The Info List - Willard Libby

Willard Frank Libby (December 17, 1908 – September 8, 1980) was an American physical chemist noted for his role in the 1949 development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology and palaeontology. For his contributions to the team that developed this process, Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1960. A 1927 chemistry graduate of the University of California
University of California
at Berkeley, from which he received his doctorate in 1933, he studied radioactive elements and developed sensitive Geiger counters to measure weak natural and artificial radioactivity. During World War II
World War II
he worked in the Manhattan Project's Substitute Alloy Materials (SAM) Laboratories at Columbia University, developing the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. After the war, Libby accepted professorship at the University of Chicago's Institute for Nuclear Studies, where he developed the technique for dating organic compounds using carbon-14. He also discovered that tritium similarly could be used for dating water, and therefore wine. In 1950, he became a member of the General Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). He was appointed a commissioner in 1954, becoming its sole scientist. He sided with Edward Teller
Edward Teller
on pursuing a crash program to develop the hydrogen bomb, participated in the Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
program, and defended the administration's atmospheric nuclear testing. Libby resigned from the AEC in 1959 to become Professor of Chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(UCLA), a position he held until his retirement in 1976. In 1962, he became the Director of the University of California
University of California
statewide Institute of Geophysics
and Planetary Physics (IGPP). He started the first Environmental Engineering program at UCLA in 1972, and as a member of the California Air Resources Board, he worked to develop and improve California's air pollution standards.


1 Early life and career 2 Manhattan Project 3 Radiocarbon dating 4 Atomic Energy Commission 5 UCLA 6 Awards and honors 7 Personal 8 Bibliography 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Early life and career[edit] Willard Frank Libby was born in Grand Valley, Colorado, on December 17, 1908, the son of farmers Ora Edward Libby and his wife Eva May (née Rivers).[1] He had two brothers, Elmer and Raymond, and two sisters, Eva and Evelyn.[2] Libby began his education in a two-room Colorado schoolhouse.[3] When he was five, Libby's parents moved to Santa Rosa, California.[4] He attended Analy High School, in Sebastopol, from which he graduated in 1926.[5] Libby, who grew to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) tall, played tackle on the high school football team.[6] In 1927 he entered the University of California
University of California
at Berkeley, where he received his B.S.
in 1931, and his Ph.D.
in 1933,[1] writing his doctoral thesis on the " Radioactivity
of ordinary elements, especially samarium and neodymium: method of detection"[7] under the supervision of Wendell Mitchell Latimer.[8] Independently of the work of George de Hevesy and Max Pahl, he discovered that the natural long-lived isotopes of samarium primarily decay by emission of alpha particles.[9] Libby was appointed Instructor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, in 1933.[1] He became an assistant professor of Chemistry there in 1938.[10] He spent the 1930s building sensitive Geiger counters to measure weak natural and artificial radioactivity. [9] He joined Berkeley's chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma in 1941.[11] That year he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship,[10] and elected to work at Princeton University.[6] Manhattan Project[edit] On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II, Libby volunteered his services to Nobel Prize laureate Harold Urey. Urey arranged for Libby to be given leave from the University of California
University of California
and to join him at Columbia University
Columbia University
to work on the Manhattan Project, the wartime project to develop atomic bombs,[1][6] at what became its Substitute Alloy Materials (SAM) Laboratories.[12] During his time in the New York City area, Libby was a resident of Leonia, New Jersey.[13] Over the next three years, Libby worked on the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment.[4] An atomic bomb required fissile material, and the fissile uranium-235 made up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. The SAM Laboratories therefore had to find a way of separating kilograms of it from the more abundant uranium-238. Gaseous diffusion worked on the principle that a lighter gas diffuses through a barrier faster than a heavier one at a rate inversely proportional to its molecular weight. But the only known gas containing uranium was the highly corrosive uranium hexafluoride, and a suitable barrier was hard to find.[14] Through 1942, Libby and his team studied different barriers and the means to protect them from corrosion from the uranium hexafluoride.[15] The most promising type was a barrier made of powdered nickel developed by Edward O. Norris of the Jelliff Manufacturing Corporation and Edward Adler from the City College of New York, which became known as the "Norris-Adler" barrier by late 1942.[16] In addition to developing a suitable barrier, the SAM Laboratories also had to assist in the design of a gaseous separation plant, which became known as K-25. Libby helped with the engineers from Kellex
to produce a workable design for a pilot plant.[17] Libby conducted a series of tests that indicated that the Norris-Adler barrier would work, and he remained confident that with an all-out effort, the remaining problems with it could be solved. Although doubts remained, construction work began on the K-25
full-scale production plant in September 1943.[18] As 1943 gave way to 1944, many problems remained. Tests began on the machinery at K-25
in April 1944 without a barrier. Attention turned to a new process developed by Kellex. Finally, in July 1944, Kellex barriers began to be installed in K-25.[19] K-25
commenced operation in February 1945, and as cascade after cascade came online, the quality of the product increased. By April 1945, K-25
had attained a 1.1% enrichment.[20] Uranium
partially enriched in K-25
was fed into the calutrons at Y-12 to complete the enrichment process.[21] Construction of the upper stages of the K-25
plant was cancelled, and Kellex
was directed to instead design and build a 540-stage side feed unit, which became known as K-27.[22] The last of K-25's 2,892 stages commenced operation in August 1945.[20] On August 5, K-25
starting producing feed enriched to 23 percent uranium-235.[23] K-25
and K-27 achieved their full potential only in the early postwar period, when they eclipsed the other production plants and became the prototypes for a new generation of plants.[20] Enriched uranium was used in the Little Boy
Little Boy
bomb employed in the bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.[24] Libby brought home a stack of newspapers and told his wife, "This is what I've been doing."[6] Radiocarbon dating[edit] After the war, Libby accepted an offer from the University of Chicago of a professorship in the Chemistry Department at the new Institute for Nuclear Studies.[1] He returned to his pre-war studies of radioactivity.[4] In 1939, Serge Korff had discovered that cosmic rays generated neutrons in the upper atmosphere. These interact with nitrogen-14 in the air to produce carbon-14: [25]

