A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not
appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by
writing in the person's name. The system is almost totally confined to
elections in the United States. Some U.S. states and local
jurisdictions allow a voter to affix a sticker, with the write-in
candidate's name, to the ballot in lieu of actually writing in the
candidate's name. Write-in candidacies are sometimes a result of a
candidate being legally or procedurally ineligible to run under his or
her own name or party; write-in candidacies may be permitted where
term limits bar an incumbent candidate from being officially nominated
for, or being listed on the ballot for, re-election. In some cases,
write-in campaigns have been organized to support a candidate who is
not personally involved in running; this may be a form of draft
Write-in candidates rarely win, and sometimes write-in votes are cast
for ineligible people or fictional characters. Some jurisdictions
require write-in candidates be registered as official candidates
before the election. This is standard in elections with a large
pool of potential candidates, as there may be multiple candidates with
the same name that could be written in.
Many U.S. states and municipalities allow for write-in votes in a
partisan primary election where no candidate is listed on the ballot
to have the same functional effect as nominating petitions: for
example, if there are no Reform Party members on the ballot for state
general assembly and a candidate receives more than 200 write-in votes
when the primary election is held (or the other number of signatures
that were required for ballot access), the candidate will be placed on
the ballot on that ballot line for the general election. In most
places, this provision is in place for non-partisan elections as well.
1 United States
1.1 Historical success of write-in candidates
1.1.1 Presidential primaries
1.1.3 House of Representatives
1.1.4 State legislatures
1.1.5 Local government
1.2 California's Proposition 14 impact on write-in candidates
2 Other countries
4 Popular culture
5 See also
Historical success of write-in candidates
Generally, write-in candidates can compete in any election within the
United States. Typically, write-in candidates have a very small chance
of winning, but there have been some strong showings by write-in
candidates over the years.
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Herbert Hoover won the Republican
primary on write-ins, polling 100,279.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt won the Democratic New Jersey
presidential primary with 34,278 write-ins.
Thomas Dewey won the Republican Pennsylvania presidential
primary with 146,706 write-ins.
Harold Stassen won the Republican Pennsylvania presidential
primary with 81,242 write-ins.
Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft won the Republican Nebraska presidential
primary with 79,357 write-ins,
Estes Kefauver won the Democratic
Pennsylvania presidential primary with 93,160 write-ins and Dwight
Eisenhower won the Republican
Massachusetts presidential primary with
Dwight Eisenhower won the Republican Massachusetts
presidential primary with 51,951 write-ins.
Richard Nixon won the Republican
primary with 53,164 write-ins and
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy won the Democratic
Pennsylvania presidential primary with 183,073 write-ins along with
Massachusetts presidential primary with 91,607
In 1964, a write-in campaign organized by supporters of former U.S.
Senator and vice presidential nominee
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. won
Republican primaries for President in New Hampshire, New Jersey, and
Massachusetts, defeating declared candidates Barry Goldwater, Nelson
Rockefeller, and Margaret Chase Smith.
In 1968 in the Democratic presidential primary in New Hampshire,
Lyndon Johnson did not file, but received
write-ins totaling 50% of all Democratic votes cast. Senator Eugene
McCarthy, who campaigned actively against Johnson's Vietnam war
policies, was on the ballot. He received an impressive 41% of the vote
and gained more delegates than the President, who was reportedly "so
stunned that he did not run for reelection".
In 1992, consumer advocate
Ralph Nader ran a write-in campaign during
New Hampshire primary for the presidential nomination of both the
Democratic and Republican parties. Declaring himself the "none of the
above candidate" and using his
Concord Principles as his platform,
Nader received 3,054 votes from Democrats and 3,258 votes from
William Knowland was elected in 1946 to the U.S. Senate
from California, for a two-month term. The special election for the
two-month term featured a November ballot with no names printed on it,
and all candidates in that special election were write-in
Strom Thurmond was elected in 1954 to the United States
South Carolina as a write-in candidate, after state
Democratic leaders had blocked him from receiving the party's
In 2010 incumbent Alaska Senator
Lisa Murkowski lost the Republican
primary to Joe Miller. Following her defeat she ran in the general
election as a write-in candidate. Murkowski had filed, and won, a
lawsuit requiring election officials to have the list of names of
write-in candidates distributed at the polls, and subsequently won
the election with a wide enough margin over both Miller, and
Democratic Party candidate Scott T. McAdams, to make moot the write-in
ballots that had been challenged by Miller.
