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The Williamite
Williamite
War in Ireland
Ireland
(1688–1691) (Irish: Cogadh an Dá Rí,[2][3][4] meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England
James II of England
and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant
Protestant
Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
and the Kingdom of Ireland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland
Ireland
or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland. The cause of the war was the deposition of James as King of the Three Kingdoms in the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. James was supported by the mostly Catholic "Jacobites" in Ireland
Ireland
and hoped to use the country as a base to regain his Three Kingdoms. He was given military support by France to this end. For this reason, the war became part of a wider European conflict known as the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
(or War of the Grand Alliance). Some Protestants of the established Church in Ireland also fought on the side of King James.[5][6] James was opposed in Ireland
Ireland
by the mostly Protestant
Protestant
"Williamites", who were concentrated in the north of the country. William landed a multi-national force in Ireland, composed of English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish and other troops, to put down Jacobite resistance. James left Ireland
Ireland
after a reverse at the Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
in 1690 and the Irish Jacobites were finally defeated after the Battle of Aughrim
Battle of Aughrim
in 1691. William defeated Jacobitism
Jacobitism
in Ireland
Ireland
and subsequent Jacobite risings were confined to Scotland and England. However, the War was to have a lasting effect on Ireland, confirming British and Protestant
Protestant
rule over the country for over two centuries. The iconic Williamite
Williamite
victories of the Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
and the Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
are still celebrated by (mostly Ulster
Ulster
Protestant) unionists in Ireland
Ireland
today.

Contents

1 Glorious Revolution 2 Campaign in Ulster 3 Schomberg's campaign 4 Battle of the Boyne 5 First Siege of Limerick 6 Athlone, Aughrim and the Second Siege of Limerick 7 Treaty of Limerick 8 Long-term effects 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

Glorious Revolution[edit] Main article: Glorious Revolution The war in Ireland
Ireland
began as a direct consequence of the Glorious Revolution in England. James II of England
James II of England
and Ireland, VII of Scotland, who was a Roman Catholic, attempted to introduce freedom of religion for Catholics and bypass the English Parliament
English Parliament
to introduce unpopular laws. For many in England, this was an unpleasant reminder of the rule of Charles I, whose conflict with the Parliament led to the outbreak of the English Civil War. The breaking point in James' relationship with the English political class came in June 1688 when his second wife gave birth to a son, which opened the prospect of an enduring Catholic Stuart dynasty. This fear led some political figures to conspire to invite William III, stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and husband of James’ daughter Mary Stuart, to invade England.[7] William had indicated that such an invitation would be a condition for a military intervention, which he desired primarily for military and strategic reasons.

James II and VII King of England, Scotland, and Ireland

The Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
was at the brink of war with the France of Louis XIV, then the greatest military power in Europe. English Stuart Kings Charles II and James II had fostered a close alliance with France since the English Restoration, and William wanted to detach England's resources of men, money, and arms from France and put them at the disposal of his League of Augsburg.[7] William invaded England in November 1688. William's invasion fleet was aided by favourable weather (the " Protestant
Protestant
wind") that gave him weather gage over the British fleet, allowing him to outmaneuver them and land unopposed. William landed at Brixham
Brixham
on 5 November 1688 with 18,000 troops.[7] James fled to France after putting up only a token resistance. In 1689, Prince William and his wife Princess Mary Stuart became co-regents as King William III and Queen Mary II of England.

William III ("William of Orange") King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the Netherlands. Assumed James' thrones in the "Glorious Revolution" of 1689, with the support of the mainly Protestant
Protestant
"Williamites", but had to fight to subdue the Jacobite stronghold of Ireland
Ireland
in 1689–91.

