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The World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
(WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948. Its members today include the Assyrian Church of the East, the Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Churches, most jurisdictions of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, the Old Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, most mainline Protestant
Protestant
churches (such as the Lutheran, Mennonite, Methodist, Moravian and Reformed) and some evangelical Protestant
Protestant
churches (such as the Baptist and Pentecostal).[1] Notably, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is not a member, although it sends accredited observers to meetings.[2] The WCC arose out of the ecumenical movement and has as its basis the following statement:

The World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
is a fellowship of churches which confess the Lord Jesus Christ as God and Savior according to the scriptures, and therefore seek to fulfill together their common calling to the glory of the one God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. It is a community of churches on the way to visible unity in one faith and one eucharistic fellowship, expressed in worship and in common life in Christ. It seeks to advance towards this unity, as Jesus prayed for his followers, "so that the world may believe." (John 17:21) [3]

The WCC describes itself as "a worldwide fellowship of 349 global, regional and sub-regional, national and local churches seeking unity, a common witness and Christian service."[4] It is based at the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland.[5] The organization's members include denominations which claim to collectively represent some 590 million people across the world in about 150 countries, including 520,000 local congregations served by 493,000 pastors and priests, in addition to elders, teachers, members of parish councils and others.[6]

Contents

1 History 2 Events and presidents

2.1 Assemblies 2.2 Presidents 2.3 General secretaries

3 Commissions and teams

3.1 Diakonia and development and international relations commissions 3.2 Faith and Order Commission

3.2.1 Texts

3.3 Justice, Peace and Creation Commission 3.4 Relations with the Catholic Church 3.5 Special
Special
Commission on Orthodox Participation in the WCC

4 Peace journalism 5 Spin-offs and related organizations 6 Regional/national councils 7 Criticism

7.1 Alleged neglect of suffering church in Eastern Europe 7.2 Claims of infiltration and influence by the KGB 7.3 Attitude towards Israel 7.4 Opposition to Christian Zionism

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] The Ecumenical Movement met with initial successes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910 (chaired by future WCC Honorary President John R. Mott). In 1920, the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Germanus V of Constantinople, wrote a letter "addressed 'To all the Churches of Christ, wherever they may be', urging closer co-operation among separated Christians, and suggesting a 'League of Churches', parallel to the newly founded League of Nations".[7] Church leaders agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement
Faith and Order Movement
(under Charles Brent
Charles Brent
of the Episcopal Church of the United States) and Life and Work Movement (under Nathan Söderblom
Nathan Söderblom
of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Sweden) organisations. Its official establishment was deferred with the outbreak of World War II until August 23, 1948. Delegates of 147 churches assembled in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to merge the Faith and Order Movement
Faith and Order Movement
and Life and Work Movement.[8] This was consolidated by a second meeting at Lund
Lund
in 1950, for which the British Methodist
Methodist
Robert Newton Flew
Robert Newton Flew
edited an influential volume of studies, The Nature of the Church.[9] Subsequent mergers were with the International Missionary Council in 1961 and the World Council of Christian Education, with its roots in the 18th century Sunday School
Sunday School
movement, in 1971. WCC member churches include most of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox Churches; numerous Protestant
Protestant
churches, including the Anglican Communion, some Baptists, many Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and other Reformed, a sampling of united and independent churches, and some Pentecostal
Pentecostal
churches; and some Old Catholic churches. Many churches who refused to join the WCC joined together to form the World Evangelical Alliance.[10] Delegates sent from the member churches meet every seven or eight years in an Assembly, which elects a Central Committee that governs between Assemblies. A variety of other committees and commissions answer to the Central Committee and its staff. Assemblies have been held since 1948. The "human rights abuses in communist countries evoked grave concern among the leaders of the World Council of Churches."[11] However, historian Christopher Andrew claims that, during the Cold War, a number of important WCC representatives of the Orthodox Church in Eastern Europe had been working for the KGB, and that they influenced the policy of the WCC.[12] From 1955 to 1958, Robert S. Bilheimer co-chaired a WCC international commission to prepare a document addressing the threat of nuclear warfare during the Cold War.[13] At the 1961 conference, a 32-year-old Russian Orthodox Bishop named Aleksey Ridiger was sent as delegate to the assembly, and then appointed to the WCC's central committee. He was later elected as Russian patriarch in 1990 as Alexei II.[14] The ninth assembly took place in Porto Alegre, Brazil
Porto Alegre, Brazil
in February 2006, under the theme "God, in your grace, transform the world".[15] During the first Assemblies, theologians Vasileios Ioannidis and Amilkas Alivizatos contributed significantly to the debates that led to the drafting of the "Toronto Statement", a foundational document which facilitated Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
participation in the organization and today it constitutes its ecclesiological charter.[16] The 10th Assembly was held in Busan, Republic of Korea, from 30 October to 8 November 2013.[17] In 2013 Dr. Agnes Abuom
Agnes Abuom
of Nairobi, from the Anglican Church of Kenya, was elected as moderator of the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches; she is the first woman and the first African to hold this position.[18] Events and presidents[edit] Assemblies[edit] The World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
held 10 Assemblies to date, starting with the founding assembly in 1948:[19]