1n + 14N → 14C + 1p

The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730±40 years.[26] Libby realized that when plants and animals die they cease to ingest fresh carbon-14, thereby giving any organic compound a built-in nuclear clock.[25] He published his theory in 1946,[27][28] and expanded on it in his monograph Radiocarbon Dating in 1955. He also developed sensitive radiation detectors that could use the technique. Tests against sequoia with known dates from their tree rings showed radiocarbon dating to be reliable and accurate. The technique revolutionised archaeology, palaeontology and other disciplines that dealt with ancient artefacts.[4] In 1960, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science".[29] He also discovered that tritium similarly could be used for dating water, and therefore wine.[25] Atomic Energy Commission[edit] Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Chairman Gordon Dean appointed Libby to its influential General Advisory Committee (GAC) in 1950. In 1954, he was appointed an AEC commissioner by President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
on the recommendation of Dean's successor, Lewis Strauss. Libby and his family moved from Chicago to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
He brought with him a truckload of scientific equipment, which he used to establish a laboratory at the Carnegie Institution there to continue his studies of amino acids. Staunchly conservative politically, he was one of the few scientists who sided with Edward Teller
Edward Teller
rather than Robert Oppenheimer during the debate on whether it was wise to pursue a crash program to develop the hydrogen bomb.[6] As a commissioner, Libby played an important role in promoting Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program,[9] and was part of the United States delegation at the Geneva Conferences on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1955 and 1958.[6][30] As the only scientist among the five AEC commissioners, it fell to Libby to defend the Eisenhower administration's stance on atmospheric nuclear testing.[31] He argued that the dangers of radiation from nuclear tests were less than that from chest X-rays, and therefore less important than the risk of having an inadequate nuclear arsenal, but his arguments failed to convince the scientific community or reassure the public.[9][32] In January 1956, he publicly revealed the existence of Project Sunshine, a series of research studies to ascertain the impact of radioactive fallout on the world's population that he had initiated in 1953 while serving on the GAC.[33] By 1958, even Libby and Teller were supporting limits on atmospheric nuclear testing.[34] UCLA[edit] Libby resigned from the AEC in 1959, he became Professor of Chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(UCLA), a position he held until his retirement in 1976. He taught honors freshman chemistry. In 1962, he became the Director of the University of California
University of California
statewide Institute of Geophysics
and Planetary Physics (IGPP), a position he also held until 1976. His time as director encompassed the Apollo space program and the lunar landings. [4][8] Libby started the first Environmental Engineering program at UCLA in 1972.[8] As a member of the California Air Resources Board, he worked to develop and improve California's air pollution standards.[9] He established a research program to investigate heterogeneous catalysis with the idea of reducing emissions from motor vehicles through more complete fuel combustion.[8] The election of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
as president in 1968 generated speculation that Libby might be appointed as Presidential Science Advisor. There was a storm of protest from scientists who felt that Libby was too conservative, and the offer was not made.[35] Although Libby retired and became a professor emeritus in 1976,[8] he remained professionally active until his death in 1980.[3] Awards and honors[edit] Libby was an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.[3] In addition to the Nobel Prize, he received numerous honors and awards, including Columbia University's Chandler Medal in 1954,[36] the Remsen Memorial Lecture Award in 1955, the Bicentennial Lecture Award from the City College of New York
City College of New York
and the Nuclear Applications in Chemistry Award in 1956, the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal
in 1957, the American Chemical Society's Willard Gibbs Award in 1958, the Joseph Priestley Award from Dickinson College and the Albert Einstein Medal in 1959, the Geological Society of America's Arthur L. Day Medal in 1961,[37] the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Chemists in 1970,[38] and the Lehman Award from the New York Academy of Sciences
New York Academy of Sciences
in 1971. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
in 1950.[37] Analy High School library has a mural of Libby,[5] and a Sebastopol city park and a nearby highway are named in his honor.[39] His 1947 paper on radiocarbon dating was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 2016.[40][41][28] Personal[edit] In 1940, Libby married Leonor Hickey, a physical education teacher.[6] They had twin daughters, Janet Eva and Susan Charlotte, who were born in 1945.[2] In 1966 Libby divorced Leonor and married Leona Woods
Leona Woods
Marshall, a distinguished nuclear physicist who was one of the original builders of Chicago Pile-1, the world's first nuclear reactor. She joined him at UCLA as a professor of environmental engineering in 1973. Through this second marriage he acquired two stepsons, the children of her first marriage.[2][42] Libby died at the UCLA Medical Center
UCLA Medical Center
in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
on September 8, 1980, from a blood clot in his lung complicated by pneumonia.[35] His papers are in the Charles E. Young Research Library
Charles E. Young Research Library
at the UCLA.[43] Seven volumes of his papers were edited by Leona and Rainer Berger and published in 1981.[44] Bibliography[edit]