However, while James II was unpopular in England, he had widespread popular support in Ireland. The Irish were almost all Roman Catholics and had fought en masse for the Stuart dynasty
Stuart dynasty
in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the 1640s, in the hope of securing religious toleration and political self-government. They had been defeated by 1652 and were punished by the English Commonwealth
English Commonwealth
regime with land confiscations and penal legislation. They were largely disappointed with the failure of King Charles II to completely reverse this situation in the Act of Settlement 1662. The majority of Irish people were "Jacobites" and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is also known, the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland and also due to James II's promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination.[8][9] James had given them some concrete concessions in the 1680s by appointing an Irish Catholic, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell as Lord Deputy of Ireland, and by re-admitting Catholics as Army officers and into other public offices. When James fled England in 1688 he looked to Ireland
Ireland
to muster support for a re-conquest of his Three Kingdoms. In 1689 he held what became known as the "Patriot Parliament" in Dublin, which reversed the confiscations of the 1650s and confirmed his support from most of the Irish landed gentry. Ironically, while Irish Catholics supported King James en masse, the Papal States
Papal States
had joined the League of Augsburg. Pope Innocent XI
Pope Innocent XI
had lent William of Orange 150,000 Scudi for war purposes through his family's bank before his death in 1689.[10] Campaign in Ulster[edit] After William's landing in England, James' Lord Deputy in Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell
Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell
took action to ensure that all strong points in Ireland
Ireland
were held by garrisons of the newly recruited Irish Catholic army, loyal to James. The northern province of Ulster, which had the heaviest concentration of English and Scottish settlers, was the only part of Ireland
Ireland
where Talbot encountered significant resistance. An attempted rising by the Protestant
Protestant
inhabitants of Bandon in County Cork
County Cork
was quickly defeated by Jacobite forces. By November 1688, only the walled city of Derry
Derry
had a Protestant garrison. A Jacobite army of around 1,200 men, mostly "Redshanks" (slang for kilt-wearing Highlanders), under Alexander MacDonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, was slowly organised (they set out on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
began. While the Jacobites appeared to have great advantages in terms of numbers in Ireland, in fact, the troops raised by Tyrconnell
Tyrconnell
were mainly hastily conscripted peasant bands, most of them poorly armed and trained. Nevertheless, a Jacobite force under Richard Hamilton routed a Protestant
Protestant
Williamite
Williamite
militia in an encounter at Dromore, County Down (known as the Break of Dromore) on 14 March 1689 and occupied eastern Ulster.

Map of Ireland
Ireland
showing the major battles of the war

When James was deposed and fled to France, Louis XIV (already at war with William of Orange) supported him with troops and money to help him regain his crown, though he stipulated that the French troops he sent to Ireland
Ireland
would have to be made good by the sending of the same number of Irish recruits to France. On 12 March 1689 James landed in Kinsale, Ireland, with 6,000 French soldiers. He first marched on Dublin, where he was well received and, with a Jacobite army of Catholics, Protestant
Protestant
Royalists and French, then marched north, joining the Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
on 18 April. James found himself leading a predominantly Irish Catholic movement, and on 7 May he presided over an Irish Parliament composed almost entirely of Catholic gentry. He reluctantly agreed to the Parliament's demand for an Act declaring that the Parliament of England had no right to pass laws for Ireland. He also agreed, again reluctantly, to restore to Irish Catholics the lands confiscated from their families after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, by confiscating the lands of those (predominantly Protestants) who opposed him and supported William. This parliament was later named the Patriot Parliament by Irish nationalists. British Williamite
Williamite
warships arrived off Derry
Derry
to relieve the besieged city on 11 June, but refused to risk shore guns until, ordered by Marshal Frederic Schomberg, they broke through and ended the siege on 28 July 1689. In Enniskillen, 53 miles south of Derry, armed Williamite
Williamite
civilians drawn from the local Protestant
Protestant
population organised a formidable irregular military force. Operating with Enniskillen
Enniskillen
as a base, they carried out raids against the Jacobite forces in Connacht
Connacht
and Ulster. A poorly trained Jacobite army led by Justin MacCarthy, Viscount Mountcashel assembled at Dublin
Dublin
and marched against them. On 28 July 1689, MacCarthy's force was defeated at the Battle of Newtownbutler. Many of the Jacobites' troops fled as the first shots were fired, and up to 1500 of them were hacked down or drowned when pursued by the Williamite
Williamite
cavalry. Partly as a result of this defeat and partly because of a major Williamite
Williamite
landing in the east of the province, most Jacobite troops were withdrawn from Ulster
Ulster
and encamped near Dundalk. Schomberg's campaign[edit] On 13 August 1689 William's army under Marshal Frederick Schomberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg landed at Ballyholme Bay in County Down
County Down
and, after capturing Carrickfergus, marched unopposed to Dundalk. James's viceroy Tyrconnell, commanding the main Jacobite army, blocked Schomberg's passage southwards but did not give battle. The two armies remained encamped opposite each other in cold, wet weather for several weeks before they withdrew to winter quarters. The Williamites lost several thousand men from disease in this campaign, even though they did not fight a single major engagement with the Jacobites. Moreover, they found themselves harassed throughout the winter of 1689 and in the following two years by Irish Catholic guerrillas known as rapparees. Schomberg's troops continued to die from disease in their winter quarters because of the harsh weather and poor food supplies. The lack of food was partly from bad management, but also because the Jacobites devastated the countryside as they retreated. The local civilian population also suffered terribly from this tactic. Battle of the Boyne[edit] Main article: Battle of the Boyne Impatient with Schomberg's slow progress, William decided to take charge. He arrived with a fleet of 300 ships at Belfast Lough
Belfast Lough
on 14 June 1690. He landed at Carrickfergus, having mustered an army of 36,000 soldiers (including English, German, Dutch, Danish, and French Huguenot
Huguenot
troops), which then marched south towards Dublin. After some resistance near Newry
Newry
the Jacobites withdrew to the south bank of the River Boyne, where they took up a defensive position at the village of Oldbridge, near Drogheda. On 1 July, William attacked their position, fording the Boyne at several places, forcing the Jacobites to retreat to avoid being surrounded. (As a consequence of the adoption of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
in 1753, the battle is now commemorated on 12 July). The Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
was not militarily decisive and casualties on both sides were not high—around 1500 Jacobites and 500 Williamites were killed. However, it proved enough to collapse James's confidence in victory in Ireland. He rode ahead of his army to Duncannon, and from there returned to exile in France. Because he deserted his Irish supporters, James became known in Ireland
Ireland
as Séamus an Chaca or James the Shit.[11] The battle was lost but not the war. James's illegitimate son James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick
wrote in his memoirs that he fled to muster fresh French support .[12] The Jacobite army retreated to Dublin, little damaged but demoralised and badly hit by desertion. The next day, they abandoned the city and marched to Limerick. The Williamites marched into Ireland's capital on the same day and occupied the city without a fight. On 27 July, Jacobites in Scotland secured a victory by routing a Williamite
Williamite
army at the Battle of Killiecrankie. William's victory at the Boyne, together with James' flight, might have been the end of the war in Ireland. However, William published very harsh peace terms in the Declaration of Finglas, excluding the Jacobite officers and the Irish Catholic landed class from the pardon he offered to Jacobite foot-soldiers. As a result, Irish Jacobite leaders felt they had no choice but to fight until they received guarantees that their lives, property, and civil and religious rights would be respected in a peace settlement. First Siege of Limerick[edit]