Amsterdam, Netherlands, 22 August – 4 September 1948 Evanston, Illinois, United States, 15–31 August 1954 New Delhi, India, 19 November – 5 December 1961 Uppsala, Sweden, 4–20 July 1968 Nairobi, Kenya, 23 November – 10 December 1975 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Canada
24 July – 10 August 1983 Canberra, ACT, Australia, 7–21 February 1991[20] Harare, Zimbabwe, 3–14 December 1998 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14–23 February 2006 Busan, South Korea, 30 October – 8 November 2013

Presidents[edit] Presidents of the current 10th Assembly are:[21]

Africa: The Rev. Dr. Mary-Anne Plaatjies van Huffel (Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa) Asia: The Rev. Dr. Chang Sang
Chang Sang
( Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in the Republic of Korea) Europe: Archbishop Anders Wejryd
Anders Wejryd
(Church of Sweden) Latin America and Caribbean: The Rev. Gloria Nohemy Ulloa Alvarado ( Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Colombia) North America: The Rt Revd Mark L. MacDonald (Anglican Church of Canada) Pacific: The Rev. Dr. Mele'ana Puloka (Free Wesleyan Church
Wesleyan Church
of Tonga) Eastern Orthodox: John X of Antioch
John X of Antioch
(Patriarch of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch) Oriental Orthodox: Karekin II
Karekin II
(Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church)

Former presidents of the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
include:

Rev. Martin Niemöller, the famous Protestant
Protestant
anti-Nazi theologian T. C. Chao, Chinese theologian

General secretaries[edit] Since the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
was officially founded in 1948, the following men have served as general secretary:[22]

Years Name Churches Nationality

1948–1966 W. A. Visser 't Hooft Reformed
Reformed
Churches in the Netherlands/Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches, Geneva Netherlands

1966–1972 Eugene Carson Blake United Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church (USA) United States

1972–1984 Philip A. Potter Methodist
Methodist
Church Dominica

1985–1992 Emilio Castro Evangelical Methodist
Methodist
Church of Uruguay Uruguay

1993–2003 Konrad Raiser Evangelical Church in Germany
Evangelical Church in Germany
(EKD) Germany

2004–2009 Samuel Kobia Methodist
Methodist
Church in Kenya Kenya

2010–present Olav Fykse Tveit Church of Norway Norway

Commissions and teams[edit] There are two complementary approaches to ecumenism: dialogue and action. The Faith and Order Movement
Faith and Order Movement
and Life and Work Movement represent these approaches.[23] These approaches are reflected in the work of the WCC in its commissions, these being:

Echos- Commission on Youth (ages 18–30) Commission of the Churches on Diakonia and Development Commission on Education and Ecumenical Formation Commission of the Churches on International Affairs Commission on Justice, Peace and Creation Commission on World Mission and Evangelism Faith and Order Plenary Commission and the Faith and Order Standing Commission Joint Consultative Group with Pentecostals Joint Working Group WCC – Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(Vatican) Reference Group on the Decade to Overcome Violence Reference Group on Inter-Religious Relations Special
Special
Commission on Orthodox Participation in the WCC

Diakonia and development and international relations commissions[edit] The WCC acts through both its member churches and other religious and social organizations to coordinate ecumenical, evangelical, and social action. Current WCC programs include a Decade to Overcome Violence, an international campaign to combat AIDS/HIV in Africa
Africa
and the Justice, Peace and Creation initiative. Faith and Order Commission[edit] Main article: Faith and Order Commission WCC's Faith and Order Commission has been successful in working toward consensus on Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry, on the date of Easter, on the nature and purpose of the church (ecclesiology), and on ecumenical hermeneutics. Texts[edit]

Baptism, Eucharist
Eucharist
and Ministry (Faith and Order Paper No. 111, the “Lima Text”; 1982) [24] The Churchː Towards a Common Vision (Faith and Order Paper no. 214; 2013 [25]) after The Nature and Mission of the Church – A Stage on the Way to a Common Statement (Faith and Order Paper no. 198; 2005 [26]) and The Nature and Purpose of the Church (Faith and Order Paper no. 181; 1998 [27]) Towards a Common Date of Easter
Easter
[28]

Justice, Peace and Creation Commission[edit] Justice, Peace and Creation has drawn many elements together with an environmental focus. Its mandate is:

To analyze and reflect on justice, peace and creation in their interrelatedness, to promote values and practices that make for a culture of peace, and to work towards a culture of solidarity with young people, women, Indigenous Peoples and racially and ethnically oppressed people.[29]

Focal issues have been globalization and the emergence of new social movements (in terms of people bonding together in the struggle for justice, peace, and the protection of creation).[30] Attention has been given to issues around:

economy[31] environment[32] Indigenous Peoples[33] peace[34] people with disabilities [35] racism [36] women[37] youth[38]