House of Representatives
Peter F. Tague
Peter F. Tague was elected to the U.S. House as a write-in
independent Democrat, defeating the Democratic nominee, John F.
In 1930 Republican
Charles F. Curry, Jr.
Charles F. Curry, Jr. was elected to the House as a
write-in from Sacramento, California. His father, Congressman Charles
F. Curry Sr., would have been listed on the ballot unopposed but, due
to his untimely death, his name was removed and no candidate's name
was listed on the ballot.
In 1958, Democrat
Dale Alford was elected as a write-in candidate to
United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives in Arkansas. As member of
the Little Rock school board, Alford launched his write-in campaign a
week before the election because the incumbent, Brooks Hays, was
involved in the incident in which president Eisenhower sent federal
troops to enforce racial integration at Little Rock Central High
Racial integration was unpopular at the time, and Alford won
by approximately 1,200 votes, a 2% margin.
In 1964 Democrat
Gale Schisler was nominated for Congress in Illinois
as a write-in candidate when no Democrat filed to run in the primary
election. He defeated incumbent
Robert McLoskey in the November
In November 1980, Republican
Joe Skeen was elected to Congress in New
Mexico as a write-in candidate, because of a spoiler candidate who
also happened to be a write-in. No Republican had filed to run against
the incumbent Democrat, Harold L. Runnels, before the close of filing.
Runnels died on August 5, 1980, and the Democrats requested a special
primary to pick a replacement candidate. The New Mexico Secretary of
State allowed the Democrats to have a special primary, but did not
allow the Republicans to have a special primary, because they had
already gone with no candidate. So Skeen ran as a write-in candidate.
After Runnels' widow lost the Democratic special primary, she launched
her own write-in candidacy, which split the Democratic vote, taking
enough votes from the Democratic nominee to give the election to the
Republican, Skeen, who won with a 38% plurality.
Ron Packard of California finished in second place in the 18-candidate
Republican primary to replace the retiring Clair Burgener. Packard
lost the primary by 92 votes in 1982, and then mounted a write-in
campaign as an independent. He won the election with a 37% plurality
against both a Republican and a Democratic candidate. Following the
elections, he re-aligned himself as a Republican.
Democrat Charlie Wilson was the endorsed candidate of the Democratic
Ohio's 6th congressional district
Ohio's 6th congressional district in Ohio to replace Ted
Strickland in 2006. Strickland was running for Governor, and had to
give up his congressional seat. Wilson, though, did not qualify for
the ballot because only 46 of the 96 signatures on his candidacy
petition were deemed valid, while 50 valid signatures were required
for ballot placement. The Democratic Party continued to support
Wilson, and an expensive primary campaign ensued – over $1 million
was spent by both parties. Wilson overwhelmingly won the Democratic
primary as a write-in candidate on May 2, 2006 against two Democratic
candidates whose names were on the ballot, with Wilson collecting
44,367 votes, 67% of the Democratic votes cast. Wilson faced
Republican Chuck Blasdel in the general election on November 7, 2006,
and won, receiving 61% of the votes.
Dave Loebsack entered the 2006 Democratic primary in Iowa's
second congressional district as a write-in candidate after failing to
get the required number of signatures. He won the primary and in the
general election he defeated 15-term incumbent
Jim Leach by a 51% to
Jerry McNerney ran as a write-in candidate in the March 2004
Democratic Primary in California's 11th congressional district. He
received 1,667 votes (3% of the votes cast), and, having no opposition
(no candidates were listed on the Democratic primary ballot), won the
primary. Although he lost the November 2004 general election to
Republican Richard Pombo, McNerney ran again in 2006 (as a candidate
listed on the ballot) and won the Democratic Primary in June, and then
the rematch against Pombo in November.
