WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS)
PHP and MySQL. To function,
WordPress has to be installed
on a web server, which would either be part of an Internet hosting
service or a network host in its own right. An example of the first
scenario may be a service like WordPress.com, and the second case
could be a computer running the software package WordPress.org. A
local computer may be used for single-user testing and learning
purposes. Features include a plugin architecture and a template
WordPress was used by more than 29.4% of the top 10 million
websites as of January 2018[update].
WordPress is reportedly
the most popular website management or blogging system in use on the
Web, supporting more than 60 million websites.
also been used for other application domains such as pervasive display
WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt
Mullenweg and Mike Little,  as a fork of b2/cafelog.
WordPress is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license.
1.4 Other features
2 Multi-user and multi-blogging
3.1 Awards and recognition
3.2 Release history
6 Development and support
6.1 Key developers
6.2 WordCamp developer and user conferences
7 See also
9 External links
WordPress has a web template system using a template processor. Its
architecture is a front controller, routing all requests for
non-static URIs to a single
PHP file which parses the URI and
identifies the target page. This allows support for more
WordPress users may install and switch among different themes. Themes
allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress
website without altering the core code or site content. Every
WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every
theme should be designed using
WordPress standards with structured
HTML (HyperText Markup Language), and Cascading Style
Sheets (CSS). Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress
"Appearance" administration tool in the dashboard, or theme folders
may be copied directly into the themes directory, for example via
FTP. The PHP,
HTML and CSS found in themes can be directly
modified to alter theme behavior, or a theme can be a "child" theme
which inherits settings from another theme and selectively overrides
WordPress themes are generally classified into two
categories: free and premium. Many free themes are listed in the
WordPress theme directory, and premium themes are available for
purchase from marketplaces and individual
WordPress users may also create and develop their own custom themes.
The free theme Underscores created by the
WordPress developers has
become a popular basis for new themes.
WordPress' plugin architecture allows users to extend the features and
functionality of a website or blog.
WordPress has over 50,316 plugins
available, each of which offers custom functions and features
enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. These
customizations range from search engine optimization, to client
portals used to display private information to logged in users, to
content management systems, to content displaying features, such as
the addition of widgets and navigation bars. Not all available plugins
are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they may not
function properly or may not function at all. Most plugins are
WordPress themselves, either via downloading them
and installing the files manually via FTP or through the WordPress
dashboard. However, many third parties offer plugins through their own
websites, many of which are paid packages.
Native applications exist for WebOS, Android, iOS (iPhone,
iPod Touch, iPad),
Windows Phone, and BlackBerry. These
applications, designed by Automattic, have options such as adding new
blog posts and pages, commenting, moderating comments, replying to
comments in addition to the ability to view the stats.
WordPress also features integrated link management; a search
engine–friendly, clean permalink structure; the ability to assign
multiple categories to posts; and support for tagging of posts.
Automatic filters are also included, providing standardized formatting
and styling of text in posts (for example, converting regular quotes
to smart quotes).
WordPress also supports the
Trackback and Pingback
standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves
linked to a post or an article.
WordPress posts can be edited in HTML,
using the visual editor, or using one of a number of plugins that
allow for a variety of customized editing features.
Multi-user and multi-blogging
Prior to version 3,
WordPress supported one blog per installation,
although multiple concurrent copies may be run from different
directories if configured to use separate database tables. WordPress
Multisites (previously referred to as
WordPress MU, or WPMU) was a fork of
WordPress created to allow
multiple blogs to exist within one installation but is able to be
administered by a centralized maintainer.
WordPress MU makes it
possible for those with websites to host their own blogging
communities, as well as control and moderate all the blogs from a
WordPress MS adds eight new data tables for each
As of the release of
WordPress MU has merged with
b2/cafelog, more commonly known as b2 or cafelog, was the precursor to
WordPress. b2/cafelog was estimated to have been installed on
approximately 2,000 blogs as of May 2003. It was written in PHP
for use with
MySQL by Michel Valdrighi, who is now a contributing
developer to WordPress. Although
WordPress is the official successor,
another project, b2evolution, is also in active development.