Arnold, J.R. and W. F. Libby. "Radiocarbon from Pile Graphite; Chemical Methods for Its Concentrations", Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (October 10, 1946). W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11–12): 671–672. Bibcode:1946PhRv...69..671L. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.69.671.2.  Libby, Willard F., Radiocarbon dating, 2d ed., University of Chicago Press, 1955. Libby, W. F. "Radioactive Fallout" United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (May 29, 1958). Libby, W. F. "Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad – Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation", United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (August 4, 1958). Libby, W. F. "History of Radiocarbon Dating", Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California-Los Angeles, International Atomic Energy Agency, (August 15, 1967). Libby, W. F. "Vulcanism and Radiocarbon Dates", University of California-Los Angeles, National Science Foundation, (October 1972). Libby, W. F. "Radiocarbon Dating, Memories, and Hopes", Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics
and Planetary Physics, University of California–Los Angeles, National Science Foundation, (October 1972). Libby, W. F. (1981). Berger, Rainer; Libby, Leona Marshall, eds. Collected papers. Santa Monica, California: Geo Science Analytical. ISBN 978-0-941054-00-3.  (7 volumes)


^ a b c d e "Willard F. Libby – Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved December 7, 2014.  ^ a b c "Willard F. Libby". Sylent Communications. Retrieved July 26, 2015.  ^ a b c Magill 1989, pp. 703–712. ^ a b c d e Carey 2006, pp. 231–232. ^ a b "Willard F. Libby mural at Analy High School
Analy High School
and a close up of the plaque that can be seen at Libby's left shoulder, May 6, 1984". Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g "Science: The Philosophers' Stone". Time. August 15, 1955. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ Libby, Willard F. (1933). " Radioactivity
of ordinary elements, especially samarium and neodymium: method of detection". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ a b c d e "University of California: In Memoriam, 1980 – Willard Frank Libby, Chemistry: Berkeley and Los Angeles". University of California. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ a b c d e Seaborg 1981, pp. 92–95. ^ a b "Willard F. Libby". John Simon Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved July 28, 2015.  ^ "Alpha Chi Sigma". Sigma Chapter. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, p. 128. ^ "Well-Read, Well-Shaded and Well-Placed". The New York Times. June 15, 1997. Retrieved March 30, 2011. Much later, its residents included five Nobel Prize winners, among them Enrico Fermi, one of the developers of the atomic bomb, and Willard Libby, who discovered radiocarbon dating; Sammy Davis Jr., Pat Boone and Alan Alda, the entertainers, and Robert Ludlum, the author  ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 29–31. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 99–100. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 101, 126. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 121–124. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 130–134. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 137–141. ^ a b c Jones 1985, pp. 167–171. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 159–160. ^ Jones 1985, pp. 158–165. ^ Jones 1985, p. 148. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 401–403. ^ a b c Libby, Willard (December 12, 1960). "Radiocarbon Dating – Nobel Lecture" (PDF). Retrieved July 28, 2015.  ^ Godwin, H (1962). " Half-life
of radiocarbon". Nature. 195 (4845): 984. Bibcode:1962Natur.195..984G. doi:10.1038/195984a0.  ^ W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11–12): 671–672. Bibcode:1946PhRv...69..671L. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.69.671.2.  ^ a b Anderson, E. C.; Libby, W. F.; Weinhouse, S.; Reid, A. F.; Kirshenbaum, A. D.; Grosse, A. V. (May 30, 1947). "Radiocarbon From Cosmic Radiation". Science. 105 (2735): 576–577. doi:10.1126/science.105.2735.576. Retrieved June 15, 2017.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved July 27, 2015.  ^ Hewlett & Holl 1989, p. 446. ^ Hewlett & Holl 1989, pp. 278–279. ^ Greene 2007, p. 65. ^ Buck, Alice (July 1983). "The Atomic Energy Commission" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ Hewlett & Holl 1989, pp. 542–543. ^ a b Well, Martin (September 10, 1980). " Willard Libby
Willard Libby
Dies, Noted For Carbon-14
Research". Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ "To Award Chandler Medal Tomorrow To Chicago Chemist". Columbia Daily Spectator. XCVIII (66). February 16, 1954. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ a b Laylin 1993, pp. 419–420. ^ "Gold Medal Award Winners:". AIC. Retrieved January 17, 2015.  ^ "City Parks". City of Sebastopol, California. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ "2016 Awardees". American Chemical Society, Division of the History of Chemistry. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign School of Chemical Sciences. 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017.  ^ "Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award" (PDF). American Chemical Society, Division of the History of Chemistry. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign School of Chemical Sciences. 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017.  ^ Folkart, Burt A. (November 13, 1986). "Leona Marshall Libby Dies; Sole Woman to Work on Fermi's 1st Nuclear Reactor". Retrieved April 16, 2013.  ^ "Finding Aid for the Willard F. Libby Papers". Retrieved July 28, 2015.  ^ Libby 1981.


