intensity has to some extent levelled out the differences.


Hasidic yeshivas

With the success of the yeshiva institution in Lithuanian Jewry, the Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic world developed their own yeshivas, in their areas of Eastern Europe. These comprised the traditional Jewish focus on Talmudic literature that is central to Rabbinic Judaism, augmented by study of Hasidic philosophy (Hasidism). Examples of these Hasidic yeshivas are the Chabad, Chabad Lubavitch yeshiva system of Tomchei Temimim, founded by Sholom Dovber Schneersohn in Russia in 1897, and the Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva established in Poland in 1930 by Meir Shapiro, who is renowned in both Hasidic and Lithuanian Jewish circles for initiating the Daf Yomi daily cycle of Talmud study. (For contemporary ''yeshivas'', see, for example, under Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)#Institutions, Satmar, Belz_(Hasidic_dynasty)#Belz_yeshivas, Belz, Bobov (Hasidic dynasty)#Institutions, Bobov and Breslov (Hasidic group)#Today, Breslov.) In many Hasidic ''yeshivas'', study of Hasidic texts is a secondary activity, similar to the additional mussar curriculum in Lithuanian yeshivas. These paths see Hasidism as a means to the end of inspiring emotional ''devekut'' (spiritual attachment to God) and mystical enthusiasm. In this context, the personal pilgrimage of a Hasid to his Rebbe is a central feature of spiritual life, in order to awaken spiritual fervour. Often, such paths will reserve the Shabbat in the yeshiva for the sweeter teachings of the classic texts of Hasidism. In contrast, Chabad and Breslov (Hasidic group), Breslov, in their different ways, place daily study of their dynasties' Hasidic texts in central focus; see #Ethics, mysticism and philosophy, below. Illustrative of this is Sholom Dovber Schneersohn's wish in establishing the Chabad yeshiva system, that the students should spend a part of the daily curriculum learning Chabad Hasidic texts "with ''pilpul''". The idea to learn Hasidic mystical texts with similar logical profundity, derives from the unique approach in the works of the Rebbes of Chabad, initiated by its founder Schneur Zalman of Liadi, to systematically investigate and articulate the "Torah of the Baal Shem Tov" in intellectual forms. Further illustrative of this is the differentiation in Chabad thought (such as the "Tract on Ecstasy" by Dovber Schneuri) between general Hasidism's emphasis on emotional enthusiasm and the Chabad ideal of intellectually reserved ecstasy. In the Breslov movement, in contrast, the daily study of works from the imaginative, creative radicalism of Nachman of Breslov awakens the necessary soulfulness with which to approach other Jewish study and observance.


Sephardi yeshivas

:''See: :Sephardic yeshivas, as well the more complete, :he:קטגוריה:ישיבות ספרדיות, קטגוריה:ישיבות ספרדיות'' Although the yeshiva as an institution is in some ways a continuation of the Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, large scale educational institutions of this kind were not characteristic of the North African and Middle Eastern Sephardi Jewish world in pre-modern times: education typically took place in a more informal setting in the synagogue or in the entourage of a famous rabbi. In medieval Spain, and immediately following the expulsion in 1492, there were some schools which combined Jewish studies with sciences such as logic and astronomy, similar to the contemporary Islamic madrasas. In 19th-century Jerusalem, a college was typically an endowment for supporting ten adult scholars rather than an educational institution in the modern sense; towards the end of the century a school for orphans was founded providing for some rabbinic studies. Early educational institutions on the European model were Midrash Bet Zilkha founded in 1870s Iraq and Porat Yosef Yeshiva founded in Jerusalem in 1914. Also notable is the Beit El Synagogue, Bet El yeshiva founded in 1737 in Jerusalem for advanced Kabbalistic studies. Later Sephardic yeshivot are usually on the model either of Porat Yosef or of the Ashkenazi institutions. The Sephardic world has traditionally placed the study of Kabbalah (esoteric Jewish mysticism) in a more mainstream position than in the European Ashkenazi world. This difference of emphasis arose in reaction to the historical events of the Sabbatean heresy in the 17th Century, that suppressed widespread study of Kabbalah in Europe in favour of the strength of Rabbinic Talmudic study. In Eastern European Lithuanian life, Kabbalah was reserved for an intellectual elite, while the mystical revival of Hasidism articulated Kabbalistic theology through Hasidic thought. These factors did not affect the Sephardi Jewish world, which retained a wider connection to Kabbalah in its traditionally observant communities. With the establishment of Sephardi yeshivas in Israel after the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, immigration of the Arabic Jewish communities there, some Sephardi yeshivas incorporated study of more accessible Kabbalistic texts into their curriculum. Nonetheless, the European prescriptions to reserve advanced Kabbalistic study to mature and elite students also influence the choice of texts in such yeshivas.


19th century to present


Conservative movement yeshivas

In 1854, the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau was founded. It was headed by Zecharias Frankel, and was viewed as the first educational institution associated with "positive-historical Judaism", the predecessor of Conservative Judaism. In subsequent years, Conservative Judaism established a number of other institutions of higher learning (such as the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York City) that emulate the style of traditional yeshivas in significant ways. However, many do not officially refer to themselves as "yeshivas" (one exception is the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem), and all are open to both women and men, who study in the same classrooms and follow the same curriculum. Students may study part-time, as in a kollel, or full-time, and they may study ''lishmah'' (for the sake of studying itself) or towards earning rabbinic ordination.


