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William James Crowe Jr. (January 2, 1925 – October 18, 2007) was a United States
United States
Navy admiral who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under Presidents Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and George H. W. Bush, and as the ambassador to the United Kingdom under President Bill Clinton.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Later life and death 4 Legacy 5 Personal life 6 Dates of rank 7 Awards and recognition

7.1 Awards and decorations

8 Pop culture 9 References 10 External links

Early life and education[edit] Crowe was born in La Grange, Kentucky, on January 2, 1925. At the beginning of the Great Depression, Crowe's father moved the family to Oklahoma City. In June 1946, Crowe completed a war-accelerated course of study and graduated with the Class of 1947 from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Career[edit] From 1954 to 1955, Crowe served as assistant to the naval aide of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. From 1956 to 1958, Crowe served as executive officer of the submarine USS Wahoo (SS-565). In 1958, he served as an aide to the deputy chief of naval operations. In 1960, Crowe took command of USS Trout (SS-566), homeported in Charleston, South Carolina, and served as commanding officer of that ship until 1962. From there, Crowe earned a master's degree in education at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, and then, turning down an invitation from Admiral Hyman G. Rickover
Hyman G. Rickover
to enter the Navy's nuclear-power program,[1] earned an M.A. and a PhD in Political Science at Princeton University. During the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
he was the senior adviser to the Vietnamese Riverine Force. In 1969, he returned to service to take command of Submarine Division 31, homeported in San Diego, California. A long string of assignments followed:

1967 – Head of East Asia Pacific Branch, Politico-Military Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 1970 – Senior adviser to the Vietnamese Navy Riverine Force 1973 – promoted to Rear Admiral and named Deputy Director, Strategic Plans, Policy, Nuclear Systems, and NSC Affairs Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 1975 – Director, East Asia and Pacific Region, Office of the Secretary of Defense 1976 – Commander, Middle East Force (COMMIDEASTFOR) 1977 – promoted to Vice Admiral and named Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations 1980 – promoted to Admiral and named Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH) 1983 – as CINCSOUTH, named Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR) 1983 – Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Command
U.S. Pacific Command
(CINCPAC)

On July 10, 1985, Crowe was appointed by President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
to serve as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He continued to serve as CJCS through the Bush administration until 1989, when he retired from active duty. He was the first chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to serve under the provisions of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 where he as chairman became (not the collegial body of the Joint Chiefs of Staff), by statute, the principal military adviser to the president, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. In 1989, Army General Colin L. Powell
Colin L. Powell
succeeded him as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Later life and death[edit] After he retired in October 1989, Crowe returned to the University of Oklahoma and William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
chair in geopolitics. Crowe surprised politicians when he endorsed Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in the presidential election of 1992. President Clinton named Crowe chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board in 1993. In 1994, President Clinton appointed Crowe the United States
United States
Ambassador to the United Kingdom, and he served in that capacity until 1997. He sat on the boards of Texaco, Merrill Lynch, Pfizer, Norfolk Southern Corporation, and General Dynamics. He also served on the board of Emergent BioSolutions
Emergent BioSolutions
(then Bioport), a company that provided controversial anthrax vaccinations to the U.S. military in the 1990s. The deal was approved by the Clinton administration, with which Crowe had a previous relationship. At the time of his death, Crowe served as the chairman of the board of Global Options, Inc., an international risk-management and business solutions company headquartered in Washington, D.C. As he did at the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
in 1990–91, Crowe taught a seminar class on national security at the United States
United States
Naval Academy from 2000 to 2007. In 2004, Crowe was among 27 retired diplomats and military commanders who publicly said the administration of President George W. Bush did not understand the world and was unable to handle "in either style or substance" the responsibilities of global leadership.[2] Crowe died on October 18, 2007, at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland at age 82 because of a heart condition.[3] His funeral was held on October 31, 2007, at the Naval Academy chapel; Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
spoke. He was buried later that day in the United States
United States
Naval Academy Cemetery. As of 2015, he is the only deceased former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs to not be buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Legacy[edit] In 2008, a fellowship was established in Crowe's honor at the University of Kentucky's Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce to support a former member of the U.S. armed forces who – like Crowe – is shifting from military to diplomatic service. In 2009, the International Programs Center at the University of Oklahoma established the Admiral William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
Jr. Award. This award is presented to an outstanding International and Area Studies (IAS) graduate every spring semester. The award recognizes an IAS student who has demonstrated high academic achievement, a commitment to public service, and a desire to pursue a career in global affairs. Also in 2009, the Xbox/ PS2 game, Heroes of the Pacific, was released. The main character's name is also William Crowe, though whether or not this was inspired by the real-life Crowe is unknown. Personal life[edit] Crowe was married to Shirley Grennell in 1954. They had three children. Dates of rank[edit]