Shelley Sekula-Gibbs failed as a write-in candidate in the November 7,
2006 election to represent the 22nd Texas congressional district in
the 110th Congress (for the full term commencing January 3, 2007). The
seat had been vacant since June 9, 2006, due to the resignation of the
then representative Tom DeLay. Therefore, on the same ballot, there
were two races: one for the 110th Congress, as well as a race for the
unexpired portion of the term during the 109th Congress (until January
3, 2007). Sekula-Gibbs won the race for the unexpired portion of the
term during the 109th Congress as a candidate listed on the ballot.
She could not be listed on the ballot for the full term because Texas
law did not allow a replacement candidate to be listed on the ballot
after the winner of the primary (Tom DeLay) has resigned.
Peter Welch, a Democrat representing Vermont's sole congressional
district, became both the Democratic and Republican nominee for the
House when he ran for re-election in 2008. Because the Republicans did
not field any candidate on the primary ballot, Welch won enough
write-in votes to win the Republican nomination.
Several members of the
Alaska House of Representatives
Alaska House of Representatives were elected as
write-in candidates during the 1960s and 1970s, particularly from
rural districts in the northern and western portions of the state.
Factors in play at the time include the newness of Alaska as a state
and the previous absence of electoral politics in many of the rural
communities, creating an environment which made it hard to attract
candidates to file for office during the official filing period. Most
of the areas in question were largely populated by Alaska natives, who
held little political power in Alaska at the time. This only began to
change following the formation of the
Alaska Federation of Natives and
the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Known examples
of successful write-in candidates include Kenneth A. Garrison and
Segundo Llorente (1960), Frank R. Ferguson (1972), James H.
"Jimmy" Huntington (1974), and Nels A. Anderson, Jr. (1976). The
incumbent in Llorente's election, Axel C. Johnson, ran for re-election
as a write-in candidate after failing to formally file his candidacy
paperwork. Johnson and Llorente, as write-in candidates, both
outpolled the one candidate who did appear on the ballot. Ferguson and
Anderson were both incumbents who launched their write-in campaigns
after being defeated in the primary election. Anderson's main
opponent, Joseph McGill, had himself won election to the House in 1970
against a write-in candidate by only 5 votes.
Carl Hawkinson of
Galesburg, Illinois won the Republican primary for
Illinois Senate from Illinois's 47th District in 1986 as a
write-in candidate. He went on to be elected in the general election
and served until 2003. Hawkinson defeated another write-in, David
Leitch, in the primary. Incumbent State Senator Prescott Bloom died in
a home fire after the filing date for the primary had passed.
Arizona state senator
Don Shooter won the 2010 primary as a write-in
and went on to win the general election.
After failing to receive the Republican Party's 1990 Wilson Pakula
nomination, incumbent and registered Conservative New York State
Serphin Maltese won the party's nomination as a write-in
Charlotte Burks won as a Democratic write-in candidate for the
Tennessee Senate seat left vacant when the incumbent, her husband
Tommy, was assassinated by his opponent, Byron Looper, two weeks
before the elections of November 2, 1998. The assassin was the only
name on the ballot, so Charlotte ran as a write-in candidate.
Winnie Brinks was elected to the
Michigan House of Representatives
Michigan House of Representatives in
2012 after a series of unusual events. In May of that year, State
Representative Roy Schmidt – who had previously filed to run for
re-election as a Democrat – withdrew from the Democratic primary and
re-filed as a Republican. A friend of Schmidt's nephew filed to run as
a Democrat, but withdrew two days later amid anger among local
Democrats. This left Democrats without a candidate. Brinks ran as a
write-in to be the Democratic nominee. She won the primary and was
listed on the ballot in the general election, which she also won.
Coincidentally, the general election also saw a write-in candidate,
Bing Goei, receive significant support.