Nondenominational or mixed yeshivas

Non-denominational yeshivas and kollels with connections to Conservative Judaism include Yeshivat Hadar in New York, the leaders of whom include Rabbinical Assembly members Elie Kaunfer and Shai Held. The rabbinical school of the Academy for Jewish Religion in California (AJR-CA) is led by Conservative rabbi Mel Gottlieb. The faculty of the Academy for Jewish Religion in New York and of the Rabbinical School of Hebrew College in Newton Centre, Massachusetts also includes many Conservative rabbis. See also Institute of Traditional Judaism. More recently established are several non-traditional, and nondenominational (also called "transdenominational" or "postdenominational") seminaries. These grant semikha with lesser requirements re time, and with a modified curriculum, generally focusing on leadership and pastoral roles. These are Jewish Spiritual Leaders Institute, JSLI, Rabbinical Seminary International, RSI and Pluralistic Rabbinical Seminary, PRS. The Mesifta Adath Wolkowisk, Wolkowisk Mesifta is aimed at community professionals with significant knowledge and experience, and provides a tailored program to each candidate. See under #Curriculum for further discussion.


Reform and Reconstructionist seminaries

Hebrew Union College (HUC), affiliated with Reform Judaism, was founded in 1875 under the leadership of Isaac Mayer Wise in Cincinnati, Ohio. HUC later opened additional locations in New York, Los Angeles, and Jerusalem. It is a rabbinical seminary or college mostly geared for the training of rabbis and clergy specifically. Similarly, the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College of Reconstructionist Judaism, founded in Pennsylvania in 1968, functions to train its future clergy. Some Reform and Reconstructionist teachers also teach at the non-denominational seminaries mentioned above. In Europe, Reform Judaism trains rabbis at Leo Baeck College in London, UK and Abraham Geiger Kolleg in Potsdam, Germany. None of these institutions describes itself as a "yeshiva".


Contemporary Orthodox yeshivas

World War II and the Holocaust brought the yeshivot of Eastern and Central Europe to an end – however many scholars and rabbinic students who were able to escape the war, established yeshivot in a number of Western countries which had no or few yeshivot. (The Yeshiva of Nitra was the last surviving in occupied Europe. Many students and faculty of the Mir Yeshiva were able to escape to Siberia, with the Yeshiva ultimately Mir Yeshiva (Belarus)#Shanghai, continuing to operate in Shanghai. See Yeshivas in World War II.) From the mid-20th century "Yeshiva"
jewishvirtuallibrary.org
the greatest number of yeshivot, and the most important of them, was centered in Israel and in the United States; but they were also found in many other Western countries, prominent examples are Gateshead Talmudical College, Gateshead Yeshiva in England (one of the Novardok Yeshiva#Post World War II, descendants of Novardok) and the Yeshiva of Aix-les-Bains, France. The Chabad movement was especially active in this direction, establishing yeshivot also in France, North Africa, Australia, and South Africa; this "network of institutions" is known as ''Tomchei Temimim''. As mentioned, many prominent contemporary yeshivot in the United States and Israel are continuations of European institutions, and often bear the same name.


=Israel

= :''See: :Orthodox yeshivas in Israel, :Religious Zionist yeshivot.'' Yeshivot in Israel have operated since Talmudic times; see Talmudic academies in Eretz Yisrael. Notable more recent examples include the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue (since the mid 1500s); the Beit El Synagogue, Bet El yeshiva (operating since 1737); and Etz Chaim Yeshiva (since 1841). Various yeshivot were established in Israel in the early 20th century. Shaar Hashamayim Yeshiva, Shaar Hashamayim was established in 1906, Chabad's :he: ישיבת תורת אמת (חב"ד), Toras Emes in 1911, Hebron Yeshiva in 1924, Sfas Emes Yeshiva, Sfas Emes in 1925, Lomza Yeshiva, Lomza in 1926. After (and during) World War II, numerous other Haredi and Hasidic Yeshivot were re-established there by survivors. The Mir Yeshiva in Jerusalem – today the largest Yeshiva in the world – was established in 1944, by Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Finkel (Poland and Jerusalem), Eliezer Yehuda Finkel who had traveled to Palestine to obtain visas for his students. Porat Yosef, the leading Sephardi Yeshiva, was founded in 1914; its predecessor, Yeshivat Ohel Moed was founded in 1904. From the 1940s and onward, especially following immigration of the Arabic Jewish communities, Sephardi leaders, such as Ovadia Yosef and Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, established various yeshivot to facilitate Torah education for Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews (and alternative to Lithuanian yeshivot). The Haredi community has grown with time – In 2016, 9% of Israel's population was Haredi, including Sephardic Haredim – supporting many yeshivot correspondingly (see Israel#Religion). Boys and girls here attend separate schools, and proceed to higher Torah study, in a yeshiva or seminary, respectively, starting anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18; see ''Chinuch Atzmai'' and ''Bais Yaakov''. A significant proportion of young men then remain in yeshiva until their marriage; thereafter many continue their Torah studies in a kollel. (In 2006, there were 80,000 in full-time learning .) Kollel studies usually focus on deep analysis of Talmud, and those Tractates not usually covered in the standard "undergraduate" program; see #Talmud study below. Some Kollels similarly focus on halacha in total, others specifically on those topics required for ''Semikha'' (Rabbinic ordination) or Dayan (rabbinic judge), ''Dayanut'' (qualification as a Rabbinic Judge). The certification in question is often conferred by the Rosh Yeshiva. Mercaz Harav, the foundational and leading Religious Zionism, Religious-Zionist yeshiva was established in 1924 by Ashkenazi Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. Many in the Religious Zionist community today attend a Hesder yeshiva (discussed #Types of yeshivot, below) during Religious Zionism#Military service, their national service; these offer a kollel for Rabbinical students. (Students generally prepare for the ''Semikha'' test of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel; until his recent passing (2020) commonly for that of the posek R. Zalman Nechemia Goldberg.) Women correspondingly study in a Midrasha. High school students study at Education in Israel#Educational tracks, ''Mamlachti dati'' schools, often associated with ''Bnei Akiva''. Bar Ilan University allows students to combine Yeshiva studies with university study; Jerusalem College of Technology similarly, which also offers a Haredi track; there are List of Israeli universities and colleges#Colleges, several colleges of education associated with Hesder and the ''Midrashot'' (these often offer specializations in ''Tanakh'' and ''Machshavah'' – see #Curriculum, below). Training as a ''Dayan'' in this community is usually through :he:מכון אריאל, ''Machon Ariel'' (''Machon Harry Fischel''), also founded by Rav Kook, or :he:ארץ חמדה (כולל), ''Kollel Eretz Hemda''. See Religious Zionism#Educational institutions.


