Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo),
Syria. The kingdom emerged at the end of the 19th century BC, and was
ruled by the Yamhadite dynasty kings, who counted on both military and
diplomacy to expand their realm. From the beginning of its
establishment, the kingdom withstood the aggressions of its neighbors
Qatna and Assyria, and was turned into the most powerful Syrian
kingdom of its era through the actions of its king Yarim-Lim I. By the
middle of the 18th century BC, most of
Syria minus the south came
under the authority of Yamhad, either as a direct possession or
through vassalage, and for nearly a century and a half, Yamhad
dominated northern, northwestern and eastern Syria, and had influence
over small kingdoms in
Mesopotamia at the borders of Elam. The kingdom
was eventually destroyed by the Hittites, then annexed by
the 16th century BC.
Yamhad's population was predominately Amorite, and had a typical
Bronze Age Syrian culture.
Yamhad was also inhabited by a substantial
Hurrian population that settled in the kingdom, adding the influence
of their culture.
Yamhad controlled a wide trading network, being a
gateway between the eastern
Iranian plateau and the Aegean region in
Yamhad worshiped the traditional Northwest Semitic deities,
and the capital
Halab was considered a holy city among the other
Syrian cities as a center of worship for Hadad, who was regarded as
the main deity of northern Syria.
1.2 Rivalry with Assyria and expansion
1.3 Decline and end
1.4 Kings of Yamhad
2 People and culture
5 See also
7 External links
Halab has been excavated by archaeologists, as
never abandoned during its long history and the modern city is
situated above the ancient site. Therefore, most of the knowledge
Yamhad comes from tablets discovered at
Alalakh and Mari.
Yamhad was likely an
Amorite tribal name and is used
Halab when referring to the kingdom. The
Halab was a religious center in northern Syria, and was
mentioned by the name Ha-lam, as a vassal of the Eblaite empire,
which controlled most of
Syria in the middle of the third millennium
BC. Halab's fame as a
Holy City contributed to its later
prominence; the main temple of the north Syrian storm god
Hadad was located in the city, which was known as the "City of
Halab as well as that of
Yamhad appeared for the first time
during the Old Babylonian period, when Sumu-Epuh, the first
Yamhadite king, was attested in a seal from Mari as the ruler of the
land of Yamhad, which included, in addition to Halab, the cities
Alalakh and Tuba.
Sumu-Epuh consolidated the kingdom and
Yahdun-Lim of Mari who had a dynastic alliance with
oppose Assyria, but eventually campaigned in the north threatening
the kingdom. The Yamhadite king supported the Yaminite tribes and
formed an alliance with other Syrian states including Urshu, Hassum
and Carchemish, against the Mariote king who defeated his
enemies, but was eventually killed by his son Sumu-Yamam.
Rivalry with Assyria and expansion
Legal case from
Niqmi-Epuh of Yamhad, to the king of Alalakh.
The rise of
Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria proved more dangerous to Yamhad
than Mari. The Assyrian king was an ambitious conqueror with the aim
Mesopotamia and the Levant, and styled himself as "king of the
world". Shamshi-Adad surrounded
Yamhad by way of alliances with
Charchemish, Hassum and
Urshu to the north and by conquering Mari to
the east, forcing
Zimri-Lim the heir of Mari to flee. Sumu-Epuh
Zimri-Lim and aimed to use him against Assyria since he was
the legitimate heir of Mari.
Shamshi-Adad's most dangerous alliance was with Qatna, whose king
Ishi-Addu became Assyria's agent at Yamhad's borders and married his
daughter to Yasmah-Adad, the son of the Assyrian king who was
installed by his father as king of Mari.
Sumu-Epuh was apparently
killed during his fight with Shamshi-Adad and was succeeded by his son
Yarim-Lim I, who consolidated his father's kingdom and turned it
into the most powerful kingdom in
Syria and northern
Mesopotamia. Yarim-Lim surrounded Shamshi-Adad by alliances
Ibal-pi-el II of Eshnunna, then in
1777 BC he advanced to the east conquering
Tuttul and installing
Zimri-Lim as governor of the city. The death of the Assyrian king
came a year later. Yarim-Lim then sent his army with Zimri-Lim, to
restore his ancestors throne as an ally-vassal to Yamhad,
cementing the relationship through a dynastic marriage between the new
Mariote king and Shibtu, the daughter of Yarim-Lim.