Scott Wagner was elected as an anti-establishment Republican write-in
candidate to the
Pennsylvania Senate in a March 2014 special election
over endorsed Republican nominee Ron Miller and Democrat Linda
Angela Allen was elected Mayor of
Tar Heel, North Carolina
Tar Heel, North Carolina (population
115) as a write-in candidate in 2003.
Julia Allen of Readington,
New Jersey won a write-in campaign in the
November 2005 elections for the Township Committee, after a
candidate accused of corruption had won the primary.
Tom Ammiano, President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors,
entered the race for Mayor of San Francisco as a write-in candidate
two weeks before the 1999 general election. He received 25% of the
vote, coming in second place and forcing incumbent Mayor Willie Brown
into a runoff election, which Brown won by margin of 59% to 40%. In
2001, the campaign was immortalized in the award-winning documentary
film See How They Run.
John R. Brinkley
John R. Brinkley ran as a write-in candidate for governor of Kansas in
1930. He was motivated at least in part by the state's revocation of
his medical license and attempts to shut down his clinic, where he
performed alternative medical procedures including transplantation of
goat glands into humans. He won 29.5% of the vote in a three-way race.
Brinkley's medical and political career are documented in Pope Brock's
Mike Duggan filed petition to run for mayor of
Detroit in 2013;
however, following a court challenge, Duggan's name was removed from
the ballot. Duggan then campaigned as a write-in in the August 2013
primary, with the intent of being one of the top two vote-getters and
thus advancing to the general election in November. Duggan received
the highest number of votes in the primary, and advanced to the runoff
in November. He eventually defeated challenger Sheriff Benny Napoleon
and became the Mayor of Detroit.
Donna Frye ran as a write-in candidate for Mayor of San Diego in 2004.
A controversy erupted when several thousand votes for her were not
counted because the voters had failed to fill in the bubble next to
the write-in line. Had those votes been counted, she would have won
Michael Jarjura was re-elected Mayor of
Waterbury, Connecticut in 2005
as a write-in candidate after losing the Democratic party primary to
Karen Mulcahy, who used to serve as Waterbury's tax collector before
Jarjura fired her in 2004 "for what he claimed was her rude and
abusive conduct toward citizens". After spending $100,000 on a
general elections write-in campaign, Jarjura received 7,907 votes,
enough for a plurality of 39%.
James Maher won the mayorship of
Baxter Estates, New York
Baxter Estates, New York on March 15,
2005 as a write-in candidate with 29 votes. Being the only one on the
ballot, the incumbent mayor, James Neville, did not campaign, as he
did not realize that there was a write-in campaign going on. Neville
received only 13 votes.
Beverly O'Neil won a third term as Mayor of
Long Beach, California
Long Beach, California as
a write-in candidate in 2002. The Long Beach City City Charter has a
term limit amendment that says a candidate cannot be on the ballot
after two full terms, but does not prevent the person from running as
a write-in candidate. She finished first in a seven-candidate
primary, but did not receive more than 50% of the vote, forcing a
runoff contest. In the runoff, still restricted from the ballot, she
got roughly 47% of the vote in a three-way election that included a
second write-in candidate.
Michael Sessions, an 18-year-old high school senior, won as a write-in
candidate for Mayor of
Hillsdale, Michigan in 2005. He was too young
to qualify for the ballot.
In Galesburg, Illinois, an error by the Galesburg Election
Commission in late 2010 gave city council candidate Chuck Reynolds
the wrong number of signatures he required to be on the ballot for the
April 2011 city council election, resulting in him being removed
from the ballot when challenged by Incumbent Russell Fleming.
Reynolds ran as a write-in vote in the April 2011 election, and
lost by 9 votes.
Anthony A. Williams, then incumbent Mayor of Washington, D.C. was
forced to run as a write-in candidate in the 2002 Democratic primary,
because he had too many invalid signatures for his petition. He won
the Democratic primary, and went on to win re-election.