=United States

= :''See: :Orthodox yeshivas in the United States.'' The first Orthodox yeshiva in the United States was Etz Chaim Yeshiva (Manhattan), Etz Chaim of New York City, New York (1886), modeled after Volozhin. It developed into the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (1896; "RIETS") and eventually Yeshiva University in 1945. It was established in the wake of History of the Jews in the United States#Immigration of Ashkenazi Jews, the immigration of Central and Eastern European Jews (1880s – 1924). Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem, founded in 1907, was led by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein from the 1940s through 1986; Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin, est 1904, was headed by Rabbi Yitzchok Hutner from 1943 to 1980. :Hasidic Judaism in the United States, Many Hasidic dynasties have their main Yeshivot in America, typically established in the 1940s; 770 Eastern Parkway#Central Lubavitcher Yeshiva, the Central Lubavitcher Yeshiva has over 1000 students. The postwar establishment of Ashkenazi yeshivot and ''kollelim'' parallels that in Israel; as does the educational pattern in Haredi Judaism#United States, the American Haredi community, although more obtain a secular education at the college level (see #College credit, College credit below). Beth Medrash Govoha in Lakewood Township, New Jersey, Lakewood, New Jersey with 3,000 students in the early 2000s was founded in 1943 by R. Aaron Kotler on the "rigid Lithuanian model" that demanded full-time study; it now offers a Bachelor of Talmudic Law degree which allows students to go on to graduate school. The best known of the numerous Haredi yeshivas are "Lakewood", Telz, Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yisrael Meir HaKohen, "Rabbinical Seminary of America", Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, Ner Yisroel, Chaim Berlin, and Hebrew Theological College; ''Yeshivish'' (i.e. satellite) communities often maintain a Kollel#Community kollelim, community kollel. Many Hasidic sects have their own yeshivas - see especially Satmar (Hasidic dynasty) #Institutions, Satmar and Bobov (Hasidic dynasty) #Institutions, Bobov - while Chabad, as mentioned, operates its ''Tomchei Temimim'' nationwide. Regarding junior and high school - of which there are over 600 combined - see Torah Umesorah, Mesivta, and Bais Yaakov. Modern Orthodox typically spend a year, often two, post-high school in a yeshiva (sometimes Hesder) or ''Midrasha'' in Israel. Many thereafter, or instead, attend Yeshiva University, undertaking a dual curriculum, combining academic education with Torah study; see ''Torah Umadda'' and Yeshiva University#S. Daniel Abraham Israel Program , S. Daniel Abraham Israel Program. (A percentage stay in Israel, “making ''Aliyah''”; many also go on to higher education in other American colleges.) Semikha is usually through RIETS, although many Modern Orthodox Rabbis study through ''Hesder'', or other Yeshivot in Israel such as Yeshivat HaMivtar, Mizrachi (religious Zionism), Mizrachi's ''Musmachim'' program, and Machon Ariel. RIETS also houses several post-semikha kollelim, including one focused on ''Dayanut''. Dayanim also train through Kollel Eretz Hemda and Machon Ariel; while Mizrachi's post-semikha ''Manhigut Toranit'' program focuses on leadership and scholarship, with the advanced semikha of Chief_Rabbinate_of_Israel #Semikhah, “Rav Ir”. Communities will often host a :he:תורה מציון (ארגון), ''Torah MiTzion'' kollel, where ''Hesder'' graduates learn and teach, generally for one year. There are numerous :Modern Orthodox Jewish day schools in the United States, Modern Orthodox Jewish day schools, typically offering a ''beit midrash'' / ''metivta'' program in parallel with the Secondary education in the United States#Curriculum, standard curriculum, (often) structured such that students are able to join the first ''shiur'' in an Israeli yeshiva. The US educational pattern is to be found around the Jewish world, with regional differences; see :Orthodox yeshivas in Europe and :Orthodox yeshivas by country.