WordPress first appeared in 2003 as a joint effort between Matt
Mike Little to create a fork of b2. Christine
Selleck Tremoulet, a friend of Mullenweg, suggested the name
In 2004 the licensing terms for the competing
Movable Type package
were changed by Six Apart, resulting in many of its most influential
users migrating to WordPress. By October 2009 the Open Source
CMS MarketShare Report concluded that
WordPress enjoyed the greatest
brand strength of any open-source content management system.
As of February 2017,
WordPress is used by 58.7% of all the websites
whose content management system is known. This is 27.5% of the top 10
Awards and recognition
Winner of Infoworld's “Best of open source software awards:
Collaboration”, awarded in 2008.
Winner of Open Source CMS Awards's “Overall Best Open Source CMS",
awarded in 2009.
Winner of digitalsynergy's “Hall of Fame CMS category in the 2010
Open Source”, awarded in 2010.
Winner of Infoworld's “Bossie award for Best Open Source
Software”, awarded in 2011.
Winner of CMS Critic Award's “Best CMS for Personal Websites",
awarded in 2015.
Main releases of
WordPress are codenamed after well-known jazz
musicians, starting after version 1.0.
Older version, still supported
Current stable version
Latest preview version
Old version, no longer supported: 0.7
May 27, 2003
Used the same file structure as its predecessor, b2/cafelog, and
continued the numbering from its last release, 0.6. Only 0.71-gold
is available for download in the official
WordPress Release Archive
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0
January 3, 2004
Added search engine friendly permalinks, multiple categories, dead
simple installation and upgrade, comment moderation, XFN support, Atom
Old version, no longer supported: 1.2
May 22, 2004
Added support of Plugins; which same identification headers are used
WordPress releases as of 2011[update].
Old version, no longer supported: 1.5
February 17, 2005
Added a range of vital features, such as ability to manage static
pages and a template/Theme system. It was also equipped with a new
default template (code named Kubrick). designed by Michael
Old version, no longer supported: 2.0
December 31, 2005
Added rich editing, better administration tools, image uploading,
faster posting, improved import system, fully overhauled the back end,
and various improvements to Plugin developers.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.1
January 22, 2007
Corrected security issues, redesigned interface, enhanced editing
tools (including integrated spell check and auto save), and improved
content management options.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.2
May 16, 2007
Added widget support for templates, updated Atom feed support, and
Old version, no longer supported: 2.3
September 24, 2007
Added native tagging support, new taxonomy system for categories, and
easy notification of updates, fully supports Atom 1.0, with the
publishing protocol, and some much needed security fixes.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.5
March 29, 2008
Major revamp to the dashboard, dashboard widgets, multi-file upload,
extended search, improved editor, improved plugin system and more.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.6
July 15, 2008
Added new features that made
WordPress a more powerful CMS: it can now
track changes to every post and page and allow easy posting from
anywhere on the web.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.7
December 11, 2008
Administration interface redesigned fully, added automatic upgrades
and installing plugins, from within the administration interface.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.8
June 10, 2009
Added improvements in speed, automatic installing of themes from
within administration interface, introduces the CodePress editor for
syntax highlighting and a redesigned widget interface.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.9
December 19, 2009
Added global undo, built-in image editor, batch plugin updating, and
many less visible tweaks.
Old version, no longer supported: 3.0
June 17, 2010
Added a new theme APIs, merge
WordPress MU, creating the
new multi-site functionality, new default theme "Twenty Ten" and a
refreshed, lighter admin UI.
Old version, no longer supported: 3.1
February 23, 2011
Added the Admin Bar, which is displayed on all blog pages when an
admin is logged in, and Post Format, best explained as a Tumblr like
micro-blogging feature. It provides easy access to many critical
functions, such as comments and updates. Includes internal linking
abilities, a newly streamlined writing interface, and many other
Old version, no longer supported: 3.2
July 4, 2011
Focused on making
WordPress faster and lighter. Released only four
months after version 3.1, reflecting the growing speed of development
Old version, no longer supported: 3.3
December 12, 2011
Focused on making
WordPress friendlier for beginners and tablet
Old version, no longer supported: 3.4
June 13, 2012
Focused on improvements to theme customization,
and several minor changes.