In the November 8, 2011, election for
Commonwealth's Attorney of
Richmond County, Virginia, 16-year incumbent Wayne Emery has been
certified the winner as a write-in candidate over challenger James
Monroe by a margin of 53 votes (2.4%) out of 2,230 votes cast, after
his petitions were challenged and his name was removed from the
In the 1997 election for Mayor of Talkeetna, Alaska, Stubbs the Cat
won over the two human candidates. He was re-elected every mayoral
election thereafter, and served until his death on July 2,
Aaron Schock was elected to the District 150 School Board in Peoria,
Illinois in 2001 by a write-in vote, after his petitions were
challenged and his name was removed from the ballot. He defeated the
incumbent by over 2,000 votes, approximately 6,400 to 4,300 votes.
He went on to serve in the Illinois House of Representatives, and was
elected to the
United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives in 2008. He was
later forced to resign in an expenses scandal.
John Adams became an
Orange County, California
Orange County, California judge in November 2002
after running along with 10 other write-in candidates in the primaries
on March 5, 2002 against incumbent Judge Ronald Kline. After the
filing deadline in which no candidate filed to run against Kline, a
computer hacker discovered that Judge Kline had child pornography on
his home computer. Kline got less than 50% of the vote in the
primaries, requiring a runoff between him and write-in candidate John
Adams (who actually received more votes than Kline). After some
legal maneuvers, Kline's name was removed from the general elections,
leaving the general election a runoff between Adams and Gay Sandoval,
who was the second highest write-in vote getter. Charges against
Kline were eventually thrown out.
On September 15, 2009, four write-in candidates in the Independence
Party primaries for various offices in Putnam County, New York
defeated their on-ballot opponents.
In a May 2011 school board election for the Bentley School Board in
Michigan, Lisa Osborn ran as a write-in candidate and needed just one
vote to win a seat. However, she did not receive any votes, even from
herself. She explained herself by saying that she was at her son's
baseball game and did not have time to go to the polls.
California's Proposition 14 impact on write-in candidates
In 2010, California voters passed Proposition 14 which set up a new
election system for the United States Senate, United States House of
Representatives, all statewide offices (governor, lieutenant governor,
secretary of state, state treasurer, state controller, attorney
general, insurance commissioner, and superintendent of public
instruction), California Board of Equalization, and for the California
State Legislature. In the system set up by Proposition 14, there are
two rounds of voting, and the top two vote-getters for each race in
the first round (the primary, normally held in June) advance to a
second round (the general election, held in November). Proposition 14
specifically prohibits write-in candidates in the second round, and
this prohibition was upheld in a court challenge. Another court
challenge to the prohibition on write-in candidates in the second
round was filed in July 2014.
Although Proposition 14 prohibits write-in candidates in the second
round of voting, it has made it easier for write-in candidates in the
first round to advance to the second round. This generally happens in
elections where only one candidate is listed on the ballot. Since in
each race the top two vote-getters from the first round are guaranteed
to advance to the second round, if only one candidate is listed on the
ballot, a write-in candidate can easily advance to the second round,
as the write-in candidate would only have to compete with other
write-in candidates for the 2nd spot, not with any listed candidates.
In some jungle primary systems, if the winner in the first round wins
by more than 50% of the vote, then the second (runoff) round gets
cancelled, but in the system set up by Proposition 14, a second
(runoff) round is required regardless of the percent of the vote that
the winner of the first round received. Proposition 14 therefore
guarantees that if one candidate is listed on the ballot in the first
round, a write-in candidate running against the one listed candidate
can earn a spot for the second round with as little as one vote.[n 1]
The first election in which Proposition 14 went into effect was the
Number of write-in candidates who successfully made it to the November
Offices for which write-in candidates successfully made it to the
November general election
General election results for candidates who qualified as write-in
candidates in the primaries
Links to election results
SD03, SD09, SD33, AD15, AD31
CD23, CD44, BOE3, SD16, SD22, SD36, AD5, AD14, AD21, AD31, AD41, AD51,
AD60, AD67, AD75, AD76
CD14, SD33, AD1, AD2, AD7, AD32, AD46, AD49, AD51, AD58, AD62, AD70,
With a few exceptions, the practice of recognizing write-in candidates
is typically viewed internationally as an American tradition.
