William Jevons
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William Stanley Jevons (; 1 September 183513 August 1882) was an English
economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there ar ...
and
logic Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premi ...
ian. Irving Fisher described Jevons's book ''A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy'' (1862) as the start of the mathematical method in economics. It made the case that economics, as a science concerned with
quantities Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value multiple of a uni ...
, is necessarily mathematical. In so doing, it expounded upon the "final" (marginal)
utility theory As a topic of economics, utility is used to model worth or value. Its usage has evolved significantly over time. The term was introduced initially as a measure of pleasure or happiness as part of the theory of utilitarianism by moral philosoph ...
of value. Jevons' work, along with similar discoveries made by Carl Menger in Vienna (1871) and by
Léon Walras Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras (; 16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist. He formulated the marginal theory of value (independently of William Stanley Jevons and Carl Menger) and pioneered the developm ...
in Switzerland (1874), marked the opening of a new period in the history of economic thought. Jevons's contribution to the marginal revolution in economics in the late 19th century established his reputation as a leading political economist and logician of the time. Jevons broke off his studies of the
natural sciences Natural science is one of the branches of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeata ...
in London in 1854 to work as an assayer in
Sydney Sydney ( ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in both Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Sydney Harbour and extends about towards the Blue Mountai ...
, where he acquired an interest in
political economy Political economy is the study of how economic systems (e.g. markets and national economies) and political systems (e.g. law, institutions, government) are linked. Widely studied phenomena within the discipline are systems such as labour ...
. Returning to the UK in 1859, he published ''General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy'' in 1862, outlining the marginal utility theory of value, and ''A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold'' in 1863. For Jevons, the utility or value to a consumer of an additional unit of a product is inversely related to the number of units of that product he already owns, at least beyond some critical quantity. Jevons received public recognition for his work on '' The Coal Question'' (1865), in which he called attention to the gradual exhaustion of Britain's
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed wh ...
supplies and also put forth the view that increases in energy production efficiency leads to more, not less, consumption. This view is known today as the
Jevons paradox In economics, the Jevons paradox (; sometimes Jevons effect) occurs when technological progress or government policy increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the falling cost of ...
, named after him. Due to this particular work, Jevons is regarded today as the first economist of some standing to develop an 'ecological' perspective on the economy. The most important of his works on
logic Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premi ...
and
scientific method The scientific method is an empirical method for acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century (with notable practitioners in previous centuries; see the article history of scientific me ...
s is his ''Principles of Science'' (1874), as well as ''The Theory of Political Economy'' (1871) and ''The State in Relation to Labour'' (1882). Among his inventions was the logic piano, a mechanical
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These prog ...
.