"There is no king who is mighty by himself. Ten or fifteen kings
Hammurabi the ruler of Babylon, a like number of Rim-Sin of
Larsa, a like number of Ibal-pi-el of Eshnunna, a like number of
Amud-pi-el of Qatanum, but twenty follow Yarim-Lim of Yamhad."
A tablet sent to
Zimri-Lim of Mari, describing Yarim-Lim I
Yarim-Lim spent the next years of his reign expanding the kingdom,
which reached Mamma in the north. The Syrian city-states were
subdued through alliances or force; Mamma,
vassals of Yamhad, while
Qatna remained independent but came to
Yamhad following the death of its ally, the late
Shamshi-Adad I. A sample of Yarim-Lim policy of diplomacy and war
can be read in a tablet discovered at Mari, that was sent to the king
of Dēr in southern Mesopotamia, which included a declaration of war
against Der and its neighbor Diniktum, the tablet mentions the
stationing of 500 Yamhadite warships for twelve years in Diniktum, and
the Yamhadite military support of Der for 15 years. Yarim-Lim's
Yamhad into the status of a Great Kingdom and
the Yamhadite king title became the Great King.
Yarim-Lim I was succeeded by his son
Hammurabi I who had a peaceful
reign. He was able to force Charchemish into submission, and
sent troops to aid
Larsa and Elam.
The alliance ended after the Babylonian king sacked Mari and destroyed
Babylon did not attack Yamhad, however, and the relations
between the two kingdoms remained peaceful in later years; the
power vacuum caused by Mari's fall opened the way for
extend Yamhad's hegemony over the upper Khabur valley in the east,
where the ruler of Shubat Enlil became his vassal.
Hammurabi I was
succeeded by his son Abba-El I, whose reign witnessed the rebellion of
the city Irridu, which was under the authority of prince Yarim-Lim,
Abba-El's brother. The king responded to the rebellion by
destroying Irridu, and compensating his brother by giving him the
throne of Alalakh, thus creating a cadet branch of the dynasty.
Decline and end
God head, discovered near Jabbul (c. 1600 BC).
The era of Abba-El I's successors is poorly documented, and by the
Yarim-Lim III in the mid-17th century BC, the power of Yamhad
declined due to internal dissent.
Yarim-Lim III ruled a
weakened kingdom, and although he imposed Yamhadite hegemony over
Qatna, the weakening was obvious as
Alalakh had become all but
independent under the self-declared king Ammitakum. In spite of
this regression, the king of
Yamhad remained the strongest king of the
Syrian states, as he was referred to as a Great
King by the
Hittites, the diplomatic equal of the Hittite king.
The rise of the Hittite kingdom in the north posed the biggest threat
to Yamhad, although
Yarim-Lim III and his successor
were able to withstand the aggressions of the Hittite king Hattusili I
through alliances with the
Hurrian principalities. Hattusili chose
not to attack
Halab directly and began with conquering Yamhad's
vassals and allies, starting with
Alalakh in the second year of his
Syrian campaigns c. 1650 BC (Middle chronology) or slightly
later. Hattusili then turned to attack the
Hurrians in Urshu
northeast of Halab, and won in spite of military support from Halab
Carchemish for the Hurrians. The Hittite king then defeated
Yamhad in the battle of Mount Atalur, and sacked Hassum along with
Hurrian cities in the sixth year of his Syrian wars.
After many campaigns,
Hattusili I finally attacked
Halab during the
Hammurabi III. The attack ended in a defeat, the wounding of
the Hittite king and his later death c. 1620 BC. Hattusili's
campaigns considerably weakened Yamhad, causing it to decline in
status: the monarch ceased to be styled a Great King.
Hattusili was succeeded by his grandson Mursili I, who conquered Halab
c. 1600 BC and destroyed
Yamhad as a major power in the Levant.
Mursili then left for
Babylon and sacked it, but was assassinated upon
his return to his capital Hattusa, and his empire disintegrated.
Halab was rebuilt and the kingdom expanded to include Alalakh
again. The reestablished kingdom was ruled by kings of whom
nothing but their names is known; the first is Sarra-El, who might
have been the son of Yarim-Lim III. The last king of the dynasty
to rule as king of
Halab was Ilim-Ilimma I, whose reign started c.