Structure and features

Yeshiva study is differentiated from, for example university study, as regards several structural features – curriculum aside. The year is structured into "''zmanim''"; the day is structured into "''seders''". The learning itself is delivered through a "''shiur''", a lecture with pre-specified sources, or "''marei mekomot''" (מראה מקומות; “bibliography”, lit. "sight of the (textual) locations");Example ''marei mekomot'' - Halacha
/ref>Example ''marei mekomot'' - Gemara
/ref> study in general, and particularly the preparation for ''shiur'', takes place in "''chavruta''" or paired-study. This study is in a common venue called the ''beth midrash, bet midrash'' (Yiddish, "zal" i.e. "hall"). The institution is headed by its ''Rosh Yeshiva'', while other senior Rabbis are referred to as "Ram" (''Rosh mesivta, Rosh Mesivta, Reish Metivta''); the Mashgiach ruchani, ''Mashgiach'' assumes responsibility for students' spiritual development (''Mashpia'', in Hasidic Yeshivot). A Kollel is headed by its ''Rosh Kollel'', even when it is part of a Yeshiva. A ''sho'el u'meishiv'' (שואל ומשיב; lit. "ask and he answers"; often simply "meishiv", or alternately "''nosay v'notayn''") is usually available to consult to students on difficult points in their day's Talmudic studies. The Rabbi responsible for the (Talmud) ''shiur'' is known as a ''Maggid Shiur''. Students are known as ''talmidim'', sing. ''talmid''. ''Rav Muvhak'' is sometimes used in reference to one's primary teacher; correspondingly, ''Talmid Muvhak'' may refer to a primary, or outstanding, student.


Academic year

In most yeshivot, the year is divided into three periods (terms) called ''zmanim'' (lit. times; sing. ''zman''). ''Elul zman'' starts from the beginning of the Hebrew month of Elul and extends until the end of Yom Kippur. The six-weeks-long semester is the shortest yet most intense session, as it comes before the High Holidays of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Winter ''zman'' starts after Sukkot and lasts until about two weeks before Passover, a duration of five months (six in a Jewish calendar, Jewish leap year). Summer ''zman'' starts after Passover and lasts until Rosh Chodesh Av or Tisha B'Av, a duration of about three months.


Chavruta-style learning

Yeshiva students prepare for and review the Shiur (Torah), ''shiur'' (lecture) with their ''chavruta'' during a study session known as a ''seder''. In contrast to conventional classroom learning, in which a teacher lectures to the student and the student repeats the information back in tests, ''chavruta''-style learning challenges the student to analyze and explain the material, point out the errors in his partner's reasoning, and question and sharpen each other's ideas, often arriving at entirely new insights of the meaning of the text. A ''chavruta'' helps a student keep his mind focused on the learning, sharpen his reasoning powers, develop his thoughts into words, organize his thoughts into logical arguments, and understand another person's viewpoint. The shiur-based system was Telshe Yeshiva#Rabbi Eliezer Gordon, innovated at the Telshe yeshiva, where there were five levels. Chavruta-style learning tends to be loud and animated, as the study partners read the Talmudic text and the commentaries aloud to each other, and then analyze, question, debate, and even argue their points of view to arrive at an understanding of the text. In the heat of discussion, they may even wave their hands, pound the table, or shout at each other. Depending on the size of the yeshiva, dozens or even hundreds of pairs of chavrutas can be heard discussing and debating each other's viewpoints. One of the skills of chavruta-style learning is the ability to block out all other discussions in the study hall and focus on one's ''chavruta'' alone.


Types of yeshivot

# Yeshiva Ketana (junior yeshiva) or "Talmud Torah" – Many Haredi (non-Hasidic and Hasidic) yeshivot ketanot in Israel, and some (primarily Hasidic) in the Diaspora, do not have a secular course of studies, with all students learning Judaic Torah studies full-time. # Yeshiva High School – Also called ''Mesivta'' (Metivta) or ''Mechina'' or ''Yeshiva Ketana'', or in Israel, ''Yeshiva Tichonit'', combines the intensive Jewish religious education with a secular high school education. The dual curriculum was pioneered by the Manhattan Talmudical Academy of Yeshiva University (now known as Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy) in 1916; :he: אלמה (ישיבה תיכונית), ALMA was established in Jerusalem in 1936, and :he: ישיבת היישוב החדש, "ha-Yishuv" in Tel Aviv in 1937. # Mechina – For Israeli high-school graduates who wish to study for one year before entering the army. In Telshe yeshiva, Telshe yeshivas and in Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, Ner Yisroel of Baltimore, the Mesivtas/Yeshiva ketanas are known as Mechinas. # Beth midrash – For high school graduates, and is attended from one year to many years, dependent on the career plans and affiliation of the student. # Yeshivat Hesder – Yeshiva that has an arrangement with the Israel Defense Forces by which the students enlist together in the same unit and, as much as is possible serve in the same unit in the army. Over a period of about 5 years there will be a period of service starting in the second year of about 16 months. There are different variations. The rest of the time will be spent in compulsory study in the yeshiva. The first was Yeshivat Kerem B'Yavneh, established in 1954; the largest is the Hesder Yeshiva of Sderot with over 800 students. # Kollel – Yeshiva for married men. The kollel idea has its intellectual roots in the Torah; Mishnah tractate Megillah (Talmud), Megillah mentions the law that a town can only be called a "city" if it supports ten men (''batlanim'') to make up the required minyan, quorum for communal learning. However, it is mostly a modern innovation of 19th-century Europe. A kollel will often be in the same location as the yeshiva. # Baal Teshuva yeshivot catering to the needs of the newly Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox. Post-high schools for women are generally called "seminary", or ''midrasha'' in Israel, ''Midrashot''
science.co.il
and not yeshiva. (Although there are exceptions such as Prospect Park Yeshiva.) The Haredi Judaism, Haredi Bais Yaakov system was started in 1918 under the guidance of Sarah Schenirer. These institutions provide girls with a Torah education, using a curriculum that skews more toward practical ''halakha'' (Jewish law) and the study of Tanakh, rather than
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
. The curriculum at Religious Zionist and Modern Orthodox ''midrashot'', however, often includes some study of Talmud: often Mishnah, sometimes ''Gemara''; in further distinction, curricula generally entail Chavruta-based study of the ''texts'' of Jewish philosophy, and likewise Tanakh is studied with commentaries. See Midrasha#Curriculum for further discussion.