Relations with the Catholic Church[edit] The largest Christian body, the Catholic Church, is not a member of the WCC, but has worked closely with the Council for more than three decades and sends observers to all major WCC conferences as well as to its Central Committee meetings and the Assemblies (cf. Joint Working Group). The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity also nominates 12 members to the WCC's Faith and Order Commission as full members. While not a member of the WCC, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is a member of some other ecumenical bodies at regional and national levels, for example, the National Council of Churches
National Council of Churches
in Australia
Australia
and the National Council of Christian Churches in Brazil
Brazil
(CONIC). Special
Special
Commission on Orthodox Participation in the WCC[edit] A Special
Special
Commission was set up by the eighth Harare
Harare
Assembly in December 1998 to address Orthodox concerns about WCC membership and the Council's decision-making style, public statements, worship practices, and other issues. It issued its final report in 2006.[39] Specific issues that it clarified were that the WCC does not formulate doctrine, does not have authority to rule on moral issues, nor does it have any ecclesiastical authority. Such authority is entirely internal to each individual member church. It proposed that the WCC adopt a consensus method of decision making. It proposed that Orthodox members be brought in parity with non-Orthodox members. It further proposed clarification that inter-confessional prayer at WCC events is not worship, particularly "it should avoid giving the impression of being the worship of a church", and confessional and inter-confessional prayer each be specifically identified as such at WCC events. It also clarified that the so-called "Lima Liturgy" is not an interfaith eucharistic service: 'the WCC is not 'hosting' a eucharist'. Peace journalism[edit] The WCC is also a prominent supporter and practitioning body for Peace journalism: journalism practice that aims to avoid a value bias in favor of violence that often characterizes coverage of conflict.[40] Spin-offs and related organizations[edit] The ACT Alliance, bringing together over 100 church-backed relief and development organizations worldwide, was born out of the merger of ACT International (Action by Churches Together International) and ACT Development (Action by Churches Together for Development) in March 2010. Both ACT International, established in 1995, and ACT Development (2007) were created through the leadership of the World Council of Churches (WCC). The two bodies coordinated the work of agencies related to the member churches of the WCC and the Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation in the areas of humanitarian emergencies and poverty reduction respectively.[41] The Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance was officially founded in December 2000 at a meeting convened by the WCC. There are currently 73 churches and Christian organizations that are members of the Alliance, from Catholic, Evangelical, Orthodox and Protestant
Protestant
traditions. These members, representing a combined constituency of tens of millions of people around the world, are committed to working together in public witness and action for justice on defined issues of common concern. Current campaigns are on Food and on HIV and AIDS.[42] The Ecumenical Church Loan Fund (ECLOF) was founded in 1946 as one of the world's first international micro-credit institutions in the service of the poor. Willem Visser 't Hooft, then general secretary of the "WCC in process of formation" played an important role in founding ECLOF. It was he who sketched the prospects and challenges for the proposed institution and gave specific ideas on potential sources of funds. His inspiration and teamwork marked the beginning of a long and fruitful cooperation between ECLOF and the WCC.[43] The Ecumenical Development Cooperative Society U.A (now known as Oikocredit) was developed from discussions at the 1968 Uppsala
Uppsala
4th Assembly, regarding church divestment from financial institutions supporting apartheid-era South Africa
Africa
and the war in Vietnam. After several years of planning, the cooperative society was founded in 1975 in the Netherlands
Netherlands
to provide an alternative ethical investment vehicle to church institutions, by providing credit to productive enterprises serving economically disadvantaged populations. Originally organized for large institutional members of the WCC, by 1976 local congregations developed Support Associations to enable congregations as well as individuals to participate. EDCS became independent from the WCC in 1977.[44] Ecumenical News International (ENI) was launched in 1994 as a global news service reporting on ecumenical developments and other news of the churches, and giving religious perspectives on news developments worldwide. The joint sponsors of ENI, which was based at the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland, are the World Council of Churches, the Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation, the World Alliance of Reformed
Reformed
Churches, and the Conference of European Churches, which also have their headquarters at the Ecumenical Centre.[45] A shortage of funds led to the suspension of the work of ENI in 2012[46] As of 2015 ENI remains closed. Regional/national councils[edit] The WCC has not sought the organic union of different Christian denominations, but it has, however, facilitated dialogue and supported local, national, and regional dialogue and cooperation. Membership in a regional or national council does not mean that the particular group is also a member of the WCC.

Africa
Africa
– All Africa
Africa
Conference of Churches [47]

Organization of African Instituted Churches[48]

Asia (including Australia
Australia
and New Zealand) – Christian Conference of Asia (CCA),[49] Hong Kong

National Council of Churches
National Council of Churches
in Australia National Council of Churches
National Council of Churches
in the Philippines

Caribbean – Caribbean Conference of Churches Europe – Conference of European Churches,[50] Geneva, Switzerland Latin America – Latin American Council of Churches [51] Middle East – Middle East Council of Churches [52] North America

Canadian Council of Churches National Council of the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in the USA