Several cases of elected write-in candidates occurred in the 2006
Swedish municipal elections. Under Swedish electoral law, free ballots
are provided for any party that received more than 1 percent of the
votes in one of the two latest parliamentary elections, irrespective
of whether the party actually stood any candidates in the
municipality. In some municipalities, voters cast a sufficient number
of ballots for the nationalist
Sweden Democrats to allow them to get a
seat on the municipal council. (The membership of municipal councils
in Sweden is relatively large, with even the smallest municipalities,
numbering just a few thousand inhabitants, required to have a council
of at least 31 members.) In cases where a party did not field any
eligible candidates, people whose names were written in were elected,
though many subsequently resigned their seats. In places where no
candidates were written in, the seats were left vacant.
A bizarre incident involving a fictitious write-in candidacy occurred
in the small town of Picoazá, Ecuador in 1967. A company ran a series
of campaign-themed advertisements for a foot powder called Pulvapies.
Some of the slogans used included "
Vote for any candidate, but if you
want well-being and hygiene, vote for Pulvapies", and "For Mayor:
Honorable Pulvapies". The foot powder Pulvapies ended up receiving the
most votes in the election.
In Brazil, until the introduction of electronic voting in 1994, the
ballot had no names written for legislative candidates, so many voters
would protest by voting on fictional characters or religious figures.
In a famous case, the São Paulo city zoo rhinoceros Cacareco got
around 100,000 votes in the 1959 elections for the municipal council,
more than any candidate. However, those votes were not considered
because Brazilian law stipulates that a candidate must be affiliated
to a political party to take office.
Until 2013, write-in candidates were permitted at municipal
elections in France for councils of communes with a population of less
Mad magazine satirically called to vote for
Alfred E. Neuman
Alfred E. Neuman as a
write-in candidate for every U.S. presidential election from 1960 to
1980 with slogans like "You could do worse–and you already have" and
"There are Bigger Idiots running for office!".
In the 1980 U.S. Presidential election, guitarist
Joe Walsh ran a mock
write-in campaign, promising to make his song "Life's Been Good" the
new national anthem if he won, and running on a platform of "Free Gas
for Everyone." Though Walsh (then aged 33) was not old enough to
actually assume the office, he wanted to raise public awareness of the
election. (In 1992, Walsh purportedly ran for vice-president, in his
Vote For Me", a track on his album Songs for a Dying Planet,
which was released that year.)
During the 2000 United States Congress Elections, film-maker Michael
Moore led a campaign for voters to submit a ficus tree as a write-in
candidate. This campaign was replicated across the country and was
recounted in an episode of The Awful Truth.
In 2012, a campaign was waged to write in
Charles Darwin against
Paul Broun (who was running unopposed) after Broun
"called evolution and other areas of science 'lies straight from the
pit of hell.' " Darwin received approximately 4,000 votes.
However, because Darwin was not registered as an official candidate
(some states require even write-ins to be pre-registered), the Georgia
Secretary of State did not tabulate those votes.
In 2016, several grassroots campaigns to elect Bernie Sanders
President as a write-in candidate were established on social media in
the run-up to the United States presidential election. Though Sanders
continued to campaign for Democrat nominee Hillary Clinton, supporters
pointed to alleged DNC bias in the Democratic Party's presidential
primaries against Sanders, and Clinton's email scandal, and continued
to support him. Both Clinton and
Donald Trump would have had to
win less than the required 270 electoral college votes for Sanders to
have denied either candidate the presidency, and for the election to
be passed to the House of Representatives – thus the initial
write-in campaign around Vermont, offering only three college votes,
was not successful, but Sanders did receive almost six percent of the
vote there. The campaign expanded to include all 12 eligible
states (one of which listed Sanders as an official write-in
candidate), and relied on states such as California, with a high
electoral college vote count and large support for Sanders, to be
successful in denying both Trump and Clinton.