Languages

Classes in most Lithuanian Jews, Lithuanian and Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic yeshivot (throughout the world) are taught in Yiddish; Kol Torah, est 1939 in Jerusalem and headed by Shlomo Zalman Auerbach for over 40 years, was the first mainstream Haredi yeshiva to teach in Hebrew, as opposed to Yiddish. Sephardi Jews, Sephardi, Modern Orthodox, Zionism, Zionist, and ''baal teshuvah'' yeshivot use Modern Hebrew or the local language. Students learn with each other in whatever language they are most proficient, with Hasidic students usually learning in Yiddish, Israeli Lithuanian students in Hebrew, and American Lithuanian students in English.


College credit

Although often not encouraged, some yeshivas permit students to attend college on a limited basis. This concession is facilitated by arrangements for the student to receive credit towards a college degree. Yeshiva University in New York provides a year's worth of credit for yeshiva studies. Haredi institutions with similar arrangements in place include Lander College for Men, Yeshivas Ner Yisroel and Hebrew Theological College. #United_States, As above, some American ''yeshivot'' in fact ''award'' the degrees Bachelor of Talmudic Law (4 years cumulative study), Master of Rabbinic Studies / Master of Talmudic Law (six years), and (at ''Ner Yisroel'') the Doctorate in Talmudic Law (10 years). These degrees are Higher education accreditation in the United States, nationally accredited by the Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools, and may then grant access to graduate programs such as law school. For historical context see: Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary; ; ; ; Vilna Rabbinical School and Teachers' Seminary; ; ; ; ; Kelm Talmud Torah;


Curriculum

Torah study at an Orthodox yeshiva comprises the study of rabbinic literature, principally the Talmud, along with the study of ''halacha'' (Jewish law); Musar literature, Musar and Hasidic philosophy are often studied also. In some institutions, classical Jewish philosophy or Kabbalah are formally studied, or the works of individual thinkers (such as Abraham Isaac Kook). Rabbi#Non-Orthodox Judaism, Non-Orthodox institutions offer a synthesis of traditional and critical methods, allowing Jewish texts and tradition to encounter social change and modern scholarship. The curriculum is thus also focused on classical Jewish subjects - Talmud, Tanakh, Midrash, ''halacha'', and Philosophy - but differs from Orthodox yeshivot in that the subject-weights are more even (correspondingly, Talmud is less emphasized), and the approach entails an Biblical criticism#Contemporary methods, openness to modern scholarship; the curriculum also emphasizes "the other functions of a modern rabbi such as preaching, counseling, and pastoral work". Note that as mentioned, often, in these institutions less emphasis is placed on Talmud and Jewish law, "but rather on sociology, cultural studies, and modern Jewish philosophy".Rabbi Steven Blane (N.D.)
"Ordination and Semicha"
jsli.net
Rabbi#Conservative Judaism, Conservative Yeshivot occupy a position midway, in that their training places (significantly) more emphasis on Halakha and Talmud than other non-Orthodox programs; see Conservative halakha. The below sections discuss the Orthodox approach - but may be seen as overviews of the traditional-content; see also re the various approaches under List of rabbinical schools as well as under .