1524 and was killed during a rebellion orchestrated by king
Mitanni who annexed
Halab c. 1517 BC.
Ilim-Ilimma's son, Idrimi, fled to
Emar then conquered
Alalakh c. 1510
BC. Seven years following his conquest of Alalakh,
Mitanni and was acknowledged as a vassal, and allowed
to control Halab, though he had to relocate the dynasty's residence to
Alalakh and relinquish the title of "
King of Halab"; the use of the
Yamhad also ended.
Kings of Yamhad
Dates are estimated and given by the Middle chronology.
Abba-El I seal.
Relation to Previous King
c. 1810 BC – c. 1780 BC
c. 1780 BC – c. 1764 BC
c. 1764 BC – c. 1750 BC
c. 1750 BC – c. 1720 BC
c. 1720 BC – c. 1700 BC
c. 1700 BC – c. 1675 BC
c. 1675 BC – Mid-17th century BC
Mid-17th century BC
Mid-17th century BC – c. 1625 BC
Brother of Irkabtum.
c. 1625 BC – c. 1600 BC
Early 16th century BC
Possible son of Yarim-Lim III.
Mid-16th century BC
c. 1524 – c. 1517 BC
People and culture
Seal of Abba-El II: the Egyptian ankh was a replacement for the cup
usually held by the deity.
The people of
Yamhad were Amorites and spoke the
Amorite language, and
apart from a few Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Aegean influences,
Yamhad belonged mainly to middle
Bronze Age Syrian culture. This
culture influenced the architecture and the functions of the temples,
which were mainly cultic, while political authority was invested in
the royal palace, in contrast to the important political role of the
temples in Mesopotamia.
Since the capital
Halab has not been excavated, the architecture of
the kingdom is archaeologically best represented by the city of
Alalakh, which was subordinate to
Halab and ruled by a king
belonging to the Yamhadite royal house. The Amorites in general
built large palaces that bear architectural similarities to old
Baylonian-era palaces. They were adorned with grand central
courtyards, throne rooms, tiled floors, drainage systems and plastered
walls, which suggest the employment of specialized labor. Evidence
exists for the presence of Minoan Aegean fresco artists who painted
elaborate scenes on the walls of the palaces in Alalakh.
Yamhad had a distinctive Syrian iconography, which is clear in the
seals of the kings that gave prominence to the Syrian gods. Egyptian
influence was minimal and limited to the ankh, which cannot be
interpreted as an emulation of Egyptian rituals but rather as merely a
substitute for the cup held by the deity elsewhere.
Yamhad had a
special pattern of trim called the
Yamhad style, which was favored in
Mari during the reign of king Zimri-Lim, whose queen
Shibtu was the
daughter of Yarim-Lim I.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire,
Hurrians began to settle in the
city and its surroundings, and by c. 1725 BC they constituted a
sizable portion of the population. The presence of a large Hurrian
Hurrian culture and religion to Halab, as evidenced
by the existence of certain religious festivals that bear Hurrian
Halab's location has always been a factor in its prominence as an
economic center. Yamhad's economy was based on trade with the
Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia,
Cyprus and Anatolia, with the city
Emar as its port on the Euphrates, and
Alalakh with its
proximity to the sea as its port on the Mediterranean.
The actions of
Yarim-Lim I and his alliance with
Babylon proved vital
for the kingdom's economy, for they secured the trade between
Mesopotamia and northern Syria, with the king of Mari protecting the
caravans crossing from the
Persian Gulf to Anatolia. Emar
attracted many Babylonian merchants, who lived in the city and had a
lasting impact on the local scribal conventions. As late as the 14th
century BC, texts of the so-called Syrian type from
distinct Babylonian traits.
The markets of
Yamhad became a source of copper, which was imported
from the mountains (probably Anatolian) and Cyprus. However, the
Babylonian invasion of Mari had a negative impact on the trade between
the two kingdoms, as the road became dangerous because of the loss
of Mari's protection to the caravans. This led the Babylonian king
Samsu-iluna to build many strongholds up the river valley, and to
establish colonies of mercenaries known as the "Kassite Houses" to
protect the middle
Euphrates area. Those colonies later evolved
into semi-independent polities that waged a war against the Babylonian
Ammi-Saduqa and caused the trade temporarily to stop.
