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William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands
United Provinces of the Netherlands
from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, William III, reigned as King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Arms 3 Depictions 4 Ancestors 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Biography[edit]

Engraving of William II

William II, Prince of Orange, was the son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. Frederick Henry was the youngest son of William the Silent
William the Silent
(stadtholder 1559-1584); his older half brother Maurits of Nassau was stadtholder (1585-1625); he was stadtholder from 1625 to 1647. The stadtholders governed in conjunction with the States-General, an assembly of representatives from each of the seven provinces, but usually dominated by the largest and wealthiest province, Holland. On 2 May 1641, William married Mary, Princess Royal, who was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, in the Chapel Royal of Whitehall Palace
Whitehall Palace
in London. William was fifteen, while Mary was just nine at that time. In 1647, his father Frederick Henry died, and William II succeeded to both his hereditary titles and his elective offices as stadtholder of five of the seven provinces: Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders
Guelders
and Overijssel. The Netherlands at this time was engaged in the Eighty Years' War against Spain
Spain
for its independence. Under Frederick Henry, the Netherlands had largely won the war, and since 1646 had been negotiating with Spain
Spain
on the terms for ending it. The negotiators agreed to the Peace of Münster
Peace of Münster
in 1648, but William opposed acceptance of the treaty, even though it recognized the independence of the (northern) Netherlands, because it left the southern Netherlands in the hands of the Spanish monarchy. A separate peace furthermore violated the alliance with France formed in 1635. However, the States of six provinces voted to accept it. Secretly, William opened his own negotiations with France with the goal of extending his own territory under a more centralized government. In addition, he worked for the restoration of his exiled brother-in-law, Charles II, to the throne of England. In 1650 William II became involved in a bitter quarrel with the province of Holland
Holland
and the powerful Regents of Amsterdam, Andries Bicker and his cousin Cornelis de Graeff. With the Peace of Münster, the Regents wanted to reduce the army, saving money. That would also diminish William's authority. William imprisoned eight members of the States of Holland
Holland
(including Jacob de Witt) in the castle of Loevestein. In addition, he sent his cousin, Willem Frederik of Nassau-Dietz with an army of 10,000 men to seize Amsterdam
Amsterdam
by force. Bad weather foiled this campaign, but Amsterdam
Amsterdam
did give in.[1] William served as stadtholder for only three years, until he died of smallpox in 1650. His only son William was born one week after his death. This was the beginning of the First Stadtholderless Period. His son succeeded him in 1672 as stadtholder and later, in 1689, also became King of England. Arms[edit] William II used the following arms during his time as prince of Orange, Stadholder or Holland, etc., and Captain-General:

The coat of arms used by Frederick Henry, his son William II, and his grandson William III before becoming King of England [2]

Depictions[edit]

Double portrait to commemorate the bethrothal of William and Mary Henrietta Stuart, by Anthony van Dyck.

William II of Orange and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal.

Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of William II, Prince of Orange

16. John V of Nassau-Dillenburg

8. William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

17. Elisabeth of Hesse-Marburg

4. William the Silent

18. Bodo VIII, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode

9. Juliana of Stolberg

19. Anna of Eppstein-Königstein

2. Frederik Hendrik of Orange

20. Gaspard I de Coligny

10. Gaspard II de Coligny

21. Louise de Montmorency

5. Louise de Coligny

22. Guy XVI de Laval

11. Charlotte de Laval

23. Antoinette d'Aillon

1. William II, Prince of Orange

24. Philip, Count of Solms-Braunfels

12. Conrad, Count of Solms-Braunfels

25. Countess Anna of Tecklenburg

6. John Albert I of Solms-Braunfels

26. William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
(=8)

13. Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg

27. Juliana of Stolberg (=9)

3. Amalia of Solms-Braunfels

28. William I, Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein

14. Louis I, Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein

29. Johannetta of Isenburg-Neumagen

7. Agnes of Sayn-Wittgenstein

30. Frederick Magnus I, Count of Solms-Laubach

15. Elisabeth of Solms-Laubach

31. Agnes of Wied

References[edit]

^ Russel Shorto. The Island at the Centre of the World. ISBN 0-552-99982-2 ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9. 

Bibliography[edit]

Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Herbert H. Rowen, "John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1625-1672". Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1978. Herbert H. Rowen, "John de Witt: Statesman of the "True Freedom"". Cambridge University Press, 2003. Petrus Johannes Blok, "History of the people of the Netherlands". New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1898. Pieter Geyl, "Orange and Stuart, 1641-1672". Scribner, 1970. Jonathan I. Israel, "The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806" Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-820734-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to William II, Prince of Orange.

William II, Prince of Orange House of Orange-Nassau Cadet branch of the House of Nassau Born: 27 May 1626 Died: 6 November 1650

Regnal titles

Preceded by Frederick Henry Prince of Orange Baron
Baron
of Breda 1647–1650 Succeeded by William III

Political offices

Preceded by Frederick Henry Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders
Guelders
and Overijssel 1647–1650 Succeeded by William III

v t e

Stadtholders of Guelders

Willem van Egmond Willem van Egmond
Willem van Egmond
jr. Philip I of Croÿ-Chimay Willem van Egmond
Willem van Egmond
jr. Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein Jan V of Nassau-Vianden-Diez Philip of Burgundy Floris van Egmond René of Châlon Philip de Lalaing Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn Karel van Brimeu Gillis van Berlaymont John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg Willem IV van den Bergh Adolf van Nieuwenaar Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry of Orange William II of Orange interregnum William III of Orange interregnum William IV of Orange William V of Orange

v t e

Stadtholders of Holland, Zeeland
Zeeland
and (from 1528) Utrecht

Hugo van Lannoy Willem van Lalaing Gozewijn de Wilde Jean de Lannoy Lewis de Bruges Wolfert VI van Borselen Joost van Lalaing Jan III van Egmond Henry III of Nassau-Breda Antoon van Lalaing René of Châlon Louis of Flanders Maximilian II of Burgundy William of Orange Maximilian of Hennin Philip of Noircarmes William of Orange Adolf van Nieuwenaar
Adolf van Nieuwenaar
(Utrecht only) Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry of Orange William II of Orange interregnum William III of Orange interregnum William IV of Orange William V of Orange

v t e

Stadtholders of Overijssel

Georg Schenck van Toutenburg Maximiliaan van Egmond Jan van Ligne Karel van Brimeu Gillis van Berlaymont Caspar van Robles Georges van Lalaing Francisco Verdugo Adolf van Nieuwenaar Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry of Orange William II of Orange William III of Orange William IV of Orange William V of Orange

v t e

Stadtholders of Drenthe

Christoph van Moers Jasper van Marwijck Charles, Duke of Guelders Ludolf Coenders Georg Schenck van Toutenburg Maximiliaan van Egmond Jan van Ligne Karel van Brimeu Gillis van Berlaymont Caspar van Robles Georges van Lalaing Francisco Verdugo Willem Lodewijk of Nassau-Dietz Maurice of Nassau Ernst Casimir Hendrik Casimir I Willem Frederik Hendrik Casimir II William II of Orange William III of Orange William IV of Orange William V of Orange

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 20488918 LCCN: n85053590 ISNI: 0000 0000 5489 2455 GND: 119357577 SELIBR: 314447 SUDOC: 170664

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