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(i)

A WORK-AT-HOME SCHEME is a get-rich-quick scam in which a victim is lured by an offer to be employed at home, very often doing some simple task in a minimal amount of time with a large amount of income that far exceeds the market rate for the type of work. The true purpose of such an offer is for the perpetrator to extort money from the victim, either by charging a fee to join the scheme, or requiring the victim to invest in products whose resale value is misrepresented.

Work-at-home schemes have been around for decades, with the classic "envelope stuffing" scam originating in the United States during the Depression in the 1920s and 1930s. In this scam, the worker is offered entry to a scheme where they can earn $2 for every envelope they fill. After paying a small $2 fee to join the scheme, the victim is sent a flyer template for the self-same work-from-home scheme, and instructed to post these advertisements around their local area – the victim is simply "stuffing envelopes" with flyer templates that perpetuate the scheme. Originally found as printed adverts in newspapers and magazines , variants of this scam have expanded into more modern media, such as television and radio adverts, and forum posts on the Internet
Internet
.

In some countries, law enforcement agencies work to fight work-at-home schemes. In 2006, the United States Federal Trade Commission established Project False Hopes , a federal and state law enforcement sweep that targets bogus business opportunity and work at home scams. The crackdown involved more than 100 law enforcement actions by the FTC, the Department of Justice, the United States Postal Inspection Service , and law enforcement agencies in eleven states.

Legitimate work-at-home opportunities do exist, and many people do their jobs in the comfort of their own homes, but anyone seeking such an employment opportunity should be wary of accepting a home employment offer. A 2007 report in the United States suggested that about 97% of work-at-home offers were scams. Many legitimate jobs at home require some form of post-high-school education, such as a college degree or certificate, or trade school , and some experience in the field in an office or other supervised setting. Additionally, many legitimate at-home jobs are not like those in schemes are portrayed to be, as they are often performed at least some of the time in the company's office, require more self discipline than a traditional job, and have a higher risk of firing .

CONTENTS

* 1 Types of work * 2 Signs of a scam * 3 Consequences * 4 References

TYPES OF WORK

Common types of work found in work-at-home schemes include:

* Stuffing envelopes. The victim sees a flyer advertising a job stuffing envelopes, with "up to 1,000 envelopes a week that you can stuff... with postage and address already affixed!", offering a payment of $1–2 per envelope. To apply for the job, the victim is required to send a self-addressed stamped envelope for information and a small processing fee. In return, the victim is sent a template for the flyer they had originally seen; the envelopes they stuff are from other people who answer the flyer, and the payment is the processing fee. * Assembly of items of some type, such as crafts , jewellery or medical equipment. The worker is required to pay up front for materials and construction kits, and when they attempt to sell the finished products back to the scheme's organiser, they are told that the products "don't meet our specifications", leaving the worker with assembled products and no buyer. * Processing medical claims. The worker pays several hundred dollars for medical billing software, but will later discover that most medical clinics process their own bills, outsource their billing to established firms rather than individuals, or have stricter requirements than the purchased software can provide. * Forum spamming . Usually advertised as some variant of "email processing", the worker is simply given instructions on spamming online forums, and told they can make money by selling these same instructions online. * Sales of a product or service that is difficult or impossible to sell. This is often done in the form of a pyramid scheme .

Some adverts offer legitimate forms of work that really do exist, but exaggerate the salary and understate the effort that will have to be put into the job, or exaggerate the amount of work that will be available. Many such ads do not even specify the type of work that will be performed. Some similar schemes do not advertise work that would be performed at home, but may instead offer occasional, sporadic work away from home for large payments, paired with a lot of free time. Some common offers fitting this description are acting as extras , mystery shopping (which in reality requires hard work, is paid close to minimum wage, and most importantly, does not require an up-front fee to join) and working as a nanny .