Background

Jevons was born in
Liverpool Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the 10th largest English district by population and its metropolitan area is the fifth largest in the United Kingdom, with a populat ...
,
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs) is the name of a historic county, ceremonial county, and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The boundaries of these three areas differ significantly. The non-metropolitan county of Lancashi ...
, England. His father, Thomas Jevons, was an iron merchant who wrote about legal and economic subjects as well. His mother Mary Anne Jevons was the daughter of William Roscoe. At the age of fifteen he was sent to London to attend the
University College School ("Slowly but surely") , established = , closed = , type = Public schoolIndependent day school , religion = , president = , head_label = Headmaster , head = Mark Beard , r_head_label = , r_he ...
. Around this time, he seemed to have formed the belief that he was capable of important achievements as a thinker. Towards the end of 1853, after having spent two years at University College, where his favourite subjects were
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, propertie ...
and
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek w ...
, he received an offer as metallurgical assayer for the new mint in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country b ...
. The idea of leaving the UK was distasteful, but pecuniary considerations had, in consequence of the failure of his father's firm in 1847, become of vital importance, and he accepted the post. Jevons left the UK for
Sydney Sydney ( ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in both Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Sydney Harbour and extends about towards the Blue Mountai ...
in June 1854 to take up a role as an Assayer at the Mint. Jevons lived with his colleague and his wife first at Church Hill, then in Annangrove at Petersham and at Double Bay before returning to England. In letters to his family he described his life, took photographs and produced a social map of Sydney. Jevons returned to England via America five years later. He resigned his appointment, and in the autumn of 1859 re-entered the
University College London , mottoeng = Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward , established = , type = Public research university , endowment = £143 million (2020) , budget = ...
as a student. He was granted B.A. and M.A. degrees from the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a federal public research university located in London, England, United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836 as a degree- ...
. He now gave his principal attention to the moral sciences, but his interest in natural science was by no means exhausted: throughout his life he continued to write occasional papers on scientific subjects, and his knowledge of the physical sciences greatly contributed to the success of his chief logical work, ''The Principles of Science''. Not long after taking his M.A. degree, Jevons obtained a post as tutor at
Owens College Owens may refer to: Places in the United States *Owens Station, Delaware * Owens Township, St. Louis County, Minnesota *Owens, Missouri *Owens, Ohio *Owens, Virginia People * Owens (surname), including a list of people with the name * Owens Br ...
,
Manchester Manchester () is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and the neighbouring city of Salford to the west. The tw ...
. In 1866, he was elected professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy at Owens College.


Theory of utility

Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things." The theory of
utility As a topic of economics, utility is used to model worth or value. Its usage has evolved significantly over time. The term was introduced initially as a measure of pleasure or happiness as part of the theory of utilitarianism by moral philosop ...
above referred to, namely, that the degree of utility of a commodity is some continuous mathematical function of the quantity of the commodity available, together with the implied doctrine that economics is essentially a mathematical science, took more definite form in a paper on "A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy", written for the British Association in 1862. This paper does not appear to have attracted much attention either in 1862 or on its publication four years later in the ''Journal of the Statistical Society''; and it was not till 1871, when the ''Theory of Political Economy'' appeared, that Jevons set forth his doctrines in a fully developed form. It was not until after the publication of this work that Jevons became acquainted with the applications of mathematics to political economy made by earlier writers, notably
Antoine Augustin Cournot Antoine Augustin Cournot (; 28 August 180131 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician who also contributed to the development of economics. Biography Antoine Augustin Cournot was born at Gray, Haute-Saône. In 1821 he entered ...
and H.H. Gossen. The theory of utility was at about 1870 being independently developed on somewhat similar lines by Carl Menger in
Austria Austria, , bar, Östareich officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, the most populou ...
and
Léon Walras Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras (; 16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist. He formulated the marginal theory of value (independently of William Stanley Jevons and Carl Menger) and pioneered the developm ...
in
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are installed in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel ...
. As regards the discovery of the connection between value in exchange and final (or marginal) utility, the priority belongs to Gossen, but this in no way detracts from the great importance of the service which Jevons rendered to British economics by his fresh discovery of the principle, and by the way in which he ultimately forced it into notice. In his reaction from the prevailing view he sometimes expressed himself without due qualification: the declaration, for instance, made at the commencement of the ''Theory of Political Economy'', that value depends entirely upon utility, lent itself to misinterpretation. But a certain exaggeration of emphasis may be pardoned in a writer seeking to attract the attention of an indifferent public. The Neoclassical Revolution, which would reshape economics, had been started. Jevons did not explicitly distinguish between the concepts of ordinal and cardinal utility. Cardinal utility allows the relative magnitude of utilities to be discussed, while ordinal utility only implies that goods can be compared and ranked according to which good provided the most utility. Although Jevons predated the debate about ordinality or cardinality of utility, his mathematics required the use of cardinal utility functions. For example, in ''"The Theory of Political Economy"'', Chapter II, the subsection on "Theory of Dimensions of Economic Quantities", Jevons makes the statement that "In the first place, pleasure and pain must be regarded as measured upon the same scale, and as having, therefore, the same dimensions, being quantities of the same kind, which can be added and subtracted...." Speaking of measurement, addition and subtraction requires cardinality, as does Jevons's heavy use of integral calculus. Note that cardinality does not imply direct measurability, in which Jevons did not believe.