Talmud study

In the typical Orthodox yeshiva, the main emphasis is on Talmud study and analysis, or ''Gemara''. Generally, two parallel Talmud streams are covered during a ''zman'' (trimester). The first is ''iyyun'' (in-depth study; variants described below), often confined to selected legally focused tractates with an emphasis on analytical skills and close reference to the classical commentators; the second, ''beki'ut'', seeks to cover ground more speedily in order to build general knowledge of the Talmud. In some Hasidic yeshivas, ''girsa'' ("text"), is the term used for ''beki'ut'', but may also incorporate an element of memorization. In the yeshiva system of Talmudic study, the undergraduate yeshivot focus on eight ''Masekhet, mesechtohs'' (tractates) that deal with civil jurisprudence (''Nezikin''); through them, the student can best master the Gemara#Argumentation and debate, proper technique of Talmudic analysis, and ''Catalog''
Rabbinical College Bobov (Hasidic dynasty), Bobover
the halakhic application of :Talmud concepts and terminology, Talmudic principles. With these mastered, the student is ready to go on to other areas of the Talmud (see, for example, Yeshivas Ner Yisroel #Cycle of Masechtos (Tractates of the Talmud), Yeshivas Ner Yisroel #Cycle of Masechtos). Tractates Berakhot (tractate), ''Berachot'', Sukkah (Talmud), ''Sukkah'', Pesachim (Talmud), ''Pesachim'' and Shabbat (Talmud), ''Shabbat'' are often included.Programs
Talmudic University of Florida.
Catalog
Central Yeshiva Tomchei Tmimim Lubavitz
Works initially studied to clarify the Talmudic text are the commentary by Rashi, and ''Tosafot'', a parallel analysis and Tosafot#Character, running critique. The integration of Talmud, Rashi and Tosafot, is considered as foundational – and prerequisite – to further analysis (in fact, this combination is sometimes referred to by its own acronym, ''"gefet"'' גפ״ת – ''Gemara'', ''perush Rashi'', ''Tosafot''). The Super-commentary, super-commentaries by Solomon Luria, "Maharshal", Meir Lublin, "Maharam" and Samuel Edels, "Maharsha" address the three together. At more advanced levels, additional ''Talmud#Commentaries, mefarshim'' (commentators) are studied: other ''rishonim'', from the 11th to 14th centuries, as well as ''acharonim'', from later generations. (There are two main schools of ''rishonim'', from France and from Spain, who will hold different interpretations and understandings of the Talmud.) At these levels, students link the Talmudic discussion to Halakha#Codes of Jewish law, codified law – particularly ''Mishneh Torah'' (i.e. Maimonides), Arba'ah Turim and Shulchan Aruch – by studying, also, the halakha-focused commentaries of Asher ben Jehiel, Isaac Alfasi and Mordechai ben Hillel. As the Shiur (Torah)#Class levels, level of the ''shiur'' progresses, so the student must integrate more of these commentaries into their analysis of the ''sugya'' (loosely, Talmudic "unit of analysis"), and understand their various implications re practical-halakha. This ''iyyun'' will generally take one the following forms, each a ''"derech ha-limud"'' or "way of learning" (see the Hebrew article :He: דרכי לימוד התלמוד, "Approaches to Learning Talmud"): *At the higher levels, in many Lithuanian influenced Yeshivot, the deeply analytic "Brisker method" is employed, #Lithuanian yeshivas, as mentioned; the method - often referred to simply as ''lomdus'' - seeks to identify the principles underlying each commentator's approach, abstracting beyond the context of the specific ''sugya'', Talmud#Brisker method, by placing each within a categorical structure. *Elsewhere, and generally, the approach is more traditional: students work through each ''sugya'' in light of the various rishonim, Chaim Rabinowitz#Telshe, successively specifying and understanding - and if possible, Gemara#Legal, reconciling - differences (legal and conceptual) between these; through this, the study Brisker method#Controversy, builds and deepens the concepts and principles arising from the tractate; an important simultaneous requirement is that the peshat, "simple interpretation" of the underlying ''sugyas'' Yeshiva Ohel Torah-Baranovich#Style of learning, must maintain. *Many Yeshivot proceed "''aliba dehilchasa''" See the Hebrew article :he: אסוקי שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא for detail and discussion. (אליבא דהלכתא, Seph. pronunciation, ''dehilchata''; lit. "according to the Law"), where the learning focuses more on the Halachik-rules that develop from the ''sugya'', delineating how the opinions of the rishonim and acharonim relate to practice. There are two sub-approaches: The first, often Talmud#Sephardic approaches, the approach taken at Sephardic Yeshivot, analyzes the ''sugya'' as the Oral Torah#The Gemara, source of the ''halacha'', understanding how it inheres in each ''rishon'', and is undertaken even for topics with limited application (prototypical are ''ir nidachat'' and ''ben sorer umoreh''). The second, often applied when the ''sugya'' is studied by ''semikha'' students - see below - focuses on the implication re practical-halacha, the "''nafka mina''", of each commentary, somewhat limiting theoretical and abstract discussion. *Finally, some Yeshivot – such as Yeshivat Birkat Moshe, Birkat Moshe – particularly emphasize the Rambam, analyzing the ''sugya'' Mishneh Torah#Study, in light of the ''Mishneh Torah'' and List of commentaries on Mishneh Torah, its numerous commentaries. (''Brisker'' yeshivot invariably reference Rambam also: the ''Mishneh Torah'' covers all of halacha, and thus provides a consistent reference for the treatment of other ''rishonim''; see ''Chiddushei Rabbeinu Chaim''.) The ''Rosh Yeshiva'' typically gives the most senior daily Talmud-shiur. It is especially here that the student consolidates the yeshiva's approach to ''iyyun'', i.e. its ''derech ha-limud''; see . The ''Rosh Yeshiva'' also delivers the weekly ''shiur klali'' (comprehensive lecture), which sums up the week's learning; this is attended by all levels, and will often have its own ''marei mekomot''. Typically, boys begin their study of Talmud in middle school, initially studying Mishnah, the component of Talmud where the Mishnah#Content and purpose, underlying "cases" are presented. (At this stage, they have completed their survey of ''Chumash (Judaism), Chumash'', with these cases expanding on the mitzvah, legal precepts there; see #Torah_and_Bible_study, below.) In early high school, ''gemara'', the analytic component, is introduced; by late high school some are able to work with ''Tosafot''. Some systems more closely follow ''Pirkei Avot'
ch 5, 21
as a guideline; where Mishna-study begins at age 10, and ''Gemara'' at 15. See Zilberman Method for further discussion.