SIGNS OF A SCAM

Signs of a work-at-home scam versus a legitimate job may include:

* Payment of fee is required prior to starting employment. In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
states that under no circumstances should anyone be forced to pay a fee in order to obtain a job. In many countries, no legitimate employer will require a fee be paid as a condition of starting work (except perhaps a small amount for a criminal background check ). * Pay is too good to be true. Though there may be legitimate jobs in existence in which employees are paid to perform the particular task in question, even from home, in reality, they would be paid a wage that is fair for that type of work and level of education, not the $40 per hour or $3000 per week that is typically offered in a work-at-home scheme. * Employer
Employer
will seemingly hire anyone, with no experience necessary and no qualifications. Legitimate work-at-home employers will only be interested in those who have the proper experience, skills, certification, and other qualifying factors, and will give at least some scrutiny to an applicant seeking employment. But the perpetrator of a work-at-home scheme is only interested in the payment required to join. * Company is little known, and does not seemingly have a customer base bringing them revenue from which they can pay employees. * Company name is similar to, but not exactly the same as a well known, legitimate company. * Company does not appear to have a permanent location. Its address, phone number, and website appear to be centered on recruitment of employees, not customers. * Company tries to show unnatural benefits of working in a very short period of time. * Company repeatedly tries to make contact until the victim replies. * Fake news stories and Web sites.

CONSEQUENCES

The consequences of falling for a work-at-home scheme may be as follows:

* Loss of money: It may be only the initial fee to join, which may be a large or small amount. Some scammers will run after receiving just this fee. Others will continue to ask for more in order for the promise of high pay to be fulfilled. Some will act on a two-way street, actually issuing paychecks, all the while receiving payments of greater value in return, which in some cases have exceeded tens of thousands of US dollars. In other cases, the employer may obtain the victim's personal information for purposes of identity theft . * Loss of legitimate job: Those with a real job may quit in hopes of a better one, only to find they cannot get their original job back after they discover their dream job was only a hoax . * Damaged reputation: Those who engage in sales of a faulty or otherwise controversial product may be tarnishing their own name as the salesperson of such a worthless item. * Trouble with law: Some victims may actually receive money. But at the same time, they may be unknowingly breaking the law, on behalf of the perpetrator of the scheme, but will be fully legally responsible. Such violations may be criminal or civil in nature. In other cases, they will not be committing any criminal acts, but they will end up framed in an investigation for the crimes of the perpetrator. * Wasted time: Victims will often invest huge amounts of time with no pay in return. This is time that can be spent earning money at a legitimate job. * Victim's contact information is sold to other scammers, who then contact the victim with new scams.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Federal Trade Commission. "Federal, State Law Enforcers Complete Bogus Business Opportunity Sweep". ftc.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-02. * ^ A B C D E F G "Top 10 Work At Home and Home Based Business Scams". Retrieved 8 December 2010. * ^ "Working From Home: Don\'t Get Scammed". ABC: Good Morning America. 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2009-07-03. * ^ "Police issue warning over horror film extras scam". The Guardian. July 11, 2012. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015. * ^ "Mystery Shopping in Australia". Finance Informer. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015. * ^ " Nanny
Nanny
Scams". About.com. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015. * ^ Sid Kirchheimer (2011-04-20). "Fake News Websites Pitch Get-Rich-Quick Schemes". AARP. * ^ "Work-at-Home Schemes". Bbb.org. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-04.

* v * t * e

Employment
Employment

CLASSIFICATIONS

* Casual * Contingent * Full-time * Part-time * Self-employed * Skilled * Independent contractor
Independent contractor
* Temporary * Tenure * Unskilled * Wage labour

HIRING

* Application * Background check * Business networking * Contract * Cover letter * Curriculum Vitae (CV) * Drug testing * e-recruitment * Employment
Employment
counsellor * Executive search * Induction programme * Job fair
Job fair
* Job fraud * Job hunting
Job hunting
* Job interview
Job interview
* Labour brokering * Overqualification * Onboarding
Onboarding
* Personality-job fit theory * Person-environment fit * Probation * Reference * Résumé
Résumé
* Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates * Underemployment
Underemployment
* Work-at-home scheme

ROLES

* Co-op * Employee
Employee
* Employer
Employer
* Internship * Job * Permanent * Permatemp * Supervisor
Supervisor
* Volunteer