King John's Castle and Thomond
Thomond
Bridge at Limerick
Limerick
City. Limerick
Limerick
was besieged by the Williamites in 1690 and 1691.

As a result of Williamite
Williamite
intransigence, the war continued. The Irish Jacobites retreated to Limerick, where they repulsed a Williamite assault, inflicting heavy casualties, in August 1690. The Williamites retreated from the west of Ireland
Ireland
but consolidated their hold on the south of the country in late 1690. Their forces, under the Earl of Marlborough, took the southern ports of Cork and Kinsale The Irish Jacobites' position was now defensive, holding a large enclave in western Ireland, including all of the province of Connacht, bounded by the River Shannon. The Jacobites' successful defence of Limerick
Limerick
encouraged them to believe they could win the war with help from France (though many of the French troops sent with James were withdrawn after his flight). William left Ireland
Ireland
in late 1690, entrusting command of the Williamite
Williamite
forces to the Dutch general Godert de Ginkell. Athlone, Aughrim and the Second Siege of Limerick[edit] Main articles: Battle of Aughrim
Battle of Aughrim
and Siege of Limerick
Limerick
(1691)

Memorial cross on the site of the Battle of Aughrim, where 7000 men died on 12 July 1691 and the Jacobite cause in Ireland
Ireland
was defeated