Old version, no longer supported: 3.5
December 11, 2012
Support for the Retina Display, color picker, new default theme
"Twenty Twelve", improved image workflow.
Old version, no longer supported: 3.6
August 1, 2013
New default theme "Twenty Thirteen", admin enhancements, post formats
UI update, menus UI improvements, new revision system, autosave and
Older version, yet still supported: 3.7
October 24, 2013
Automatically apply maintenance and security updates in the
background, stronger password recommendations, support for
automatically installing the right language files and keeping them up
Older version, yet still supported: 3.8
December 12, 2013
Improved admin interface, responsive design for mobile devices, new
typography using Open Sans, admin color schemes, redesigned theme
management interface, simplified main dashboard, "Twenty Fourteen"
magazine style default theme, second release using "Plugin-first
Older version, yet still supported: 3.9
April 16, 2014
Improvements to editor for media, live widget and header previews, new
Older version, yet still supported: 4.0
September 4, 2014
Improved media management, embeds, writing interface, easy language
change, theme customizer, plugin discovery and compatibility with PHP
Older version, yet still supported: 4.1
December 18, 2014
Twenty Fifteen as the new default theme, distraction-free writing,
easy language switch, Vine embeds and plugin recommendations.
Older version, yet still supported: 4.2
April 23, 2015
New "Press This" features, improved characters support, emoji support,
improved customizer, new embeds and updated plugin system.
Older version, yet still supported: 4.3
August 18, 2015
Focus on mobile experience, better passwords and improved customizer.
Older version, yet still supported: 4.4
December 8, 2015
Introduction of "Twenty Sixteen" theme, and improved responsive images
Older version, yet still supported: 4.5
April 12, 2016
Added inline linking, formatting shortcuts, live responsive previews,
and other updates under the hood.
Older version, yet still supported: 4.6
August 16, 2016
Added streamlined updates, native fonts, editor improvements with
inline link checker and content recovery, and other updates under the
Older version, yet still supported: 4.7
December 6, 2016
Comes with new default theme "Twenty Seventeen", Video Header Support,
PDF preview, custom CSS in live preview, editor Improvements, and
other updates under the hood.
Older version, yet still supported: 4.8
June 8, 2017
The next-generation editor. Additional specific goals include the
TinyMCE inline element / link boundaries, new media widgets, WYSIWYG
in text widget. End Support for Internet Explorer Versions 8, 9, and
Current stable version: 4.9
November 16, 2017
Improved theme customizer experience, including scheduling, frontend
preview links, autosave revisions, theme browsing, improved menu
functions, and syntax highlighting. Added new gallery widget and
updated text and video widgets. Theme editor gives warnings and
rollbacks when saving files that produce fatal errors. 
Future release: 5.0
WordPress 5.0 will be the first “major” release of 2018, including
the new editor, codenamed “Gutenberg”.
Matt Mullenweg has stated that the future of
WordPress is in social,
mobile, and as an application platform.
Many security issues have been uncovered in the software,
particularly in 2007, 2008, and 2015. According to Secunia, WordPress
in April 2009 had seven unpatched security advisories (out of 32
total), with a maximum rating of "Less Critical".
Secunia maintains an
up-to-date list of
In January 2007, many high-profile search engine optimization (SEO)
blogs, as well as many low-profile commercial blogs featuring AdSense,
were targeted and attacked with a
WordPress exploit. A separate
vulnerability on one of the project site's web servers allowed an
attacker to introduce exploitable code in the form of a back door to
some downloads of
WordPress 2.1.1. The 2.1.2 release addressed this
issue; an advisory released at the time advised all users to upgrade
In May 2007, a study revealed that 98% of
WordPress blogs being run
were exploitable because they were running outdated and unsupported
versions of the software. In part to mitigate this problem,
WordPress made updating the software a much easier, "one click"
automated process in version 2.7 (released in December 2008).
However, the filesystem security settings required to enable the
update process can be an additional risk.