Carey, Charles W. (2006). American scientists. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5499-2. OCLC 57414633.  Greene, Benjamin P. (2007). Eisenhower, Science Advice, and the Nuclear Test-Ban Debate, 1945–1963. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5445-3. OCLC 65204949.  Hewlett, Richard G.; Anderson, Oscar E. (1962). The New World, 1939–1946 (PDF). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-520-07186-7. OCLC 637004643. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  —; Holl, Jack M. (1989). Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
and War, 1953–1961 Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission (PDF). A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-520-06018-0. OCLC 82275622. Retrieved December 14, 2015.  Jones, Vincent (1985). Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. OCLC 10913875. Retrieved August 25, 2013.  Laylin, James K. (1993). Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, 1901–1992. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. ISBN 978-0-8412-2690-6. OCLC 28113007.  Magill, Frank N. (1989). The Nobel Prize Winners, Chemistry 1938–1968. Pasadena, California: Salem Press. ISBN 0-89356-561-X. Multi-volume set. Volume ISBN 0-89356-563-6.  Seaborg, Glenn T. (February 1981). "Obituary: Willard Frank Libby". Physics Today. 34 (2): 92–95. Bibcode:1981PhT....34b..92S. doi:10.1063/1.2914458. 

External links[edit]

Picture, Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry


1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy


1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder


1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog


1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa


2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)


Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush


Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)


v t e

Manhattan Project



Ames Berkeley Chicago Dayton Hanford Inyokern Los Alamos Montreal New York Oak Ridge Trinity Wendover Heavy water sites


Vannevar Bush Arthur Compton James Conant Priscilla Duffield Thomas Farrell Leslie Groves John Lansdale Ernest Lawrence James Marshall Franklin Matthias Dorothy McKibbin Kenneth Nichols Robert Oppenheimer Deak Parsons William Purnell Frank Spedding Charles Thomas Paul Tibbets Bud Uanna Harold Urey Stafford Warren Ed Westcott Roscoe Wilson


Luis Alvarez Robert Bacher Hans Bethe Aage Bohr Niels Bohr Norris Bradbury James Chadwick John Cockcroft Harry Daghlian Enrico Fermi Richard Feynman Val Fitch James Franck Klaus Fuchs Maria Goeppert-Mayer George Kistiakowsky George Koval Willard Libby Edwin McMillan Mark Oliphant Norman Ramsey Isidor Isaac Rabi James Rainwater Bruno Rossi Glenn Seaborg Emilio Segrè Louis Slotin Henry DeWolf Smyth Leo Szilard Edward Teller Stanisław Ulam John von Neumann John Wheeler Eugene Wigner Robert Wilson Leona Woods


Alsos Mission Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Operation Crossroads Operation Peppermint Project Alberta Silverplate 509th Composite Group Enola Gay Bockscar The Great Artiste


Fat Man Little Boy Pumpkin bomb Thin Man

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