Pacific – Pacific Conference of Churches,[53] Suva, Fiji

Criticism[edit] Alleged neglect of suffering church in Eastern Europe[edit] The US State Department alleged that the KGB's influence directly, or through lobbying by means of a front organization, the Christian Peace Conference, resulted in the WCC's failure to recognize or act on calls for help from persecuted East European Christians at the 1983 Vancouver General Assembly.[54][55]:647–8 Claims of infiltration and influence by the KGB[edit] It is claimed the KGB
KGB
has infiltrated and influenced past WCC councils and policy.[12] In 1992, Father Gleb Yakunin, a vice Chairman of a Russian parliamentary commission that investigated the activities of the KGB, citing verbatim KGB
KGB
reports, claimed that its Fifth Directorate was actively involved in influencing WCC policy from 1967 to 1989.[54][56] For example, in the 1983 WCC General Assembly in Vancouver, one cited document described the presence and activities of 47 KGB
KGB
agents to secure the election of an "acceptable" candidate as General Secretary.[56][57] The Mitrokhin Archive reveals more about the depth of the penetration and influence wielded by the KGB
KGB
over the WCC.[55] Metropolitan Nikidim was a KGB
KGB
agent, codenamed ADAMANT, who served as one of six WCC Presidents from 1975 until his death.[55]:729[58] His earlier intervention had resulted in the WCC making no comment on the invasion of Czechoslovakia.[55]:636 As a result of his influence and that of other agents, it is claimed the USSR was rarely publicly criticised.[55]:637 In 1989, copies of the KGB
KGB
documents claim "the WCC executive and central committee adopted public statements (eight) and messages (three)" which corresponded to its own political direction.[55]:637 Appeals from suffering dissidents both from within the Russian Orthodox Church and Protestants were ignored in 1983.[55]:647–8 Metropolitan Aleksi Ridiger of Tallinn and Estonia was repeatedly alleged to be a KGB
KGB
agent codenamed DROZDOV, who in 1988 was awarded an honorary citation for services to the KGB
KGB
by its chairman.[55]:650[59][60] Despite official disavowals, The Guardian
The Guardian
described the evidence as "compelling".[61] In 1990 he became Aleksi II, the 15th Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. Upon his death in 2008, the WCC's official tribute, by its Council officers, described him as "courageous", "supportive and constructive" and the recipient of "abundant blessing", no reference was made to the allegations.[62][63] Attitude towards Israel[edit] The World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
has been described as taking an adversarial position toward the state of Israel.[64] It has also been claimed the council has focused particularly on activities and publications criticizing Israel in comparison with other human rights issues.[65][66] Because the WCC never opposed or had any official comments on the destruction of Jewish religious sites in the Middle East, but has constantly complained about Israel's alleged crimes towards Christian sites in Israel, Israel has pointedly ignored the WCC for 50 years and often stated that the WCC's opinions on Israel are hypocritical to the point of being bankrupt. It is similarly claimed that it downplayed appeals from Egyptian Copts about human rights abuses under Sadat and Mubarak, in order to focus on its neighbour.[64] In 2009, the Council called for an international boycott on goods produced in Israeli settlements, which it described as 'illegal, unjust' and 'incompatible with peace'.[67] In 2013, the General Secretary was reported to claim in Cairo, "We support the Palestinians. The WCC supports the Palestinians, because they are in the right."[68] The WCC's Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI) has been criticised by the Board of Deputies of British Jews for promoting "an inflammatory and partisan programme at the expense of its interfaith relations".[69] The WCC secretariat was involved in preparing and helped disseminate the Kairos Palestine Document, which declares “the Israeli occupation of Palestinian land is a sin against God and humanity because it deprives the Palestinians of their basic human rights”, and in the view of one critic, its "authors want to see a single state ".[70] On the other hand, the WCC claims "Antisemitism is sin against God and man".[71] Opposition to Christian Zionism[edit] Christian Zionism, which has long represented a substantial proportion of historic and contemporary Protestants,[72][73] is characterised as a view which "distort(s) the interpretation of the Word of God" and "damage(s) intra-Christian relations".[74]

In this context, what is a source of concern is that Islamic fundamentalisms are giving rise to a counter reaction of other religious fundamentalisms, the most dangerous of which is Jewish fundamentalism which exploits the Islamic fundamentalist phenomenon to justify before western societies the distasteful aberrations of Zionism in Palestine. — WCC working paper, Lebanon, May 2013 [75]

See also[edit]