Seaman recruit, United States
United States
Naval Reserve: December 4, 1942 Midshipman, United States
United States
Naval Academy: June 23, 1943

Ensign Lieutenant junior grade Lieutenant Lieutenant commander Commander Captain

O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6

June 5, 1946 June 5, 1949 June 1, 1952 January 1, 1958 July 1, 1962 July 1, 1967

Rear admiral (lower half) Rear admiral (upper half) Vice admiral Admiral

O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10

N/A*

June 1, 1974 August 1, 1977 September 26, 1977 June 6, 1980

At the time of Admiral Crowe's promotion, all rear admirals wore two stars, but the rank was divided into an "upper" and "lower half" for pay purposes

Awards and recognition[edit] Crowe was awarded doctor of laws (LL.D.) honorary degrees from numerous universities, including University of Liverpool, The George Washington University, and Knox College. In 1989 Crowe appeared in one episode of the TV sitcom Cheers
Cheers
(Season 7, Episode 17 "Hot Rocks"), where he played himself.[4] On 1990 he was the first recipient of the Distinguished Sea Service Award of Naval Order of the United States. In 1993 Crowe published his memoirs in the book The Line of Fire: From Washington to the Gulf, the Politics and Battles of the New Military. Crowe received four Defense Distinguished Service Medals and numerous military decorations from heads of state. In 1998, the Atatürk Society of America honored Crowe with the "Atatürk Peace and Democracy Award."[5] Following his retirement from the Navy, he was awarded a 2000 Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.[6] Awards and decorations[edit]

Badges Submarine Warfare Insignia Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Identification Badge

U.S. military decorations

Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
(with three Oak Leaf Clusters)

Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
(with two gold stars)

Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(with 2 gold award stars)

Bronze Star with Valor device

Air Medal
Air Medal
with bronze award numeral 7 (strike/flight awards)

China Service Medal

American Campaign Medal

World War II Victory Medal

Navy Occupation Service Medal with Pacific clasp

National Defense Service Medal
National Defense Service Medal
with bronze service star

Vietnam Service Medal
Vietnam Service Medal
with 1 campaign star

Humanitarian Service Medal

U.S. Unit Awards

Navy Presidential Unit Citation

Navy Unit Commendation

Non-military decorations

Presidential Medal of Freedom

Foreign awards

Republic of Vietnam Navy Distinguished Service Order 2nd Class

Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross
with Palm and Bronze Star

Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Honor Medal
Vietnam Armed Forces Honor Medal
First Class

Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
Order of the National Security Merit Tong-Il Medal

Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

Knight Grand Cross of the Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand

Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Unit Citation

Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal

Pop culture[edit] Crowe portrayed himself on the TV show Cheers
Cheers
(S-7 E-17 "Hot Rocks"). At the time he was the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[7] References[edit]

United States
United States
Navy portal

^ "Former Joint Chiefs Chair Crowe Dies," AP, October 18, 2007. Archived June 9, 2007, at Archive.is ^ June 13, 2004, by the Los Angeles Times. ^ Former JCS chairman Crowe dies at 82, Air Force Times; October 18, 2007. ^ William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
Jr ^ Turkish Press Review, dated April 28, 1998. ^ Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Recipients, retrieved July 30, 2009. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm2330958/?ref_=tt_cl_t8

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
Jr..

Wikiquote has quotations related to: William J. Crowe

Obituary in The Times, October 23, 2007 Navy Historical Center: Biographies in Naval History GlobalOptions, Inc. University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
International Programs Center Senate statement on Crowe's tenure as CJCS White House Press Office announcement of Crowe's nomination as ambassador The American Thinker, The Guns of '88: Lessons of the Forgotten Tanker War, April 25, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2006. Crowe talks about U.S. involvement in the Tanker War portion of the Iran–Iraq War. Crowe's foreword to No Higher Honor: Saving the Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Appearances on C-SPAN

Military offices

Preceded by Robert Long Commander of United States
United States
Pacific Command 1983–1985 Succeeded by Ronald Hays

Preceded by John Vessey Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1985–1989 Succeeded by Colin Powell

Government offices

Preceded by Bobby Inman Acting Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board 1993–1994 Succeeded by Les Aspin

Preceded by Jim Thompson Chair of the Intelligence Oversight Board 1993–1994 Succeeded by Anthony Harrington

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Raymond Seitz United States
United States
Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1994–1997 Succeeded by Philip Lader

v t e

Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Bradley Radford Twining Lemnitzer Taylor Wheeler Moorer Brown Jones Vessey Crowe Powell Jeremiah (acting) Shalikashvili Shelton Myers Pace Mullen Dempsey Dunford

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 41939378 LCCN: n85277440 ISNI: 0000 0000 8376 0590 GND: 119162733 BNF: cb12468893b (data) SN

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