Practical economics

It was not, however, as a theorist dealing with the fundamental data of economic science, but as a writer on practical economic questions, that Jevons first received general recognition. ''A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold'' (1863) and '' The Coal Question'' (1865) placed him in the front rank as a writer on applied economics and statistics; and he would be remembered as one of the leading economists of the 19th century even had his ''Theory of Political Economy'' never been written. His economic works include ''Money and the Mechanism of Exchange'' (1875) written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical; a ''Primer on Political Economy'' (1878); ''The State in Relation to Labour'' (1882), and two works published after his death, ''Methods of Social Reform" and "Investigations in Currency and Finance'', containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime. The last-named volume contains Jevons's speculations on the connection between commercial crises and sunspots. He was engaged at the time of his death upon the preparation of a large treatise on economics and had drawn up a table of contents and completed some chapters and parts of chapters. This fragment was published in 1905 under the title of ''The Principles of Economics: a fragment of a treatise on the industrial mechanism of society, and other papers''. In ''The Coal Question'', Jevons covered a breadth of concepts on energy depletion that have recently been revisited by writers covering the subject of
peak oil Peak oil is the hypothetical point in time when the maximum rate of global oil production is reached, after which it is argued that production will begin an irreversible decline. It is related to the distinct concept of oil depletion; while ...
. For example, Jevons explained that improving energy efficiency typically reduced energy costs and thereby increased rather than decreased energy use, an effect now known as the
Jevons paradox In economics, the Jevons paradox (; sometimes Jevons effect) occurs when technological progress or government policy increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the falling cost of ...
. ''The Coal Question'' remains a paradigmatic study of resource depletion theory. Jevons's son, H. Stanley Jevons, published an 800-page follow-up study in 1915 in which the difficulties of estimating recoverable reserves of a theoretically finite resource are discussed in detail. In 1875, Jevons read a paper ''On the influence of the sun-spot period upon the price of corn'' at a meeting of the ''British Association for the Advancement of Science''. This captured the attention of the media and led to the coining of the word
sunspottery Sunspottery was a pejorative term assigned to a late 19th century trend to ascribe sunspots and their cycles as causes for various cyclic phenomena, including disease outbreaks and economic crises. William Stanley Jevons read a paper ''On the infl ...
for claims of links between various cyclic events and sun-spots. In a later work, "Commercial Crises and Sun-Spots", Jevons analyzed business cycles, proposing that crises in the economy might not be random events, but might be based on discernible prior causes. To clarify the concept, he presented a statistical study relating
business cycle Business cycles are intervals of expansion followed by recession in economic activity. These changes have implications for the welfare of the broad population as well as for private institutions. Typically business cycles are measured by exami ...
s with sunspots. His reasoning was that sunspots affected the weather, which, in turn, affected crops. Crop changes could then be expected to cause economic changes. Subsequent studies have found that sunny weather has a small but significant positive impact on stock returns, probably due to its impact on traders' moods.