The people of
Yamhad practiced the
Amorite religion, and mainly
worshiped the Northwest Semitic deities. The most important of these
were Dagon, who was considered the father of the gods, and Hadad,
who was the most important deity and the head of the pantheon. The
kingdom was known as the "land of Hadad", who was famous as the
Halab beginning in the middle of the 3rd millennium
BC. His main temple was located on the citadel hill in the center
of the city and remained in use from the 24th century BC, until at
least the 9th century BC.
The title "Beloved of Hadad" was one of the king's titles.
Hadad was the kingdom's patron god, and all treaties were concluded in
his name, which was also used to threaten other kingdoms, and to
declare wars. As the
Hurrian presence grew, so did Hurrian
religious influences and some of the
Hurrian deities found a place in
the Yamhadite pantheon.
Abba-El I mentioned receiving the
support of the
Hebat in one of the
Hebat was the spouse of the
Hurrian main deity Teshub, but in Abba-El
I's tablet, she is associated with Hadad). Later, the Hurrians
started to identify
Teshub with Hadad, who became
Teshub the Storm-God
Beside the general gods, the kings had a "head god", that is, a deity
who had an intimate connection for the worshiper.
King Yarim-Lim I
Hadad as the god of the state, but the Mesopotamian deity
Sin as the god of his head. His son
Hammurabi I did likewise.
Ancient Near East portal
List of rulers of Aleppo
^ a b c Dalley 2002, p. 44.
^ a b c d e Astour 1981, p. 7.
^ Hamblin 2006, p. 257.
^ Pioske 2015, p. 188.
^ Grabbe 2007, p. 58.
^ a b Hawkins 2000, p. 388.
^ Pfälzner 2012, p. 781.
^ Archi 1994, p. 250.
^ Hamblin 2006, p. 242.
^ a b Feliu 2003, p. 192.
^ Oldenburg 1969, p. 65.
^ Bryce 2014, p. 111.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 780.
^ a b Miller 1995, p. 10.
^ Schwartz 2010, p. 376.
^ Liverani 2013, p. 225, 226.
^ Wossink 2009, p. 128.
^ Sasson 1969, p. 45.
^ Wu 1994, p. 131.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 606.
^ a b Pitard 2001, p. 39.
^ Schwartz 2013, p. 9.
^ a b c d e f g Liverani 2013, p. 234.
^ Bryce 2009, p. 773.
^ Matthiae 2003, p. 383.
^ a b Pitard 2001, p. 40.
^ a b c d e f Hamblin 2006, p. 259.
^ Charpin 2011, p. 257.
^ Dodd 2007, p. 210.
^ Thuesen 2000, p. 61.
^ a b Sasson 1969, p. 2.
^ Charpin 2010, p. 102.
^ Lauinger 2015, p. 6.
^ a b c d e Hamblin 2006, p. 260.
^ Claire 2017.
^ a b Wiseman 1967, p. 121.
^ Miller 1995, p. 12.
^ a b Hamblin 2006, p. 258.
^ Bryce 2014, p. 27.
^ a b Liverani 2013, p. 260.
^ Collon 1995, p. 97.
^ Hamblin 2006, p. 298, 299.
^ Bryce 1999, p. 83.
^ Bryce 2014, p. 29.
^ Burney 2004, p. 107.
^ Bryce 1999, p. 152.
^ Hamblin 2006, p. 260.
^ Payne 2012, p. 3.
^ Bryce 1999, p. 126.
^ a b c Astour 1969, p. 382.
^ Drower 1973, p. 433.
^ a b Collon 1995, p. 109.
^ a b Astour 1989, p. 92.
^ Podany 2010, p. 136.
^ Astour 1981, p. 9.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 783.
^ Teissier 1996, p. 28.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 788.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 792.
^ Teissier 1996, p. 26.
^ van Soldt 2000, p. 106.
^ Frayne 1990, p. 795.
^ van Soldt 2000, p. 107.
^ Astour 1989, p. 19.
^ Schwartz 2013, p. 3.
^ Schwartz 2013, p. 10.
^ a b Liverani 2013, p. 232.
^ Feldman 2007, p. 55.
^ van Soldt 2000, p. 109.