In a June 2007 interview, Stefan Esser, the founder of the PHP
Security Response Team, spoke critically of WordPress' security track
record, citing problems with the application's architecture that made
it unnecessarily difficult to write code that is secure from SQL
injection vulnerabilities, as well as some other problems.
In June 2013, it was found that some of the 50 most downloaded
WordPress plugins were vulnerable to common Web attacks such as SQL
injection and XSS. A separate inspection of the top-10 e-commerce
plugins showed that seven of them were vulnerable.
In an effort to promote better security, and to streamline the update
experience overall, automatic background updates were introduced in
Individual installations of
WordPress can be protected with security
plugins that prevent user enumeration, hide resources and thwart
probes. Users can also protect their
WordPress installations by taking
steps such as keeping all
WordPress installation, themes, and plugins
updated, using only trusted themes and plugins, editing the site's
.htaccess file to prevent many types of
SQL injection attacks and
block unauthorized access to sensitive files. It is especially
important to keep
WordPress plugins updated because would-be hackers
can easily list all the plugins a site uses, and then run scans
searching for any vulnerabilities against those plugins. If
vulnerabilities are found, they may be exploited to allow hackers to
upload their own files (such as a
PHP Shell script) that collect
Developers can also use tools to analyze potential vulnerabilities,
WordPress Auditor and
WordPress Sploit Framework
developed by 0pc0deFR. These types of tools research known
vulnerabilities, such as a CSRF, LFI, RFI, XSS,
SQL injection and user
enumeration. However, not all vulnerabilities can be detected by
tools, so it is advisable to check the code of plugins, themes and
other add-ins from other developers.
In March 2015, it was reported by many security experts and SEOs
including Search Engine Land that a
SEO plugin for
Yoast which is used by more than 14 million users worldwide has a
vulnerability which can lead to an exploit where hackers can do a
Blind SQL injection. To fix that issue they immediately
introduced a newer version 1.7.4 of the same plugin to avoid any
disturbance on web because of the security lapse that the plugin
In January 2017, security auditors at Sucuri identified a
vulnerability in the
REST API that would allow any
unauthenticated user to modify any post or page within a site running
WordPress 4.7 or greater. The auditors quietly notified WordPress
developers, and within six days
WordPress released a high priority
patch to version 4.7.2 which addressed the problem.
PHP version requirement is
PHP 5.2, which was
released on January 6, 2006, and which has been unsupported by
PHP Group and not received any security patches since January 6,
Development and support
Matt Mullenweg and
Mike Little were cofounders of the project. The
core lead developers include Helen Hou-Sandí, Dion Hulse, Mark
Jaquith, Matt Mullenweg, Andrew Ozz, and Andrew Nacin.
WordPress is also developed by its community, including WP testers, a
group of volunteers who test each release. They have early access
to nightly builds, beta versions and release candidates. Errors are
documented in a special mailing list, or the project's
Though largely developed by the community surrounding it,
closely associated with Automattic, the company founded by Matt
Mullenweg. On September 9, 2010,
Automattic handed the WordPress
trademark to the newly created
WordPress Foundation, which is an
umbrella organization supporting WordPress.org (including the software
and archives for plugins and themes), bbPress and BuddyPress.
WordCamp developer and user conferences
A WordCamp in Sofia,
WordCamps are casual, locally organized conferences covering
everything related to WordPress. The first such event was
WordCamp 2006 in August 2006 in San Francisco, which lasted one day
and had over 500 attendees. The first WordCamp outside San
Francisco was held in
Beijing in September 2007. Since then,
there have been over 507 WordCamps in over 207 cities in 48 different
countries around the world. WordCamp
San Francisco 2014 was the
last official annual conference of
WordPress developers and users
taking place in San Francisco, having now been replaced with WordCamp
WordPress' primary support website is WordPress.org. This support
website hosts both
WordPress Codex, the online manual for WordPress
and a living repository for
WordPress information and
WordPress Forums, an active online community
List of content management systems
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Find more aboutWordPressat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
WordPress at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Reasonable Server Faces
Remote Application Platform
Ruby on Rails
Application Express (PL/SQL)