Logic

In 1864 Jevons published ''Pure Logic; or, the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity'', which was based on Boole's
system of logic A formal system is an abstract structure used for inferring theorems from axioms according to a set of rules. These rules, which are used for carrying out the inference of theorems from axioms, are the logical calculus of the formal system. A for ...
, but freed from what he considered the false mathematical dress of that system. In the years immediately following he devoted considerable attention to the construction of a logical machine, exhibited before the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, re ...
in 1870, by means of which could be mechanically obtained. In 1866 what he regarded as the great and universal principle of all reasoning dawned upon him; and in 1869 he published a sketch of this fundamental doctrine under the title of '' The Substitution of Similars''. He expressed this principle in its simplest form by saying: "Whatever is true of a thing is true of its like", and he worked out in detail its various applications including the '' logical abacus'' (a cross between logical
abacus The abacus (''plural'' abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool which has been used since ancient times. It was used in the ancient Near East, Europe, China, and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the Hi ...
and a
piano The piano is a stringed keyboard instrument in which the strings are struck by wooden hammers that are coated with a softer material (modern hammers are covered with dense wool felt; some early pianos used leather). It is played using a musica ...
– "Logic Piano"), a mechanical computer he designed and had built in 1866. In the following year appeared the ''Elementary Lessons on Logic'', which soon became the most widely read elementary textbook on logic in the English language. In the meantime he was engaged upon a much more important logical treatise, which appeared in 1874 under the title of ''The Principles of Science''. In this work Jevons embodied the substance of his earlier works on pure logic and the substitution of similars; he also enunciated and developed the view that induction is simply an inverse employment of deduction; he treated in a luminous manner the general theory of
probability Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, ...
, and the relation between probability and induction; and his knowledge of the various natural sciences enabled him throughout to relieve the abstract character of logical doctrine by concrete scientific illustrations, often worked out in great detail. An example is his discussion of the use of one-way functions in
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adve ...
, including remarks on the
integer factorization In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers. If these factors are further restricted to prime numbers, the process is called prime factorization. When the numbers are ...
problem that foreshadowed its use in
public-key cryptography Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is the field of cryptographic systems that use pairs of related keys. Each key pair consists of a public key and a corresponding private key. Key pairs are generated with cryptographic alg ...
. Jevons's general theory of induction was a revival of the theory laid down by
Whewell William Whewell ( ; 24 May 17946 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. In his time as a student there, he achieved ...
and criticised by
John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873) was an English philosopher, political economist, Member of Parliament (MP) and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to ...
; but it was put in a new form, and was free from some of the non-essential adjuncts that rendered Whewell's exposition open to attack. The work as a whole was one of the most notable contributions to logical doctrine that appeared in the UK in the 19th century. "Though less attractively written than Mill's ''System of Logic'', ''Principles of Science'' is a book that keeps much closer to the facts of scientific practice.""Jevons, William Stanley", in ''The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers'' (1960), New York: Hawthorn. His ''Studies in Deductive Logic'', consisting mainly of exercises and problems for the use of students, was published in 1880. In 1877 and the following years Jevons contributed to the ''Contemporary Review'' some articles on Mill, which he had intended to supplement by further articles, and eventually publish in a volume as a criticism of Mill's philosophy. These articles and one other were republished after Jevons's death, together with his earlier logical treatises, in a volume, entitled ''Pure Logic, and other Minor Works''. The articles on criticisms of Mill contain much that is ingenious and much that is forcible, but on the whole they cannot be regarded as taking rank with Jevons's other work. His strength lay in his power as an original thinker rather than as a critic; and he will be remembered by his constructive work as logician, economist and
statistician A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors. It is common to combine statistical knowledge with expertise in other subjects, and statisticians may w ...
.


Jevons's number

Jevons wrote in his 1874 book ''Principles of Science'': "Can the reader say what two numbers multiplied together will produce the number 8,616,460,799? I think it unlikely that anyone but myself will ever know." This became known as Jevons's number and was factored by Charles J. Busk in 1889, Derrick Norman Lehmer in 1903, and later on a pocket calculator by Solomon W. Golomb. It is the product of two prime numbers, 89,681 and 96,079.