^ a b Burke 2013, p. 409.
^ Teissier 1996, p. 38.
^ Dalley 2002, p. 51.
^ Owen 2000, p. 618.
^ Nathanson 2013, p. 72.
^ a b c Kupper 1973, p. 41.
^ Zohar 2013, p. 95.
^ Sicker 2003, p. 32.
^ Pruzsinszky 2007, p. 23.
^ a b c d e f van Koppen 2010, p. 212.
^ van Koppen 2010, p. 213.
^ Foster 2009, p. 148.
^ Fleming 2000, p. 90.
^ a b c Taracha 2009, p. 121.
^ Gonnella 2006, p. 166.
^ Gonnella 2010, p. 114.
^ Oldenburg 1969, p. 67.
^ Oldenburg 1969, p. 160.
^ Green 2003, p. 181.
^ Green 2003, p. 170.
^ van der Toorn 1996, p. 77, 88.
Archi, Alfonso (1994). "Studies in the Pantheon of Ebla". Orientalia.
Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. 63 (3). OCLC 557711946.
Astour, Michael.C (1969). "The Partition of the Confederacy of
Mukiš-Nuḫiašše-Nii by Šuppiluliuma: A Study in Political
Geography of the Amarna Age". Orientalia. 38. Pontificium Institutum
Biblicum. OCLC 557711946.
Astour, Michael C. (1981). "
Ugarit and the Great Powers". In Young,
Ugarit in Retrospect. Fifty years of
Ugaritic: Proceedings of the symposium of the same title held at the
University of Wisconsin at Madison, February 26, 1979, under the
auspices of the Middle West Branch of the American Oriental Society
and the Mid-West Region of the Society of Biblical Literature.
Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-07-2.
Astour, Michael C. (1989). Hittite History and Absolute Chronology of
the Bronze Age. Studies in
Mediterranean Archaeology and Literature.
73. Astroms Forlag. ISBN 978-91-86098-86-5.
Bryce, Trevor (1999) . The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924010-4.
Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places
of Ancient Western Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6.
Bryce, Trevor (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-100292-2.
Burke, Aaron A. (2013). "Introduction to the
Levant During the Middle
Bronze Age". In Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E. The Oxford
Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-166255-3.
Burney, Charles (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Hittites.
Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras.
14. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6564-8.
Charpin, Dominique (2010). Writing, Law, and Kingship in Old
Babylonian Mesopotamia. Translated by Todd, Jean Marie. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-10159-0.
Charpin, Dominique (2011). "Patron and Client:
Zimri-Lim and Asqudum
the Diviner". In Radner, Karen; Robson, Eleanor. The Oxford Handbook
of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford University Press.
Claire, Iselin (2017). "Head of a God". Louvre. Retrieved January 1,
Collon, Dominique (1995). Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of
California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20307-5.
Dalley, Stephanie (2002) . Mari and Karana, Two Old Babylonian
Cities (2 ed.). Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-931956-02-4.
Dodd, Lynn Swartz (2007). "Strategies for Future Success: Remembering
Hittites during the Iron Age". Anatolian Studies. Cambridge
University Press on Behalf of the British Institute of Archaeology at
Ankara. 57. doi:10.1017/s0066154600008619. ISSN 0066-1546.
Drower, Margaret S. (1973). "
Syria c. 1550–1400 B.C.". In Edwards,
Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Gadd, Cyril John; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey
Lemprière; Sollberger, Edmond. Part 1: The Middle East and the Aegean
Region, c.1800–1380 BC. The Cambridge Ancient History (Second
Revised Series). 2 (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Feldman, Marian H. (2007). "Frescoes, Exotica, and the Reinvention of
the Northern Levantine Kingdoms during the Second Millenium B.C.E". In
Heinz, Marlies; Feldman, Marian H. Representations of Political Power:
Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the
Ancient Near East. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-135-1.
Feliu, Lluís (2003). The God Dagan in
Bronze Age Syria. Translated by
Watson, Wilfred GE. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-13158-3.
Fleming, Daniel E. (2000). Time at Emar: The Cultic Calendar and the
Rituals from the Diviner's Archive. Mesopotamian Civilizations. 11.
Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-044-6.
Frayne, Douglas (1990). Old Babylonian Period (2003–1595 BC). The
Royal Inscriptions of
Mesopotamia Early Periods. 4. University of
Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5873-7.