In Ultimate Comics: The Ultimates #15,
Captain America is elected
President of the United States
President of the United States as a write-in candidate.
Nina Dobrev won her People's Choice Award from fan write-ins
Charles R. Doty, a five-time unsuccessful write-in candidate for U.S.
president, appeared on
The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
The Daily Show with Jon Stewart five times.
In the fourth season of Arrow, despite being pressured to pull out of
the Star City mayoral race by Damien Darhk, Oliver Queen still
receives 48% of the votes due to his supporters writing him
In the second season of Metalocalypse,
Dethklok vocalist Nathan
Explosion is elected governor of
Florida in a landslide write-in
victory after the previous governor was murdered by a mob of angry
Dethklok fans for refusing to give Explosion a state holiday.
None of the above
None of these candidates
None of these candidates - Nevada's implementation of the "None of the
above" voting option
^ In the June 2012 election, a write-in candidate running in the 33rd
Senate District won a spot in the runoff race with as few as 3 votes.
See official election results
^ In AD62, two write-in candidates received an equal number of votes
(32), and tied for second place against the first-place finisher,
incumbent Autumn Burke. Therefore, the two write-in candidates
advanced to the general election within one race (see the Los Angeles
Times story dated July 11, 2016 Write-in legislative candidates win
spots on the November ballot, in some cases with only a handful of
votes by John Myers)
^ a b Data is for the 14 distinct races in which the results for the
two write in candidates who advanced in AD62, one of whom received
17.2% and the other received 5.6%, are summed up to 22.8%. When
treating the two candidates in AD62 as distinct candidates and
averaging over 15 candidates, the average goes down to 26.6% and the
min (obviously) drops to 5.6%
^ See, for example, Section 1-4-1101, Colorado Revised Statutes (2008)
^ "NH.gov –
New Hampshire Almanac – First-in-the-Nation –
Highlights". Retrieved April 15, 2016. Johnson was so stunned that he
did not run for reelection.
^ a b Washington Post, "Murkowski appears to make history in Alaska",
Debbi Wilgoren, November 3, 2010 (accessed November 3, 2010)
^ Official election results for the 2010 primaries. Alaska Division of
^ Joling, Dan (October 28, 2010). "
Lisa Murkowski Can Appear On List
Of Write-In Candidates, State Supreme Court Rules". Huffington
^ Bohrer, Becky (November 18, 2010). "Murkowski becomes 1st write-in
senator since '54". Boston Globe. Associated Press.
^ a b c Ken Rudin (August 23, 2006). "What Happens If Lieberman Wins".
National Public Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
^ Johnson, Alan (May 3, 2006). "Wilson wins primary as write-in
candidate". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2006-06-30.
^ "Election Results for the March 2004 Primary" (PDF). California
Secretary of State.
^ "Write-ins give Welch GOP nomination". The Barre Montpelier Times
Agnus. September 18, 2008.
^ "Serphin R. Maltese R-C;". Retrieved April 15, 2016.
Winnie Brinks takes oath of office as Michigan's 76th District
State Representative". MLive.com. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
^ Murphy, Jan (March 18, 2014). "
Scott Wagner makes history with his
win in York County Senate race". PennLive.com. Retrieved March 19,
^ Henderson, Greg Barnes and MarCharia. "Small town has charm of its
^ "2005 General Election results for Hunterdon County".
^ Reprint from The Huntington County News
^ https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/31/books/31maslin.html?_r=0 Fleecing
the Sheep, Who Keep Coming Back for More
^ Abbeylambertz, Kate (August 7, 2013). "Mike Duggan, Write-In
Candidate, Pulls Comeback In
Detroit Mayoral Primary". Huffington
^ Rainey, James (December 25, 2004). "Media's role clouds San Diego
recount". The Boston Globe.
^ "Waterbury mayor to wage write-in campaign".
^ The Waterbury Observer – The Write Stuff
^ News Channel 8 / 2005
Vote Election Results
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