Geometry

One of Jevons's contemporaries,
Hermann von Helmholtz Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (31 August 1821 – 8 September 1894) was a German physicist and physician who made significant contributions in several scientific fields, particularly hydrodynamic stability. The Helmholtz Association ...
, who was interested in
non-Euclidean geometry In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those that specify Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean ge ...
, discussed two groups of two-dimensional creatures with one group living in the plane while the other living in the surface of a sphere. He asserted that since these creatures were embedded in two dimensions, they would develop a planar version of
Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the '' Elements''. Euclid's approach consists in assuming a small set of intuitively appealing axiom ...
, but that since the nature of these surfaces were different, they would arrive at very different versions of this geometry. He then extended this argument into three dimensions, noting that this raises fundamental questions of the relationship of spatial perception to mathematical truth. Jevons made an almost immediate response to this article. While Helmholtz focused on how humans perceived space, Jevons focused on the question of truth in geometry. Jevons agreed that while Helmholtz's argument was compelling in constructing a situation where the Euclidean axioms of geometry would not apply, he believed that they had no effect on the truth of these axioms. Jevons hence makes the distinction between truth and applicability or perception, suggesting that these concepts were independent in the domain of geometry. Jevons did not claim that geometry was developed without any consideration for spatial reality. Instead, he suggested that his geometric systems were representations of reality but in a more fundamental way that transcends what one can perceive about reality. Jevons claimed that there was a flaw in Helmholtz's argument relating to the concept of infinitesimally small. This concept involves how these creatures reason about geometry and space at a very small scale, which is not necessarily the same as the reasoning that Helmholtz assumed on a more global scale. Jevons claimed that the Euclidean relations could be reduced locally in the different scenarios that Helmholtz created and hence the creatures should have been able to experience the Euclidean properties, just in a different representation. For example, Jevons claimed that the two-dimensional creatures living on the surface of a sphere should be able to construct the plane and even construct systems of higher dimensions and that although they may not be able to perceive such situations in reality, it would reveal fundamental mathematical truths in their theoretical existence. In 1872, Helmholtz gave a response to Jevons, who claimed that Helmholtz failed to show why geometric truth should be separate from the reality of spatial perception. Helmholtz criticized Jevons's definition of truth and in particular, experiential truth. Helmholtz asserts that there should be a difference between experiential truth and mathematical truth and that these versions of truth are not necessarily consistent. This conversation between Helmholtz and Jevons was a microcosm of an ongoing debate between truth and perception in the wake of the introduction of non-Euclidean geometry in the late 19th century.


Personal life

In 1867, Jevons married Harriet Ann Taylor, whose father,
John Edward Taylor John Edward Taylor (11 September 1791 – 6 January 1844) was an English business tycoon, editor, publisher and member of The Portico Library, who was the founder of the ''Manchester Guardian'' newspaper in 1821, which was renamed in 195 ...
, had been the founder and proprietor of the '' Manchester Guardian''. Jevons suffered from ill health and sleeplessness, and found the delivery of lectures covering so wide a range of subjects very burdensome. In 1876, he was glad to exchange the Owens professorship for the professorship of
political economy Political economy is the study of how economic systems (e.g. markets and national economies) and political systems (e.g. law, institutions, government) are linked. Widely studied phenomena within the discipline are systems such as labour ...
in
University College, London , mottoeng = Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward , established = , type = Public research university , endowment = £143 million (2020) , budget = ...
. Travelling and music were the principal recreations of his life; but his health continued to be bad, and he suffered from depression. He found his professorial duties increasingly irksome, and feeling that the pressure of literary work left him no spare energy, he decided in 1880 to resign the post. On 13 August 1882 he drowned whilst bathing near
Hastings Hastings () is a large seaside town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east to the county town of Lewes and south east of London. The town gives its name to the Battle of Hastings, ...
. Jevons was brought up a Christian Unitarian. Excerpts from his journals indicate he remained committed to his Christian beliefs until death. He is buried in the
Hampstead Cemetery Hampstead Cemetery is a historic cemetery in West Hampstead, London, located at the upper extremity of the NW6 district. Despite the name, the cemetery is three-quarters of a mile from Hampstead Village, and bears a different postcode. It is j ...
.