Gonnella, Julia (2006). "The Citadel of Aleppo: Recent Studies". In
Kennedy, Hugh N. Muslim Military Architecture in Greater Syria: From
the Coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period. History of Warfare. 35.
Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-14713-3. ISSN 1385-7827.
Gonnella, Julia (2010). "Columns and Hieroglyphs: Magic Spolia in
Medieval Islamic Architecture of Northern Syria". In Necipoğlu,
Gülru; Leal, Karen A. Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Cultures of
the Islamic World. 27. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18511-1.
Grabbe, Lester L. (2007). Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do
We Know It?. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-03254-6.
Green, Alberto Ravinell Whitney (2003). The Storm-god in the Ancient
Near East. Biblical and Judaic studies from the University of
California, San Diego. 8. Eisenbrauns.
Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600
BC. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6.
Hawkins, John David (2000). Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian
Inscriptions. Vol 1 Inscriptions of the Iron Age. Untersuchungen Zur
Indogermanischen Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft. Neue Folge / Studies
in Indo-European Language and Culture. New Series. 8.1. Walter de
Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-080420-1.
Kupper, Jean Robert (1973). "Northern
Mesopotamia and Syria". In
Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Gadd, Cyril John; Hammond, Nicholas
Geoffrey Lemprière; Sollberger, Edmond. Part 1: The Middle East and
the Aegean Region, c.1800–1380 BC. The Cambridge Ancient History
(Second Revised Series). 2 (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Lauinger, Jacob (2015). Following the Man of Yamhad: Settlement and
Territory at Old Babylonian Alalah. Brill.
Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and
Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75084-9.
Matthiae, Paolo (2003). "Ishtar of
Ebla and Head of Aleppo: Notes on
Terminology, Politics and Religion of Old Syrian Ebla". In Marrassini,
Paolo. Semitic and Assyriological Studies: Presented to Pelio
Fronzaroli by Pupils and Colleagues. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
Miller, Julie A. (1995). "Alalakh". In Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.;
La Boda, Sharon. International Dictionary of Historic Places. 3
(Southern Europe). Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
Nathanson, Michael (2013). Between Myth & Mandate: Geopolitics,
Pseudohistory & the Hebrew Bible. Author House.
Oldenburg, Ulf (1969). The Conflict between El and Ba'al in Canaanite
Religion. Dissertationes ad Historiam Religionum Pertinentes. 3.
Brill. ISSN 0419-4233. OCLC 63449.
Owen, David I. (2000). "Hurrians". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers,
Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans Publishing.
Payne, Annick (2012).
Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions.
Writings from the Ancient World. 29. Society of Biblical Literature.
Pfälzner, Peter (2012). "Levantine Kingdoms of the Late Bronze Age".
In Potts, Daniel T. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near
East. 1. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-6077-6.
Pioske, Daniel D. (2015). David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and
History. Routledge Studies in Religion. 45. Routledge.
Pitard, Wayne T. (2001) . "Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the
Bronze Age". In Coogan, Michael David. The Oxford History of the
Biblical World (revised ed.). Oxford University Press.
Podany, Amanda H. (2010). Brotherhood of Kings: How International
Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press.
Pruzsinszky, Regine (2007). "
Emar and the Transition from
Hittite Power". In Heinz, Marlies; Feldman, Marian H. Representations
of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving
Order in the Ancient Near East. Eisenbrauns.
Sasson, Jack M. (1969). The Military Establishments at Mari. Studia
Pohl. 3: Dissertationes Scientificae de Rebus Orientis Antiqui.
Pontifical Biblical Institute. OCLC 32801.
Schwartz, Glenn M. (2010). "Early Non-cuneiform Writing?
Third-millennium BC Clay Cylinders from Umm el-Marra". In Melville,
Sarah C.; Alice L., Slotsky. Opening the Tablet Box: Near Eastern
Studies in Honor of Benjamin R. Foster. Culture and History of the
Ancient Near East. 42. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18652-1.
Schwartz, Glenn M. (2013). "An
Amorite Global Village:
Syrian-Mesopotamian Relations in the Second Millennium B.C". In Aruz,
Joan; Graff, Sarah B.; Rakic, Yelena. Cultures in Contact: From
Mesopotamia to the
Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-475-0.
