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Religion

Predominantly Christian (Protestantism; Roman Catholic is the largest single denomination; Significantly: Orthodoxy), Mormonism, Judaism, Islam

Related ethnic groups

European Americans, Europeans, Middle Eastern Americans, White Latin Americans, European Canadians, White Australians, White New Zealanders, European diasporas from other parts of the world

White Americans
Americans
are Americans
Americans
who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa."[2] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[3] the latter consisting mostly of white Mexican Americans
Americans
and white Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is erroneously considered interchangeable with "white", although the latter is used in the more narrow sense of white-skinned.[4][5][6][7][8][9] In the most factual interpretation of the term, "Caucasians" come from the Caucasus, Iran, and as far east as India, but not Europe, as these regions have the highest rates of Caucasian DNA.[10] Many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans,[11] Jewish Americans,[12][13][14][15] and Hispanics
Hispanics
or Latinos may not be perceived to be white by some. The largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans (16.5%), Irish Americans
Americans
(11.9%), English Americans
Americans
(9.2%), Italian Americans
Americans
(5.8%), French Americans
Americans
(4%), Polish Americans
Americans
(3%), Scottish Americans
Americans
(1.9%), Scotch-Irish Americans
Americans
(1.7%), Dutch Americans
Americans
(1.6%), Norwegian Americans
Americans
(1.5%), and Swedish Americans (1.4%).[16][17][18] However, the English Americans
Americans
and British Americans
Americans
demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (6.9%), due to the length of time they have inhabited America.[6][7][8][9] White Americans
Americans
(including White Hispanics) constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, or 77.35% of the population as of 2014. Non-Hispanic whites
Non-Hispanic whites
totaled about 197,870,516, or 62.06% of the U.S. population.

Contents

1 Historical and present definitions

1.1 U.S. Census definition 1.2 Social definition 1.3 Critical race theory definition

2 Demographic information

2.1 Geographic distribution 2.2 Income and educational attainment 2.3 Population by state

2.3.1 2000 and 2010 censuses 2.3.2 2015 and 2016 estimates

2.3.2.1 Non-Hispanic population

3 Culture

3.1 Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America

4 Admixture

4.1 Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites 4.2 Admixture in Hispanic Whites

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Historical and present definitions[edit] Main article: Definitions of whiteness in the United States Further information: One-drop rule Definitions of who is "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States. U.S. Census definition[edit] The term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census
United States Census
purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."[19] The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial andor ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows:

"White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "White" or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian.[2]

In U.S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race.[20][21] Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans
as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country.[22][23] The characterization of Arab and North African Americans
Americans
as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, peoples of Arab descent were sometimes denied entry into the United States because they were characterized as nonwhite.[24] In 1944, the law changed, and Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status. The U.S. Census is currently revisiting the issue, and considering creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans
Americans
in the 2020 Census.

President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
was descended from Samuel Lincoln
Samuel Lincoln
and was of English and Welsh ancestry.

Actress Raquel Welch
Raquel Welch
of Spanish (via Bolivia) and English ancestry back to the Mayflower.[25]

In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U.S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim
Muslim
(or a sect of Islam
Islam
such as Shi'ite or Sunni), Jewish, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White.[26] The US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.[27] Social definition[edit] In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics
Hispanics
or Latinos may not identify as, and may not be perceived to be, White.[28][12][13][14][15][29] The definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Irish, Swedes, Finns, and Russians.[29][30][31] Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was generally limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry.[32] David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States
United States
was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[33] The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship.[34] Critical race theory definition[edit] Main articles: Critical race theory and Whiteness studies Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth, rationality and judicial neutrality, and by critical theory.[35] Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
pointed out that though African Americans
Americans
supposedly enjoyed legal equality, white Americans
Americans
continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards.[36] Liberal ideas such as meritocracy and equal opportunity, they argued, hid and reinforced deep structural inequalities and thus serves the interests of a white elite.[37] Critical race theorists see racism as embedded in public attitudes and institutions, and highlight institutional racism and unconscious biases.[38] Legal scholar Derrick Bell
Derrick Bell
advanced the interest convergence principle, which suggests that whites support minority rights only when doing so is also in their self-interest.[39][40] As Whites, especially White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, or WASPs, are the dominant racial and cultural group, according to sociologist Steven Seidman, writing from a critical theory perspective, "White culture constitutes the general cultural mainstream, causing non-White culture to be seen as deviant, in either a positive or negative manner. Moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political, economic, and cultural institutions." Yet, according to Seidman, Whites are most commonly unaware of their privilege and the manner in which their culture has always been dominant in the US, as they do not identify as members of a specific racial group but rather incorrectly perceive their views and culture as "raceless", when in fact it is ethno-national (ethnic/cultural) specific, with a racial base component.[41] Demographic information[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Census, 2010

White Americans
Americans
1790–2010[42][43]

Year Population % of the US % change (10 yr) Year Population % of the US % change (10 yr)

