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This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Yamas
Yamas
(Sanskrit: यम), and its complement, Niyamas, represent a series of "right living" or ethical rules within Hinduism
Hinduism
and Yoga. It means “reining in” or “control.” These are restraints for Proper Conduct as given in the Holy Veda
Veda
. They are a form of moral imperatives, commandments, rules or goals. The Yamas
Yamas
are the "don't do these" list of self-restraints, typically representing commitments that affect one's relations with others and self.[1] The complementary Niyamas represent the "do these" list of observances, and together Yamas
Yamas
and Niyamas are personal obligations to live well.[1] The earliest mention of the word Yamas
Yamas
is in the Rigveda, and over fifty texts of Hinduism, from its various traditions, discuss Yamas.[2] Patañjali
Patañjali
lists five yamas in his Yoga
Yoga
Sūtras. Ten yamas are codified as "the restraints" in numerous Hindu
Hindu
texts including Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
Smriti
Smriti
in verse 3.313,[3] the Śāṇḍilya and Vārāha Upanishads, the Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika by Svātmārāma,[4] and the Tirumantiram of Tirumular.[5][6] The most often mentioned Yamas
Yamas
are – Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(non-violence), Satya (non-falsehood, truthfulness), Asteya
Asteya
(non-stealing), Mitahara (non-excess in food, moderation in food), Kșhamā (non-agitation about suffering, forgiveness), Dayā (non-prejudgment, compassion) are among the widely discussed Yamas.[2] The Yamas
Yamas
apply broadly and include self-restraints in one's actions, words and thoughts.[7]

Contents

1 Etymology and meaning 2 Five Yamas 3 Ten Yamas 4 Other numbers of Yamas 5 Related concepts 6 See also 7 References

Etymology and meaning[edit] The earliest mention of Yamas
Yamas
is found in the Hindu
Hindu
scripture Rigveda, such as in verse 5.61.2.[3][8] The word in the Rigveda
Rigveda
means a "rein, curb", the act of checking or curbing, restraining such as by a charioteer or a driver.[3] The term evolves into a moral restraint and ethical duty in the Upanishads, the Dharmasutras, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and numerous later texts, where it means self-control, voluntary and inner-directed forbearance.[3][9] Yamas
Yamas
is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for "restraint," states Stephen Sturgess, particularly "from actions, words, or thoughts that may cause harm".[10] Five Yamas[edit] See also: Jainism § Five main vows The five yamas listed by Patañjali
Patañjali
in Yogasūtra 2.30 are:[11]

Ahiṃsā
Ahiṃsā
(अहिंसा): Nonviolence, non-harming other living beings[12] Satya
Satya
(सत्य): truthfulness, non-falsehood[12][13] Asteya
Asteya
(अस्तेय): non-stealing[12][14] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(ब्रह्मचर्य): chastity,[13] marital fidelity or sexual restraint[15] Aparigraha
Aparigraha
(अपरिग्रहः): non-avarice,[12] non-possessiveness[13]

Ten Yamas[edit] The ten yamas listed by Śāṇḍilya Upanishad,[16] as well as by Svātmārāma are:[4][17][18]

Ahiṃsā
Ahiṃsā
(अहिंसा): Nonviolence Satya
Satya
(सत्य): truthfulness Asteya
Asteya
(अस्तेय): not stealing Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(ब्रह्मचर्य): chastity,[13] marital fidelity or sexual restraint[15] Kṣamā (क्षमा): forgiveness[19] Dhṛti (धृति): fortitude Dayā (दया): compassion[19] Ārjava (आर्जव): non-hypocrisy, sincerity[20] Mitāhāra (मिताहार): measured diet Śauca (शौच): purity, cleanliness

Other numbers of Yamas[edit] At least sixty (60) ancient and medieval era Indian texts are known so far that discuss Yamas.[2] Most are in Sanskrit, but some are in regional Indian languages. Of the sixty, the lists in eleven of these texts are similar, but not the same, as that of Patanjali's.[2] Other texts list between 1 and 10 Yamas, however 10 is the most common.[2] The order of listed yamas, the names and nature of each yamas, as well as the relative emphasis vary between the texts. Some texts use the reverse of Niyamas in other texts, as Yamas; for example, Vairagya (dispassion from hedonism, somewhat reverse of the niyama Tapas) is described in verse 33 of Trishikhi Brahmana
Brahmana
Upanishad
Upanishad
in its list for Yamas.[2] Many texts substitute one or more different concepts in their list of Yamas. For example, in the ten Yamas
Yamas
listed by Yatidharma Sangraha, Akrodha
Akrodha
(non-anger) is included as a Yamas.[2] Ahirbudhnya Samhita in verse 31.19 and Darshana Upanishad
Upanishad
in verses 1.14-15 include Dayā as a Yamas, and explain it as the ethical restraint of not jumping to conclusions, being compassionate to every being and considering suffering of others as one's own.[21] In verse 31.21, Ahirbudhnya Samhita includes Kșhamā as the virtue of forgiveness and restraint from continued agitation from wrong others have done.[2] Mahakala Samhita in verses II.11.723 through II.11.738[22] lists many of the 10 Yamas
Yamas
above, but explains why it is a virtue in a different way. For example, the text explains Dayā (or Dayaa) is an ethical precept and the restraint from too much and too little emotions. It suggests Dayā reflects one's inner state, is the expression of kindness towards kin, friend, stranger and even a hostile person, and that one must remain good and kind no matter what the circumstances. This view for the Yamas
Yamas
of Dayā is shared in Shandilya Upanishad
Upanishad
and Jabala Darshana Upanishad.[2][23] Atri
Atri
Samhita in verse 48, lists Anrshamsya (आनृशंस्य)[24] as the restraint from cruelty to any living being by one's actions, words or in thoughts. Shivayoga Dipika in verse 2.9 substitutes Sunrta for Satya, defining Sunrta as "sweet and true speech".[2] Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Mitahara, Kșhamā, Dayā are among the widely discussed Yamas
Yamas
ethical concepts by majority of these texts.[2] Related concepts[edit] Yamas
Yamas
are related to Niyamas in ancient and medieval era Indian texts. The former are restraints (the "don'ts") of virtuous life, while the latter are observances (the "dos"). Some texts such as the Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika use the classification flexibly, where yamas (restraints, the "don'ts") are understood as reverse of niyamas (positive attitudes, behaviors, the "dos"). For example, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Mitahara
Mitahara
are called as yama as well as niyama in verses 17 and 40 of Book
Book
1. In verse 1.40, Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika calls Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(non-violence and non-injuring anyone by one's actions, words or in thoughts) as the highest virtuous habit, Mitahara
Mitahara
(moderation in one's eating and drinking habits) as the best personal restraint, and Siddhasana
Siddhasana
as the foremost of Asanas.[25] See also[edit]

