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Karl Heinrich Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
(15 June 1896 – 2 July 1975) was a German Nazi commander (Höhere SS und Polizeiführer (HSSPF), SS-Obergruppenführer). He was responsible for numerous atrocities against Poles
Poles
and Jews in Reichsgau Wartheland
Reichsgau Wartheland
and the General Government during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Occupied Poland 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Biography[edit] Koppe was born in Hildesheim
Hildesheim
near Hanover. He fought in the First World War. During the interwar period, he pursued a career in trade and wholesale. He joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1930, then the Storm Detachment (Sturmabteilung, SA) in 1931, and the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) in 1932. Prior to World War II, he was a regional SS and SD commander first in Münster, then in the Free City of Danzig, Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig. The German invasion of Poland
German invasion of Poland
took place in September 1939, and in October Koppe became the SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
in Reichsgau Wartheland under the command of Gauleiter Arthur Greiser. However, because of the confusing power struggle – with Hitler dividing and ruling via his constantly changing favourites – Koppe had the same power and responsibilities as Greiser. He had a good working relationship with Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler.[1] Occupied Poland[edit]

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SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
salutes SS and German police troops

The newly appointed police commander was an active participant in the implementation of Nazi racial ideals, and in November 1939 he declared that he would make Poznań
Poznań
(Posen) 'free from Jews' (judenrein), after which he ordered numerous executions and deportations of Poles
Poles
and Polish Jews. He participated in the Nazi's euthanasia program as the overall commander of ' Special
Special
Detachment (Sonderkommando) Lange', an SS squad which gassed 1,558 patients from mental asylums at the Soldau concentration camp in the nearby Gau of East Prussia
East Prussia
during May and June 1940.[2][3] On 30 January 1942 he was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer, and in October 1943 he replaced Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger as Höhere SS und Polizeiführer in the General Government
General Government
with headquarters in Kraków. He also held the position of state secretary on the issues of security (Staatssekretär für das Sicherheitswesen) in the General Government, and was involved in the operations of Chelmno extermination camp
Chelmno extermination camp
and Warsaw concentration camp
Warsaw concentration camp
as well as operations against the Polish resistance. He organized the execution of more than 30,000 Polish patients suffering from tuberculosis, and ordered that all male relatives of identified resistance fighters should be executed, and the rest of their family sent to Nazi concentration camps.[citation needed] The Polish Secret State
Polish Secret State
ordered his death, but an assassination attempt failed. He was wounded by Kedyw
Kedyw
unit – Batalion Parasol
Batalion Parasol
in "Operation Koppe" ("Akcja Koppe") part of "Operation Heads" on 11 July 1944 in Kraków, but survived.[4] With the Eastern Front approaching Poland, Koppe ordered all prisoners to be executed rather than freed by the Soviets. In 1945 Koppe went underground and assumed an alias (Lohmann, his wife's surname) and became a director of a chocolate factory in Bonn, Germany.[5] In 1960 he was arrested but released on bail on 19 April 1962. His trial opened in 1964 in Bonn. He was accused of being an accessory to the mass murder of 145,000 people. The trial was adjourned due to Koppe's purported ill health and in 1966 the Bonn court decided not to prosecute and Koppe was released for medical reasons. [6] The German government refused a Polish request for extradition. Koppe died in 1975, aged 79, in Bonn. See also[edit]

Holocaust in Poland List SS-Obergruppenführer

Notes[edit]

^ Catherine Epstein (2010). "Wilhelm Koppe". Model Nazi: Arthur Greiser and the Occupation of Western Poland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0191613843. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis, p. 261 ^ Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide..., p. 229 ^ (in Polish) Piotr Stachiewicz "Akcja Koppe : Krakowska akcja Parasola" Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, Warsaw, 1982; ISBN 978-83-11-06752-3 ^ Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem, p. 15 ^ Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide..., p. 381

References[edit]

Arendt, Hannah (1992). Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-018765-0. Google Books link. Datner, Szymon, Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
- nieukarany zbrodniarz hitlerowski. Warszawa-Poznań, 1963 de Mildt, Dick; de Mildt, Dirk Welmoed (1996). In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide...]. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 90-411-0185-3. Google Books link. Kania, Stanisław, Zbrodnie hitlerowskie w Polsce. Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Warszawa, 1983 Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-393-04994-9. Google Books link. Madajczyk, Czesław, Polityka III Rzeszy w okupowanej Polsce. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa, 1970

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wilhelm Koppe.

11 documents issued by Koppe in the Nuremberg Trials Project Profile (in Polish)

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

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Camps, ghettos and operations

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Operation Reinhard
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Concentration

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List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

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v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

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Einsatzgruppen
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Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

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Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

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Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
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Leaders

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Judenrat

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Victim lists

Ghettos

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Camps

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Documentation

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Special
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Witness accounts

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Concealment

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Technical and logistics

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v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

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Trials

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Auschwitz trial
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Memorials

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Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37748772 LCCN: n83203096 ISNI: 0000 0000 6634 6080 GND: 120475782 BNF:

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