Legacy

Jevons was a prolific writer, and at the time of his death was a leader in the UK both as a logician and as an economist.
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was an English economist, and was one of the most influential economists of his time. His book '' Principles of Economics'' (1890) was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years. I ...
said of his work in economics that it "will probably be found to have more constructive force than any, save that of
Ricardo Ricardo is the Spanish and Portuguese cognate of the name Richard. It derived from Proto-Germanic ''*rīks'' 'king, ruler' + ''*harduz'' 'hard, brave'. It may be a given name, or a surname. People Given name * Ricardo de Araújo Pereira, Portu ...
, that has been done during the last hundred years." Jevons's theory of induction has continued to be influential: "Jevons's general view of induction has received a powerful and original formulation in the work of a modern-day philosopher, Professor K. R. Popper."


Works

*1862. ''A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy'' *1863
''A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold''
Edward Stanford. *1864
''Pure Logic; or, the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity''
Edward Stanford, London *1865. ''The Coal Question'', Macmillan and Co. *1869
''The Substitution of Similars, The True Principle of Reasoning''
Macmillan & Co. *1870
''Elementary Lessons on Logic''
Macmillan & Co., London *1871. ''The Match Tax: A Problem in Finance'', Edward Stanford. *1871.
The Theory of Political Economy
', Macmillan & Co. **"Theory of Political Economy". In James R. Newman, ed., ''The World of Mathematics'', Vol. 2, Part IV, 1956. *1874. ''Principles of Science'', Macmillan & Co. *1875. ''Money and the Mechanism of Exchange'', D. Appleton and Co. *1878.

' *1880. ''Studies in Deductive Logic''
1884 edition
(Macmillan & Co., London) *1882. ''The State in Relation to Labour'' *1883. ''Methods of Social Reform and Other Papers'', Macmillan and Co. **''Methods of Social Reform, and Other Papers'', Kelley, 1965. *1884
''Investigations in Currency and Finance''
Macmillan and Co. 1884. *1886
''Letters and Journal of W. Stanley Jevons''
Ed. by Harriet A. Jevons, Macmillan & Co. *1972–81. ''Papers and Correspondence'', edited by R. D. Collison Black, Macmillan & the Royal Economic Society (7 vol.)


Articles


"On the Variation of Prices and the Value of the Currency since 1782"
''Journal of the Statistical Society of London'', Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1865.
"On the Frequent Autumnal Pressure in the Money Market, and the Action of the Bank of England"
''Journal of the Statistical Society of London'', Vol. 29, No. 2, June 1866.
"On the Condition of the Metallic Currency of the United Kingdom, with Reference to the Question of International Coinage"
''Journal of the Statistical Society of London'', Vol. 31, No. 4, December 1868.
"Who Discovered the Quantification of the Predicate?"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXI, December 1872/May 1873.
"The Philosophy of Inductive Inference"
''Fortnightly Review'', Vol. XIV, New Series, 1873.
"The Use of Hypothesis"
''Fortnightly Review'', Vol. XIV, New Series, 1873.
"The Railways and the State"
In: ''Essays and Addresses'', Macmillan & Co., 1874.
"The Future of Political Economy"
''Fortnightly Review'', Vol. XX, New Series, 1876.
"Cruelty to Animals: A Study in Sociology"
''Fortnightly Review'', Vol. XIX, New Series, 1876.
"The Silver Question"
''Journal of Social Science'', No. IX, January 1878.
"John Stuart Mill's Philosophy Tested"Part II
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXI, December 1877/January 1878
Part III
Vol. XXXII, April 1878.Jackson, Reginald. "Mill's Treatment of Geometry: A Reply to Jevons", ''Mind'', New Series, Vol. 50, No. 197, January 1941.
"Methods of Social Reform, I: Amusements of the People"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXIII, October 1878.
"Methods of Social Reform, II: A State Parcel Post"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXIV, January 1879.
"The Periodicity of Commercial Crises, and its Physical Explanation,"
''Journal of The Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland'', Vol. VII, Part 54, 1878/1879.
"Experimental Legislation and the Drink Traffic"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXVII, January/June 1880.
"Recent Mathematico-Logical Memoirs"
''Nature'', Vol. XXIII, 24 March 1881.
"Richard Cantillon and the Nationality of Political Economy"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXIX, January/June 1881.
"The Rationale of Free Public Libraries"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXIX, January/June 1881.
"Bimetallism"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XXXIX, January/June 1881.
"Married Women in Factories"
''The Contemporary Review'', Vol. XLI, January/June 1882.