Christian denominations in English-speaking world

International associations Interdenominational associations

World Council of Churches World Evangelical Alliance

Denominational associations

Friends World Committee for Consultation Mennonite
Mennonite
World Conference Anglican Communion Baptist World Alliance World Convention of Churches of Christ Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Confessional Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Conference International Lutheran
Lutheran
Council Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation World Methodist
Methodist
Council Pentecostal
Pentecostal
World Conference International Conference of Reformed
Reformed
Churches Reformed
Reformed
Ecumenical Council World Communion of Reformed
Reformed
Churches World Reformed
Reformed
Fellowship

Regional associations

Africa

All Africa
Africa
Conference of Churches (AACC) Association of Evangelicals of Africa
Africa
(AEA) All Africa
Africa
Baptist Fellowship Africa
Africa
Lutheran
Lutheran
Communion

Asia

Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) Evangelical Fellowship of Asia Asia Pacific Baptist Federation Asia Lutheran
Lutheran
Communion

Caribbean

Caribbean Conference of Churches (CCC) Evangelical Association of the Caribbean Caribbean Baptist Fellowship

Europe

Conference of European Churches (CEC) European Evangelical Alliance European Baptist Federation Pentecostal
Pentecostal
European Fellowship

Middle East

Middle East Council of Churches (MECC)

Latin America

Latin American Council of Churches (CLAI) Latin American Evangelical Fellowship (FIDE) Union of Baptists
Baptists
in Latin America

North America

North American Baptist Fellowship Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America North American Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Council

Pacific

Pacific Conference of Churches
Pacific Conference of Churches
(PCC) Evangelical Fellowship of the South Pacific (EFSP) Asia Pacific Baptist Federation

Australia

Christian denominations in Australia

Australian interchurch

Australian Evangelical Alliance
Evangelical Alliance
 • website National Council of Churches

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church of Australia Roman Catholic Church

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance Christian Outreach Centre Church of the Nazarene Salvation Army Seventh-day Adventist Church

Historical Protestantism

Australian Friends Australian Baptist Ministries Open Brethren

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Churches of Australia

Churches of Christ Fellowship of Congregational Churches Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Australia Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Australia Uniting Church in Australia Wesleyan Methodist
Methodist
Church of Australia

Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox of Australia
Australia
and New Z. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia Serbian Orthodox of Australia
Australia
and New Z.

Non-Chalcedonic

Coptic Orthodox Church in Australia

Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and related

Australian Christian Churches
Australian Christian Churches
(AOG) Christian City Church Intl. CRC Churches International Revival Centres International Vineyard Churches Australia Worldwide Church of God

Other

LDS Church

v t e

Canada

Canadian Christian bodies

v t e

Canadian interchurch

Canadian Council of Churches Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of North and Central America North Am. Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Council

Anabaptist
Anabaptist
and Friends

Canadian Mennonite
Mennonite
Brethren Churches Canadian Yearly Meeting (Quakers) Mennonite
Mennonite
Church Canada

Baptist and Stone-Campbell

Baptist

Association of Regular Baptist Churches Baptist General Conference of Canada Canadian Baptist Ministries Canadian Convention of Southern Baptists Fellowship of Evgcl. Baptist Churches, Canada North American Baptist Conference

Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Evangelical Christian Church in Canada

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church of Canada Anglican Church in North America Polish National Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Winnipeg

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance, Canada Church of the Nazarene Evangelical Free Church of Canada The Salvation Army Wesleyan Church

Lutheran

Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Canada Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Canada Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod

Methodist

British Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church Free Methodist
Methodist
Church in Canada United Church of Canada

Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox

Eastern Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese, N.Am. Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Toronto (Canada) Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Canada Orthodox Church in America American-Canadian Macedonian Orthodox Diocese Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Apostolic Diocese of Am. Coptic Orthodox Church in Canada

Syncretic

Evangelical Orthodox Church

Pentecostal

Apostolic Church of Pentecost Canadian Assemblies of God Church of God of Prophecy Intl. Foursquare Gospel, Canada Intl. Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Holiness Church Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Assemblies of Canada Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church of God

Oneness Pentecostal

United Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Intl.