Jewish law

Generally, a period is devoted to the study of practical ''halakha'' ("''Halakha LeMaaseh''"). The text most commonly studied in Ashkenazi yeshivot is the ''Mishnah Berurah'', a commentary on the ''Shulchan Aruch'' originally published between 1884 and 1907. In Sephardic yeshivot, the ''Shulchan Aruch'' itself is more commonly studied, along with the Beit Yosef (book), ''Bet Yosef'' commentary; the ''Yalkut Yosef'' and Yaakov Chaim Sofer#Works, ''Kaf Hachaim'' are also often studied, while Yosef Hayyim#Works, ''Ben Ish Hai'' is a standard reference. In Chabad yeshivot, emphasis is placed upon study of ''Shulchan Aruch HaRav''. Beginning students are encouraged to also work through the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (book), ''Kitzur Shulchan Aruch'', so as to survey all areas of applicable ''halacha'' (also often true outside of Chabad). Other students, similarly, additionally review the ''Mishneh Torah'' through Daily Rambam Study, its daily study cycle (this is often outside of any ''seder''), here including ''halachot'' relating to, for example, the Temple. Students in ''Semikha'' (Rabbinic ordination) programs, and often those in kollel, devote the largest portion of their schedule to ''halakha''. The focus is on in-depth, source-based study of those areas where (community) Rabbis will typically be asked ''"shaylas"'', i.e. halachic questions; the testing ''CATALOG''
Rabbinical College of America
''Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary - Semikhah Requirements''
/ref> invariably covers Kashrut (referred to as ''"Issur v'Heter"''), usually Shabbat, often Niddah, sometimes Bereavement in Judaism, Avelut (mourning) and/or Jewish wedding, marriage. This study encompasses a detailed analysis of the ''halakha'' in the ''Arba'ah Turim'' and ''Beit Yosef'', through its final presentation in the ''Shulchan Aruch'', with Shulchan Aruch#Major commentaries, its major commentaries (especially Shabbatai HaKohen#The "Shakh", "''Shakh''" and David HaLevi Segal#Works, "''Taz''"), complemented by a survey of key History of responsa in Judaism, ''She'elot u-Teshuvot'' (responsa), recent and historical. The analysis, in turn, requires a detailed knowledge of all relevant Talmudic ''sugyas'', which are studied accordingly within the schedule. Students in an Orthodox Semikha program will thus have a strong background in Talmud, typically''Semicha Standards''
Rabbinical Council of America Executive Committee, 2015.
having spent at least four preceding years in Yeshiva; Kollel students likewise. (See Rabbi#Orthodox and Modern Orthodox Judaism and Posek#Formulating a ruling (psak din).) During the morning ''seder'', Semikha students continue their Talmud studies, learning the same ''masechet'' as the rest of the Yeshiva.