Miscellany

*Luigi Cossa
''Guide to the Study of Political Economy''
with a Preface by W. Stanley Jevons, Macmillan & Co., 1880. *Jevons & his theory on a possible ommection between sunspots & economic activity cycles, were mentioned by Lovecraft in his The Shadow out of Time as discussed by Nathaniel Wingate Peaslee just before he was abducted by the Great Race.


References


Sources

* *R.D. Collison Black (1987). "Jevons, William Stanley", '' The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics'', v. 2, pp. 1008–14. * Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000. ''The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940''. Princeton University Press. *Terry Peach (1987). "Jevons as an economic theorist", ''The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics'', v. 2, pp. 1014–19. *The first part of this article was based on an article in the Encyclopedia of Marxism a
www.marxists.org


Further reading

*Bam, Vincent, ''et al''. "Hypothetical Fallibilism in Peirce and Jevons", ''Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society'', Vol. 15, No. 2, Spring, 1979. *Barrett, Lindsay and Connell, Matthew

''The Rutherford Journal'', Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2006. *Collison Black, R. D. "Jevons and Cairnes", ''Economica'', New Series, Vol. 27, No. 107, Aug., 1960. *Collison Black, R. D. "Jevons, Bentham and De Morgan", ''Economica'', New Series, Vol. 39, No. 154, May, 1972. *De Marchi, N. B. "The Noxious Influence of Authority: A Correction of Jevons' Charge", ''Journal of Law and Economics'', Vol. 16, No. 1, Apr., 1973. *Grattan-Guinness, I. "'In Some Parts Rather Rough': A Recently Discovered Manuscript Version of William Stanley Jevons's 'General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy' (1862)", ''History of Political Economy'', Vol. 34, Number 4, Winter 2002. *Jevons, H. Winefrid. "William Stanley Jevons: His Life", ''Econometrica'', Vol. 2, No. 3, Jul., 1934. *Keynes, J. M. "William Stanley Jevons 1835–1882: A Centenary Allocation on his Life and Work as Economist and Statistician", ''Journal of the Royal Statistical Society'', Vol. 99, No. 3, 1936. *Könekamp, Rosamund. "William Stanley Jevons (1835–1882). Some Biographical Notes", ''Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies'', Vol. 30, No. 3, Sept. 1962. *Konvitz, Milton R. "An Empirical Theory of the Labor Movement: W. Stanley Jevons", ''The Philosophical Review'', Vol. 57, No. 1, Jan., 1948. *La Nauze, J. A. "The Conception of Jevon's Utility Theory", ''Economica'', New Series, Vol. 20, No. 80, Nov., 1953. *Maas, Harro. ''William Stanley Jevons and the Making of Modern Economics'', Cambridge University Press, 2005. *Madureira, Nuno Luis. "The Anxiety of Abundance: William Stanley Jevons and Coal Scarcity in the Nineteenth Century", ''Environment and History'', Volume 18, Number 3, August 2012. *Mays, W. and Henry, D. P. "Jevons and Logic", ''Mind'', New Series, Vol. 62, No. 248, Oct., 1953. *Mosselmans, Bert
"William Stanley Jevons and the Extent of Meaning in Logic and Economics"