Sicker, Martin (2003). The Rise and Fall of the Ancient Israelite
States. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-98012-2.
Taracha, Piotr (2009). Religions of Second Millennium Anatolia.
Dresdner Beiträge zur Hethitologie. 27. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
ISBN 978-3-447-05885-8. ISSN 1619-0874.
Teissier, Beatrice (1996) . Egyptian Iconography on
Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age. Orbis
Biblicus et Orientalis- Series Archaeologica. 11. University Press
Fribourg Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-525-53892-0.
Thuesen, Ingolf (2000). "The City-State in Ancient Western Syria". In
Hansen, Mogens Herman. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state
Cultures: An Investigation. 21. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
van der Toorn, Karel (1996). Family Religion in Babylonia,
Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life. Studies
in the History of the Ancient Near East. 7. Brill.
ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5. ISSN 0169-9024.
van Koppen, Frans (2010) . "Aspects of Society and Economy in
the later Old Babylonian Period". In Leick, Gwendolyn. The Babylonian
World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-26128-4.
van Soldt, Wilfred (2000). "Syrian Chronology in the Old and Early
Middle Babylonian Period". Akkadica. Assyriological Center Georges
Dossin. 119. ISSN 1378-5087.
Wiseman, Donald John (1967). "Alalakh". In Thomas, David Winton.
Archaeology and Old Testament study: jubilee volume of the Society for
Old Testament Study, 1917–1967. Clarendon Press.
Wossink, Arne (2009). Challenging Climate Change: Competition and
Cooperation Among Pastoralists and Agriculturalists in Northern
Mesopotamia (c. 3000–1600 BC). Sidestone Press.
Wu, Yuhong (1994). A Political History of Eshnunna, Mari and Assyria
during the Early Old Babylonian Period (from the End of Ur III to the
Death of Šamši-Adad). Institute of History of Ancient Civilizations.
Zohar, Zvi (2013). Rabbinic Creativity in the Modern Middle East.
Kogod library of Judaic Studies. 11. Bloomsbury.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yamhad.
Hadad temple discovery. Kay Kohlmeyer, an archaeologist at Berlin's
University of Applied Sciences and the excavation co-director explain
about the temple.
Ansari- ancient Halab.
Syria (Bilad al-Sham)
State of Syria
Council of Ministers
Golan Heights claim
Supreme Constitutional Court
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
national / regional command
National Progressive Front
Popular Front for Change and Liberation
Weapons of mass destruction
Securities Exchange (stock exchange)
Energy and mineral resources
Water supply and sanitation
Coat of arms
Ancient City of Aleppo
Citadel of Aleppo
Central Synagogue of Aleppo
Bimaristan Arghun al-Kamili
Bab al-Faraj Clock Tower
Aleppo Railway Station
Grand Serail of Aleppo
Villa Rose Palace
Great Mosque of Aleppo
Altun Bogha Mosque
Church of Saint Simeon Stylites
Forty Martyrs Cathedral
Church of the Dormition of Our Lady
Mar Assia al-Hakim Church
Saint Elijah Cathedral
Saint Francis of Assisi Church
Holy Trinity Church
Saint Joseph's Cathedral
Church of the Holy Mother of God
Holy Cross Church
Aleppo Citadel Amphitheatre
Aleppo Citadel Museum
National Library of Aleppo
National Museum of Aleppo
Aleppo Centre for Culture and Arts
University of Aleppo
Mamoun University for Science and Technology
International School of Aleppo
Lycée français d'Alep
Aleppo Public Park
Blue Lagoon Water Park
Streets and squares
Sabaa Bahrat Square
Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square
King Faisal Street
7 April Stadium
Ri'ayet al-Shabab Stadium
Al-Assad Sports Arena
Bassel al-Assad Swimming Complex
Aleppo International Stadium
Al-Hamadaniah Tennis Complex
Al-Hamadaniah Olympic Swimming and Diving Complex
Al-Hamadaniah Sports Arena
Rulers of Aleppo
Kingdom of Armi
North Syrian Arabic
Battle of Marj Dabiq
Aleppo International Airport
State of Aleppo
Chemins de Fer Syriens
Aleppo Artillery School massacre
Battle of Aleppo
Aleppo University bombings
Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant
Israel and Judah