Niyama

References[edit]

^ a b Judith Lasater (1998), Beginning the Journey, Yoga
Yoga
Journal, Nov-Dec Issue, pages 42-48 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k SV Bharti (2001), Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120818255, Appendix I, pages 672-680 ^ a b c d Monier Monier-Williams, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, Entry for Yama, page 846 ^ a b Svātmārāma; Pancham Sinh (1997). The Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika (5 ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 14. ISBN 9781605066370. अथ यम-नियमाः अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं बरह्यछर्यम कश्हमा धृतिः दयार्जवं मिताहारः शौछम छैव यमा दश १७  ^ Ramaswami, Sŕivatsa (2001). Yoga
Yoga
for the three stages of life. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. p. 229. ISBN 9780892818204.  ^ Devanand, G. K. Teaching of Yoga. APH Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 9788131301722. Yama
Yama
is a "moral restraint" or rule for living virtuously. Ten yamas are codified in numerous scriptures, including the Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradeepika compiled by Yogi
Yogi
Swatmarama, while Patanjali
Patanjali
lists five yamas and five niyamas (disciplines) in the Yoga Sutra.  ^ Debra Weiss (2006), Ahimsa: Nonviolence
Nonviolence
from a Yoga
Yoga
Perspective, Fellowship, Vol. 72, Issue 1-2, page 25 ^ Sanskrit: क्व वोऽश्वाः क्वाभीशवः कथं शेक कथा यय । पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः ॥२॥ (ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं ५.६१ Rigveda, Wikisource ^ Michael Palmer and Stanley Burgess (2012), The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Religion and Social Justice, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1405195478, page 114 ^ Sturgess, Stephen (2014). Yoga
Yoga
Meditation: Still Your Mind and Awaken Your Inner Spirit. Oxford, UK: Watkins Publishing Limited. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-78028-644-0.  ^ Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi. Puṇe: Ānandāśrama. p. 102.  ^ a b c d James Lochtefeld, " Yama
Yama
(2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798, page 777 ^ a b c d Arti Dhand (2002), The dharma of ethics, the ethics of dharma: Quizzing the ideals of Hinduism, Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(3), pages 347-372 ^ Roger S. Gottlieb (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology. Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-19-972769-8.  ^ a b [a] Louise Taylor (2001), A Woman's Book
Book
of Yoga, Tuttle, ISBN 978-0804818292, page 3; [b]Jeffrey Long (2009), Jainism: An Introduction, IB Tauris, ISBN 978-1845116262, page 109; Quote: The fourth vow - brahmacarya - means for laypersons, marital fidelity and pre-marital celibacy; for ascetics, it means absolute celibacy; John Cort explains, " Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
involves having sex only with one's spouse, as well as the avoidance of ardent gazing or lewd gestures (...) - Quoted by Long, ibid, page 101 ^ KN Aiyar (1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1164026419, Chapter 22, pages 173-176 ^ Lorenzen, David (1972). The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas. University of California Press. pp. 186–190. ISBN 978-0520018426.  ^ Subramuniya (2003). Merging with Śiva: Hinduism's contemporary metaphysics. Himalayan Academy Publications. p. 155. ISBN 9780945497998. Retrieved 6 April 2009.  ^ a b Stuart Sovatsky (1998), Words from the Soul: Time East/West Spirituality and Psychotherapeutic Narrative, State University of New York, ISBN 978-0791439494, page 21 ^ J Sinha, Indian Psychology, p. 142, at Google Books, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidas, OCLC 1211693, page 142 ^ Jean Varenne and Coltman Derek (1977), University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226851167, pages 197-202 ^ Mahakala Samhita Government of India Archives (in Sanskrit), see pages 302 to 304 of the document ^ K. V. Gajendragadkar (2007), Neo-upanishadic Philosophy, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, University of California Archives, OCLC 1555808 ^ AnRzaMsya Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany ^ Original: यमेष्व् इव मिताहारम् अहिंसा नियमेष्व् इव । मुख्यं सर्वासनेष्व् एकं सिद्धाः सिद्धासनं विदुः ॥४०॥ Note: The verse number is different in different translations, in some this verse is 1.38, in others 1.40; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English translation source: Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika Brahmananda, Adyar Library Series, Madras

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