''History and Philosophy of Logic'', Volume 19, Issue 2, 1998. *Mosselmans, Bert. ''William Stanley Jevons and the Cutting Edge of Economics'', Routledge, 2007. *Noller, Carl W. "Jevons on Cost", ''Southern Economic Journal'', Vol. 39, No. 1, Jul., 1972. *Paul, Ellen Frankel. "W. Stanley Jevons: Economic Revolutionary, Political Utilitarian", ''Journal of the History of Ideas'', Vol. 40, No. 2, Apr./Jun., 1979. *Peart, Sandra. "'Disturbing Causes', 'Noxious Errors', and the Theory-Practice Distinction in the Economics of J.S. Mill and W.S. Jevons", ''The Canadian Journal of Economics'', Vol. 28, No. 4b, Nov., 1995. *Peart, Sandra. ''The Economics of W. S. Jevons'', Routledge, 1996. *Peart, Sandra. "Jevons and Menger Re-Homogenized?: Jaffé after 20 Years", ''The American Journal of Economics and Sociology'', Vol. 57, No. 3, Jul., 1998. *Peart, Sandra. "Facts Carefully Marshalled' in the Empirical Studies of William Stanley Jevons", ''History of Political Economy'', Vol. 33, Annual Supplement, 2001. *Robertson, Ross M. "Jevons and His Precursors", ''Econometrica'', Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul., 1951. *Schabas, Margaret. "The 'Worldly Philosophy' of William Stanley Jevons", ''Victorian Studies'', Vol. 28, No. 1, Autumn, 1984. *Schabas, Margaret. "Alfred Marshall, W. Stanley Jevons, and the Mathematization of Economics", ''Isis'', Vol. 80, No. 1, Mar., 1989. *Schabas, Margaret. ''A World Ruled by Number: William Stanley Jevons and the Rise of Mathematical Economics'', Princeton University Press, 1990. *Strong, John V. "The Infinite Ballot Box of Nature: De Morgan, Boole, and Jevons on Probability and the Logic of Induction", ''PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association'', Vol. 1976, Volume One: Contributed Papers, 1976. *Wood, John C. ''William Stanley Jevons: Critical Assessments'', 2 vol., Routledge, 1988. *York, Richard
"Ecological Paradoxes: William Stanley Jevons and the Paperless Office"
''Human Ecology Review'', Vol. 13, No. 2, 2006. *Young, Allyn A
"Jevons' 'Theory of Political Economy'"
''The American Economic Review'', Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep., 1912. *Shepherdson, John C. "W. S. Jevons: his Logical Machine and Work Induction and Boolean Algebra" ''Machine Intelligence'' 15. eds. K. Furukawa; D. Michie; S. Muggleton. OUP, 1998. p. 489–505.


External links

*
Royal Society certificate of election 1872
at '' The Rutherford Journal''
The Coal Question – Encyclopedia of EarthLetters and Journal of W. Stanley Jevons
edited by his wife (1886). This work contains a bibliography of Jevons's writings. * *
Jevons Family Archive
at John Rylands Library, Manchester. ;Works available online: * *
The Coal Question
(also availabl
here

The Theory of Political EconomyMoney and the Mechanism of Exchange''Elementary Lessons in Logic''''Money and the Mechanism of Exchange''''The Theory of Political Economy''
* ttps://archive.org/details/theorypolitical00jevogoog The Principles of Political Economy 1871,
The Theory of Political Economy
1879, 2nd ed.
The Theory of Political Economy
1888, 3rd ed. (1879 ed. + 3rd Preface by Harriet A. Jevons & adds to bibliographic 1st Appendix). {{DEFAULTSORT:Jevons, William Stanley 1835 births 1882 deaths Academics from Liverpool Academics of University College London Accidental deaths in England Alumni of University College London Burials at Hampstead Cemetery Deaths by drowning in the United Kingdom English economists English logicians English philosophers English statisticians Environmental economists Fellows of the Royal Society Neoclassical economics Neoclassical economists People educated at University College School 19th-century British philosophers 19th-century British economists 19th-century English mathematicians Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society