WORKER CLASS

* Blue-collar * Gold-collar * Green-collar * Grey-collar * Pink-collar * White-collar

CAREER AND TRAINING

* Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship
* Avocation
Avocation
* Career assessment * Career counseling * Career development * Coaching * Creative class

* Education
Education

* Continuing education * Continuing professional development * E-learning
E-learning
* Employability * Further education * Graduate school
Graduate school
* Induction training * Initial Professional Development * Knowledge worker
Knowledge worker
* Licensure * Lifelong learning * Practice-based professional learning * Professional association * Professional certification * Professional development * Professional school * Reflective practice
Reflective practice
* Retraining
Retraining
* Vocational education
Vocational education
* Vocational school
Vocational school
* Vocational university
Vocational university

* Mentorship
Mentorship
* Occupational Outlook Handbook * Practice firm * Profession
Profession
* Tradesman
Tradesman
* Vocation

ATTENDANCE

* Break * Career break * Furlough * Gap year * Leave of absence * Long service leave * No call, no show * Sabbatical * Sick leave * Time clock
Time clock

SCHEDULES

* Four-day week * Eight-hour day
Eight-hour day
* Flextime * Overtime * Retroactive overtime * Shift work
Shift work
* Telecommuting * Working time
Working time
* Workweek and weekend

WAGES AND SALARIES

* Income bracket * Income tax
Income tax
* Living wage * Maximum wage

* National average salary

* World * Europe

* Minimum wage
Minimum wage

* Canada * Hong Kong * Europe * United States

* Progressive wage

* Singapore

* Overtime rate * Paid time off * Performance-related pay * Salary
Salary
* Salary
Salary
cap * Working poor

BENEFITS

* Annual leave * Casual Friday * Day care
Day care
* Disability insurance * Health insurance
Health insurance
* Life insurance
Life insurance
* Parental leave
Parental leave
* Pension
Pension
* Sick leave * Take-home vehicle
Take-home vehicle

SAFETY AND HEALTH

* Epilepsy and employment * Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
* Industrial noise
Industrial noise
* Protective clothing * Occupational burnout * Occupational disease * Occupational exposure limit
Occupational exposure limit
* Occupational health psychology * Occupational injury
Occupational injury
* Occupational stress
Occupational stress
* Repetitive strain injury
Repetitive strain injury
* Sick building syndrome

* Work accident
Work accident

* Occupational fatality

* Workers\' compensation * Workplace phobia * Workplace wellness

EQUALITY

* Affirmative action * Equal pay for women

INFRACTIONS

* Corporate abuse

* Accounting scandals * Corporate behaviour * Corporate crime
Corporate crime
* Control fraud * Corporate scandals

* Discrimination * Dress code
Dress code
* Employee
Employee
handbook * Employee
Employee
monitoring * Evaluation * Labour law
Labour law
* Sexual harassment
Sexual harassment
* Sleeping while on duty * Wage
Wage
theft * Whistleblower * Workplace bullying * Workplace harassment * Workplace incivility

WILLINGNESS

* Civil conscription * Conscription
Conscription
* Dead-end job * Extreme careerism * Job satisfaction * Organizational commitment * McJob * Refusal of work
Refusal of work

* Slavery
Slavery

* Bonded labour * Human trafficking
Human trafficking
* Labour camp * Penal labour
Penal labour
* Peonage * Truck system * Unfree labour
Unfree labour
* Wage
Wage
slavery

* Workaholic
Workaholic
* Work aversion * Work ethic
Work ethic

* Work–life balance

* Downshifting * Slow living

TERMINATION

* At-will employment
At-will employment

* Dismissal

* Banishment room * Constructive dismissal * Wrongful dismissal

* Employee
Employee
exit management * Exit interview * Layoff * Notice period * Pink slip

* Resignation
Resignation

* Letter of resignation

* Restructuring

* Retirement
Retirement

* Mandatory retirement * Retirement
Retirement
age

* Severance package

* Golden handshake * Golden parachute

* Turnover

UNEMPLOYMENT

* Barriers to Employment
Employment

* Depression

* Great Depression
Great Depression
* Long Depression
Long Depression

* Discouraged worker * Frictional unemployment
Frictional unemployment
* Full employment
Full employment
* Graduate unemployment * Involuntary unemployment
Involuntary unemployment
* Jobless recovery
Jobless recovery
* Phillips curve
Phillips curve