Ethics, mysticism and philosophy

Haredi ''Yeshivot'' typically devote a ''seder'' to musar literature, ''mussar'' (ethics and character development). The preeminent text studied is the ''Mesillat Yesharim'' ("Path [of the] Just") of Moshe Chaim Luzzatto. Other works of mussar literature studied include: *''Orchot Tzaddikim'' ("Paths [of the] Righteous"); its authorship and time of writing is uncertain, but as it quotes Maimonides, it was written some time after his works were disseminated. *''Chovot ha-Levavot'' ("Duties of the Hearts") by Bahya ibn Paquda. *''Ma'alot ha-Middot'' ("Benefit [of good character] traits") by Jehiel ben Jekuthiel Anav, Jehiel Anav *''Mishnat R' Aharon'', Mussar Lectures on many topics by Aharon Kotler. *''Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler#Michtav me-Eliyahu, Mikhtav me-Eliyahu'', the works of Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler. *''Tomer Devorah'' by Moses Cordovero. *Chaim Leib Shmuelevitz#Publications, ''Sichos Mussar'' by Chaim Leib Shmuelevitz. *''Pele Yoetz'' by Eliezer Papo. * ''Kav ha-Yashar'' by Tzvi Hirsch Kaidanover. As above, these sessions focus the student on self-understanding and introspection, internalizing the spiritual aims of Judaism, and developing the character-traits, or ''middos'', appropriately. Topics in Jewish ethics#Areas of applied Jewish ethics, applied Jewish ethics, such as lashon hara, the "laws of speech", are often studied separately. Hasidic yeshivot study the mystical, spiritual Rabbinic literature #Hasidic thought , works of Hasidic philosophy (''Chassidus''). These draw on the earlier esoteric theology of ''Kabbalah'', but articulates it in terms of inner psychological awareness and personal analogies. This study thus makes Jewish mysticism accessible and tangible, so that it inspires emotional ''dveikus'' (cleaving to God) and embeds a deep Hashkafa#Principles , spiritual element in daily Jewish life; it thereby serves a similar purpose to ''mussar'', but through different means and with different contributions to intellectual and emotional life. Chabad yeshivot, for example, study the Tanya, the Likutei Torah, and the voluminous works of the Chabad-Lubavitch#The leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch, Rebbes of Chabad for an hour and a half each morning, before prayers, and an hour and a half in the evening. See #Hasidic yeshivas, above. #Sephardi yeshivas, As mentioned, Sephardi ''yeshivot'' often incorporate study of selected Kabbalistic texts into their curriculum – Primary texts of Kabbalah, standard texts, as well as works by Yosef Hayyim, Yehuda Fatiyah and Yaakov Chaim Sofer. Kabbalistic sources are brought in ''halachik'' works such as ''Kaf Hachaim'' and ''Ben Ish Hai'' – see Sephardic law and customs#Lurianic Kabbalah – and are then studied indirectly also. In Hesder, Religious Zionist and Modern Orthodox Judaism, Modern Orthodox yeshivot, ''Machshavah'' (Jewish philosophy generalized / applied as "Jewish thought"; also ''Hashkafa'', "worldview") is taught formally,See for example
Topics in Hashkafa
at Har Etzion
Shiurim in Machsahava
at Yeshiva University (yutorah.org)
Hashkafa courses
at WebYeshiva
with classes systematically covering the Jewish principles of faith, major topics and works (''Kuzari, The Guide for the Perplexed, Moreh Nevukhim, Sefer ha-Ikkarim , Emunoth ve-Deoth, Emunot ve-Deot, Derech Hashem, Chaim of Volozhin#Works, Nefesh Ha-Chaim, Kad ha-Kemach'' and others). Hesder yeshivot additionally devote specific time to the writings of Abraham Isaac Kook, "Rav Kook", who articulated a unique personal blend of mysticism, creative exegesis and philosophy (as well as to ''Torat Eretz Yisrael'' generally). The Modern Orthodox, similarly, study the works of Joseph B. Soloveitchik, "Rav Soloveitchik". Hasidic philosophy and Mussar are also often taught; and ''Judah Loew ben Bezalel#Jewish philosophy, Maharal'' may have a dedicated ''shiur''. Machshava is also a focus-area of many ''Midrashot''. Some Haredi and Hasidic yeshivas also include formal study of ''Hashkafa'', especially at ''ba'al teshuva'' focused yeshivas; many ''Semikha'' programs likewise, particularly those with an outreach, or ''kiruv'', component. Regardless, students here typically study the major works independent of a ''shiur''.


Torah and Bible study

Intensive study of ''Chumash'' (Torah) with the commentary of Rashi is stressed and taught in all elementary grades. In Haredi and Hasidic yeshivas, this is often done with Yiddish translations. The rest of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) is usually taught through high school, although less intensively. In Yeshivot, thereafter, ''Chumash'', and especially ''Nach (Bible acronym), Nach'', are studied less directly. Yeshiva students typically follow the practice of ''Shnayim mikra ve-echad targum'', independently studying the upcoming ''parashah'' (weekly Torah portion) twice in the original Hebrew and once in Targum Onkelos (an Aramaic translation), with Rashi's commentary. Students often also study Nachmanides#Commentary on the Torah, Ramban's commentary, and, less often, other commentaries from the ''Mikraot Gedolot'' edition are reviewed. Students may similarly study the Tanakh independently, but it is not taught ''per se''; exceptions are the five Megilloth and Psalms, Tehillim. The ''Rosh Yeshiva'' usually delivers a weekly ''shiur'' on the ''parashah'', exploring a particular question or theme, which is often Shiur (Torah)#Public study sessions, open to the public. At Hesder, Religious Zionist and Modern Orthodox yeshivot, the study of ''Chumash'' and ''Nach'' continues in parallel with Talmud study. These institutions offer formal ''shiurim'' in many, if not all, of the books of ''Nevi'im'' and ''Ketuvim''. These are often structured Shiur (Torah)#Class levels, by level, similar to Talmud study, where the text, and its overall structure, is then analyzed in light of the Jewish commentaries on the Bible, various commentaries and Midrash#Classical compilations, ''Midrashim'', typically complementing the ''Machshavah'' ''shiurim''. Oral Torah#In rabbinic literature and commentary, More recent commentaries especially studied are ''Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin#Bibliography, "Netziv"'' and ''Malbim#Methodology and style, "Malbim"''; as well as reference works such as ''Da'at Miqra'' by Mordechai Breuer and others. The commentaries by Ramban and Samson Raphael Hirsch#Commentary on the Torah, "Rav Hirsch" provide much philosophical content. Intensive study of Tanakh, as for Machshava, is similarly a feature of many ''Midrashot''. (See further re this approach under .)


See also

* Bais Yaakov * Jewish day school * List of rabbinical schools * Mesivta * Religious school * Yeshivish


References

{{Organized Jewish Life in the United States, Religious education Yeshivas, Jewish education Jewish religious occupations Jewish educational institutions Single-gender schools Hebrew words and phrases