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Canadian and American Reformed
Reformed
Churches Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church in North America L'Église réformée du Québec Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Canada Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America Reformed
Reformed
Church in America United Church of Canada

Other

Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Plymouth Brethren Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
in Canada LDS Church Vineyard Canada Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Canada

Syncretic

Evangelical Orthodox Church

Ireland

Irish Christian bodies

v t e

Irish interchurch

Irish Council of Churches Churches Together in Britain and Ireland Evangelical Alliance, UK

Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
(Anglican) Association of Baptist Churches Roman Catholicism Assemblies of God Elim Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Ireland

Nigeria

Christian denominations in Nigeria

Nigerian interchurch

Christian Association of Nigeria Fellowship of Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Nigeria

African initiated

Cherubim and Seraphim Society Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Church of God Mission International Church of the Lord (Aladura)

Anglican

The African Church Church of Nigeria

Baptist, Anabaptist, DC

Church of the Brethren
Church of the Brethren
in Nigeria Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Nigeria Mambila Baptist Convention of Nigeria Nigerian Baptist Convention

Catholic

Roman Catholic Church

Holiness and Methodist

African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church in Nigeria Deeper Christian Life Ministry Redeemed Christian Church of God United Methodist
Methodist
Church of Nigeria

Lutheran

Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Christ in Nigeria Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Nigeria

Pentecostal

The Apostolic Church Nigeria Christ Apostolic Church General Council of the Assemblies of God Nigeria Gospel Faith Mission International Church of the Foursquare Gospel The Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement New Apostolic Church in Nigeria Winners' Chapel

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church of Nigeria Church of Christ in Nigeria Church of Christ in the Sudan Among the Tiv Evangelical Reformed
Reformed
Church of Christ N.K.S.T Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Nigeria Reformed
Reformed
Church of Christ in Nigeria

Other Protestant

Evangelical Church of West Africa QIC-United Evangelical Church Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
in Nigeria Word of Faith Ministries

v t e

South Africa

Christian denominations in South Africa

South African interchurch

South African Council of Churches

Catholic and Anglican

Anglican Church Reformed
Reformed
Evangelical Anglican Church Roman Catholicism

Holiness and AIC

Die Heilsleër Zion Christian Church

Pentecostal

Apostolic Faith Mission [Assemblies of God]

Protestantism, Other

Baptist Union Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church LDS Church Methodist
Methodist
Church

Reformed

Dutch Reformed: NGK Dutch Reformed: NHK Evangelical Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Africa Reformed
Reformed
Church in Africa Reformed
Reformed
Churches: GKSA United Congregational Church Uniting Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Uniting Reformed
Reformed
Church

v t e

United Kingdom

Christian denominations in the United Kingdom

v t e

UK interchurch

Affinity (formerly British Evangelical Council) Churches Together in Britain and Ireland Evangelical Alliance, UK Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches

Churches Together in England

Action of Churches Together, Scotland (ACTS) Churches Together in Wales Evangelical Movement of Wales

Anglican

Church of England Church of Ireland Scottish Episcopal Church Church in Wales

Baptist

Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland Baptist Union of Great Britain Baptist Union of Scotland Baptist Union of Wales

Catholic

Roman Catholicism

Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in England and Wales Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in Ireland Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in Scotland

Holiness and Pietist

Church of the Nazarene Salvation Army Seventh-day Adventist Church Wesleyan Holiness Church

Lutheran

Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Great Britain

Methodist
Methodist
and Wesleyan

Methodist
Methodist
Church of Great Britain Methodist
Methodist
Church in Ireland

New Church Movement

Newfrontiers Pioneer Church

Orthodox

Greek Orthodox of G.B. (Eastern Orthodox)

Pentecostal

Assemblies of God Church of God in Christ Elim Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Asso. Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Churches, Scotland Church of Scotland Congregational Federation Evangelical Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Ireland Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of Wales United Free Church of Scotland United Reformed
Reformed
Church

Other

Newfrontiers LDS Church in England

United States

Christian denominations in the U.S.