* Recession
Recession

* Great Recession
Recession
* Great Recession
Recession
job losses * List of recessions * Recession-proof job

* Reserve army of labour
Reserve army of labour
* Types of unemployment
Types of unemployment
* Unemployment
Unemployment
Convention * Unemployment
Unemployment
benefits * Unemployment
Unemployment
extension * Unemployment
Unemployment
insurance

* Unemployment
Unemployment
rates

* Employment
Employment
rates * Employment-to-population ratio
Employment-to-population ratio

* Structural unemployment * Technological unemployment
Technological unemployment
* Wage
Wage
curve * Youth unemployment
Youth unemployment

See also templates

* Aspects of corporations * Aspects of jobs * Aspects of occupations * Aspects of organizations * Aspects of workplaces * Corporate titles * Organized labor

* v * t * e

Scams and confidence tricks

TERMINOLOGY

* Confidence trick
Confidence trick
* Error account * Shill
Shill
* Shyster * Sucker list

Notable scams and confidence tricks

* Advance-fee scam
Advance-fee scam
* Art student scam * Badger game * Bait-and-switch * Black money scam * Blessing scam * Bogus escrow * Boiler room * Bride scam * Bullet-planting scheme * Charity fraud * Clip joint * Coin-matching game * Coin rolling scams
Coin rolling scams
* Drop swindle * Embarrassing cheque * Employment
Employment
scams * Extraterrestrial real estate * Fiddle game * Fine print * Foreclosure rescue scheme * Foreign exchange fraud * Fortune telling fraud * Gas leak phone call scam * Gem scam * Get-rich-quick scheme * Green goods scam * Hustling * Initial coin offering * Intellectual property scams * Kansas City Shuffle * Long firm * Miracle cars scam * Mock auction * Moving scam * Patent safe * Pig in a poke * Pigeon drop * Priority Development Assistance Fund scam
Priority Development Assistance Fund scam
* Pump and dump
Pump and dump
* Reloading scam * Rent-a-car scam * Salting * Shell game
Shell game
* Sick baby hoax * Slavery
Slavery
reparations scam * Spanish Prisoner * Strip search phone call scam * Swampland in Florida * Technical support scam * Telemarketing fraud * Thai tailor scam * Thai zig zag scam * Three-card Monte
Three-card Monte
* Trojan horse * White van speaker scam * Work-at-home scheme

Internet
Internet
scams and countermeasures

* Avalanche * Carding * Click fraud * Clickjacking * Cramming * Cybercrime
Cybercrime
* CyberThrill * DarkMarket * Domain name scams * Email authentication
Email authentication
* Email fraud * Internet
Internet
vigilantism * Lottery scam * PayPai * Phishing
Phishing
* Referer spoofing * Ripoff Report * Rock Phish * Romance scam
Romance scam
* Russian Business Network * SaferNet * Scam baiting * ShadowCrew * Spoofed URL * Spoofing attack * Stock Generation * Voice phishing * Website reputation ratings * Whitemail

Pyramid and Ponzi schemes

* Aman Futures Group
Aman Futures Group
* Bernard Cornfeld * Caritas * Dona Branca * Ezubao * Foundation for New Era Philanthropy * Franchise fraud * High-yield investment program (HYIP) * Investors Overseas Service * Earl Jones (investment advisor) * Kubus scheme * Madoff investment scandal * Make Money Fast
Make Money Fast
* Matrix scheme * MMM * Petters Group Worldwide * Pyramid schemes in Albania * Reed Slatkin * Saradha financial scandal * Scott W. Rothstein * Stanford Financial Group
Stanford Financial Group
* Welsh Thrasher faith scam

LISTS

* Con artists * Confidence tricks * Criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates * Email scams * Impostors

* In the media

* Film and television * Literature

* Ponz

.