Ginkell broke into Connacht
Connacht
via the town of Athlone, after a bloody siege there. He then advanced on the key Jacobite strongholds of Galway
Galway
and Limerick. The Marquis de St Ruth, the Jacobite's French commander, attempted to block Ginkell's advance at Aughrim, County Galway, but Ginkell's army inflicted a crushing defeat on the Irish at the Battle of Aughrim, where the Jacobites lost up to 8000 men—about half their army—killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. St Ruth himself, the Jacobite General, was among the dead. Ginkell took Galway, which surrendered on favourable terms. He went on to besiege Limerick. The Siege of Limerick
Limerick
ended with Irish surrender on 23 September 1691, when Patrick Sarsfield, despairing of any hope of victory, overthrew the French officers in command of the city and opened negotiations with Ginkell. Treaty of Limerick[edit] The peace Treaty of Limerick
Treaty of Limerick
signed on 3 October 1691 offered favourable terms to Jacobites willing to stay in Ireland
Ireland
and give an oath of loyalty to William III. Peace was concluded on these terms between Sarsfield and Ginkell, giving toleration to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics that swore an oath of loyalty to William III and Mary II. The Protestant-dominated Irish Parliament refused to ratify the articles of the Treaty in 1697, and from 1695 on, updated the penal laws, which discriminated harshly against Catholics. Catholics saw this as a severe breach of faith. A popular contemporary Irish saying was, cuimhnigí Luimneach agus feall na Sassanaigh ("remember Limerick and Saxon treachery"). The Papacy was an enemy of Louis of France and therefore did not support James in 1691, but the new Pope Pope Innocent XII changed its policy to support for France, and therefore James, from 1693. This factor hardened Protestant
Protestant
attitudes towards Catholics and Jacobitism
Jacobitism
in Ireland. Part of the treaty agreed to Sarsfield's demand that the Jacobite army could leave Ireland
Ireland
as a body and go to France. Ships were even provided for this purpose.[13] This event was popularly known in Ireland
Ireland
as the "Flight of the Wild Geese". Around 14,000 men with around 10,000 women and children left Ireland
Ireland
with Patrick Sarsfield in 1691. Initially, they formed the army in exile of James II, though operating as part of the French army. After James' death, the remnants of this force merged into the French Irish Brigade, which had been set up in 1689 from 6,000 Irish recruits sent by the Irish Jacobites in return for French military aid. Long-term effects[edit] The Williamite
Williamite
victory in the war in Ireland
Ireland
had two main long-term results. The first was that it ensured James II would not regain his thrones in England, Ireland, and Scotland by military means. The second was that it ensured closer British and Protestant
Protestant
dominance over Ireland. Until the nineteenth century, Ireland
Ireland
was ruled by what became known as the " Protestant
Protestant
Ascendancy", the mostly Protestant ruling class. The majority Irish Catholic community and the Ulster-Scots Presbyterian
Presbyterian
community were systematically excluded from power, which was based on land ownership. For over a century after the war, Irish Catholics maintained a sentimental attachment to the Jacobite cause, portraying James and the Stuarts as the rightful monarchs who would have given a just settlement to Ireland, including self-government, restoration of confiscated lands and tolerance for Catholicism. Thousands of Irish soldiers left the country to serve the Stuart monarchs in the Spanish and French armies. Until 1766 France and the Papacy remained committed to restoring the Stuarts to their British Kingdoms, at least one composite Irish battalion (500-men) drawn from Irish soldiers in the French service fought on the Jacobite side in the Scottish Jacobite uprisings up to the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
in 1746. Protestants, on the other hand, portrayed the Williamite
Williamite
victory as a triumph for religious and civil liberty where triumphant murals of King William still controversially adorn the gable walls in Ulster. The defeat of the Catholics in the Williamite
Williamite
war are still commemorated by Protestant
Protestant
Unionists in Ulster, by the Orange Order
Orange Order
on the Twelfth of July See also[edit]

Monmouth Rebellion Early Modern Ireland
Ireland
1536-1691 Ireland
Ireland
1691-1801 Dutch Blue Guards William III's elite units.

Notes[edit]

^ a b Chandler, Marlborough as Military Commander, p.35 ^ Harris, Tim (2007). "10". Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685-1720. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141926711.  ^ "The 18th Century". www.askaboutireland.ie. Retrieved 2016-05-22.  ^ "EM20 - James II (1685-1688/1691), Cogadh an Dá Rí or The War of the Two Kings (1689-91), Gunmoney Coinage, Large Size Halfcrown, May 1690, IACOBVS•II•DEI GRATIA, rev., Crown over scepters dividing JR, value XXX above, 1689 above, Feb below, MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, (S.6579KK), fine / almost very fine. $175".  ^ Harris, Tim. Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685–1720. Allen Lane (2006). pp. 435–436. ^ Hayton, David. Ruling Ireland, 1685–1742: Politics, Politicians and Parties. Boydell Press (2004). p. 22. ^ a b c Murtagh, Harman. "The Williamite
Williamite
War 1689-91", History Ireland ^ Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720. London: Allen Lane. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-7139-9759-0.  ^ Magennis, Eoin (1998). "A 'Beleaguered Protestant'?: Walter Harris and the Writing of Fiction Unmasked in Mid-18th-Century Ireland". Eighteenth-Century Ireland. 13: 6–111. Retrieved 16 March 2012.  ^ This aspect was then hidden from Irish Catholics and Protestants for over three centuries; see: Telegraph article, March 2008< and Independent article, May 2008 ^ Eamonn O Ciardha, Ireland
Ireland
and the Jacobite Cause – A fatal attachment, p. 83 ^ Stephen McGarry, Irish Brigades Abroad, p.53 ^ Padraig Lenihan, Consolidating Conquest, Ireland
Ireland
1603–1727

References[edit]

Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd, (2003). ISBN 1-86227-195-X Childs, John, The Williamite
Williamite
Wars in Ireland
Ireland
London 2007. ISBN 1-85285-573-8. J.G Simms. Jacobite Ireland, London 1969. ISBN 1-85182-553-3. J.G Simms. War and Politics in Ireland
Ireland
1649–1730, London 1986. ISBN 0-907628-72-9. Lenihan, Padraig. Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
1690, Gloucester 2003. ISBN 0-7524-2597-8. McGarry, Stephen. Irish Brigades Abroad, Dublin
Dublin
2014. ISBN 1-845887-999 Wauchope, Piers. Patrick Sarsfield
Patrick Sarsfield
and the Williamite
Williamite
War, Dublin 1992. ISBN 0-7165-2476-7.

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