U.S. interchurch

National Association of Evangelicals National Council of Churches Churches Uniting in Christ

Anabaptist
Anabaptist
and Friends

Church of the Brethren Mennonite
Mennonite
Church USA Amish

Anglican

Anglican Church in North America Episcopal Church

Baptist

Alliance of Baptists American Baptist Association American Baptist Churches Baptist Bible Fellowship International Baptist Missionary Association of America Conservative Baptist Association of America Converge General Association of Regular Baptist Churches National Association of Free Will Baptists National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A. North American Baptist Conference Southern Baptist Convention Independent Baptist Churches

African-American Baptist

National Baptist Convention of America National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. National Missionary Baptist Convention of America Progressive National Baptist Convention

Catholic

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the United States

Eastern Christian Eastern Orthodox

Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America Orthodox Church in America Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
in USA

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
in USA Coptic Orthodox Church in USA Syriac Orthodox Church

Holiness and Pietist

Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) Evangelical Covenant Church Evangelical Free Church of America Church of the Nazarene The Salvation Army Seventh-day Adventist Church Wesleyan Church

Lutheran

Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Missouri Synod North American Lutheran
Lutheran
Church Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod

Methodist

African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church African Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Zion Church Christian Methodist
Methodist
Episcopal Church Free Methodist
Methodist
Church United Methodist
Methodist
Church

Pentecostal

Assemblies of God Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) Church of God in Christ Church of God of Prophecy Church on the Rock International Full Gospel Fellowship International Church of the Foursquare Gospel International Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Holiness Church Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church of God

Oneness Pentecostal

Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Assemblies of the World United Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Church Intl.

Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed

Christian Reformed
Reformed
Church in North America Conservative Congregational Christian Conference Cumberland Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Evangelical Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Korean Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America International Council of Community Churches National Association of Congregational Christian Churches Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church (USA) Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in America Reformed
Reformed
Church in America United Church of Christ

Stone-Campbell

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Christian churches and churches of Christ Churches of Christ International Churches of Christ

Other

LDS Church Community of Christ Grace Gospel Fellowship IFCA International Jehovah's Witnesses Messianic Jewish Alliance of America Plymouth Brethren Vineyard USA

v t e

v t e

John R. Mott John Romanides Joseph Oldham Nathan Soderblom Charles Henry Brent Christian ecumenism Conference of Secretaries of World Christian Communions Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians World Summit of Religious Leaders Programme to Combat Racism Authorship of the Bible List of the largest Protestant
Protestant
bodies

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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— World Council of Churches. Oikoumene.org (2013-08-04). Retrieved on 2013-08-09. ^ "Who are we?". World Council of Churches. 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-10.  ^ Ware, Kallistos (29 April 1993). The Orthodox Church. Penguin Adult. p. 322. ISBN 9780140146561. From the beginning of the twentieth century the Ecumenical Patriarchate has shown a special concern for Christian reconciliation. At his accession in 1902, Patriarch Joachim III sent an encyclical letter to all the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches, asking in particular for their opinion on relations with other Christian bodies. In January 1920 the Ecumenical Patriarchate followed this up with a bold and prophetic letter addressed 'To all the Churches of Christ, wherever they may be', urging closer co-operation among separated Christians, and suggesting a 'League of Churches', parallel to the newly founded League of Nations. Many of the ideas in this letter anticipate subsequent developments in the WCC. Constantinople, along with several of the other Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
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(14 February 2006). "Final report of the Special
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Sources[edit]

World Council of Churches. Members by country and by church Retrieved 2010-03-31.

Further reading[edit]

W. A. Visser 't Hooft, The Genesis of the World Council of Churches, in: A History of The Ecumenical Movement 1517–1948, R. Rose, S. Ch. Neill (ed.), London: SPCK 1967, second edition with revised bibliography, pp. 697–724.

External links[edit]

Offi

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