1790 3,172,006 80.7

1910 81,731,957 88.9 22.3%

1800 4,306,446 81.1 35.8% 1920 94,820,915 89.7 16.0%

1810 5,862,073 81.0 36.1% 1930 110,286,740 89.8 16.3%

1820 7,866,797 81.6 34.2% 1940 118,214,870 89.8 (highest) 7.2%

1830 10,532,060 81.9 33.9% 1950 134,942,028 89.5 14.1%

1840 14,189,705 83.2 34.7% 1960 158,831,732 88.6 17.7%

1850 19,553,068 84.3 37.8% 1970 178,119,221 87.5 12.1%

1860 26,922,537 85.6 37.7% 1980 188,371,622 83.1 5.8%

1870 33,589,377 87.1 24.8% 1990 199,686,070 80.3 6.0%

1880 43,402,970 86.5 29.2% 2000 211,460,626 75.1[44] 5.9%

1890 55,101,258 87.5 26.9% 2010 223,553,265 72.4[45] (lowest) 5.7%

1900 66,809,196 87.9 21.2%

Whites (non-Hispanic and Hispanic) made up 79.8% or 75% of the American population in 2008.[22][23][46][47] This latter number is sometimes recorded as 77.1% when it includes about 2% of the population who are identified as white in combination with one or more other races. The largest ethnic groups (by ancestry) among White Americans
Americans
were Germans, followed by Irish and English.[48] In the 1980 census 49,598,035 Americans
Americans
cited that they were of English ancestry, making them 26% of the country and the largest group at the time, and in fact larger than the population of England itself.[49] Slightly more than half of these people would cite that they were of "American" ancestry on subsequent censuses and virtually everywhere that "American" ancestry predominates on the 2000 census corresponds to places where "English" predominated on the 1980 census.[50][51] White Americans
Americans
are projected to remain the majority, though with their percentage decreasing to 72% of the total population by 2050. However, projections state that non-Hispanic Whites of that group will become less than 50% of the population by 2042 because Non-Hispanic Whites have the lowest fertility rate of any major racial group in the United States,[52] mass-immigration of other ethnic groups with higher birth rates, and because of intermarriage with Hispanic Whites. While over ten million White people
White people
can trace part of their ancestry back to the Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower
Mayflower
in 1620 (this common statistic overlooks the Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
foundations of America and roots of even earlier colonist-descended Americans, such as Spanish Americans
Americans
in St. Augustine, Florida), over 35 million whites have at least one ancestor who passed through the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
immigration station, which processed arriving immigrants from 1892 until 1954. See also: European Americans. Geographic distribution[edit] According to the Census definition, White Americans
Americans
are the majority racial group in almost all of the United States. They are not the majority in Hawaii, many American Indian reservations, parts of the South known as the Black Belt, the District of Columbia, all US territories, and in many urban areas throughout the country. Non-Hispanic whites
Non-Hispanic whites
are also not the majority in several southwestern states. Overall the highest concentration of those referred to as "White alone" by the Census Bureau was found in the Midwest, New England, the Rocky Mountain
Rocky Mountain
states, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The lowest concentration of whites was found in southern and mid-Atlantic states.[3][53][54] Although all large geographical areas are dominated by White Americans, much larger differences can be seen between specific parts of large cities. States with the highest percentages of White Americans, as of 2007:[55]

Vermont
Vermont
96.2% Maine
Maine
95.5% New Hampshire
New Hampshire
95.0% West Virginia
West Virginia
94.3% Iowa
Iowa
92.9% Idaho
Idaho
92.1% Wyoming
Wyoming
91.6% Minnesota
Minnesota
90.94% North Dakota
North Dakota
90.9%

States with the highest percentages of non-Hispanic Whites, as of 2007:[56]

Vermont
Vermont
95.4% Maine
Maine
94.8% West Virginia
West Virginia
93.7% New Hampshire
New Hampshire
93.4% Iowa
Iowa
90.9% North Dakota
North Dakota
90.2% Montana
Montana
88.3% Kentucky
Kentucky
88.1% Wyoming
Wyoming
87.7% South Dakota
South Dakota
86.5%

Income and educational attainment[edit] Main article: Affluence in the United States
United States
§ Race Further information: Personal income in the United States
United States
and Household income in the United States

personal and household income in the United States
United States
Census in 2005

White Americans
Americans
have the second highest median household income and personal income levels in the nation, by cultural background. The median income per household member was also the highest, since White Americans
Americans
had the smallest households of any racial demographic in the nation. In 2006, the median individual income of a White American age 25 or older was $33,030, with those who were full-time employed, and of age 25 to 64, earning $34,432. Since 42% of all households had two income earners, the median household income was considerably higher than the median personal income, which was $48,554 in 2005. Jewish Americans
Americans
rank first in household income, personal income, and educational attainment among White Americans.[57] In 2005, White households had a median household income of $48,977, which is 10.3% above the national median of $44,389. Among Cuban Americans, with 86% classified as White, those born in the US have a higher median income and educational attainment level than most other Whites.[58] The poverty rates for White Americans
Americans
are the second-lowest of any racial group, with 10.8% of white individuals living below the poverty line, 3% lower than the national average.[59] However, due to Whites' majority status, 48% of Americans
Americans
living in poverty are white.[60] White Americans' educational attainment is the second-highest in the country, after Asian Americans'. Overall, nearly one-third of White Americans
Americans
had a Bachelor's degree, with the educational attainment for Whites being higher for those born outside the United States: 37.6% of foreign born, and 29.7% of native born Whites had a college degree. Both figures are above the national average of 27.2%.[61] Gender income inequality was the greatest among Whites, with White men outearning White women by 48%. Census Bureau data for 2005 reveals that the median income of White females was lower than that of males of all races. In 2005, the median income for White American females was only slightly higher than that of African American females.[62] White Americans
Americans
are more likely to live in suburbs and small cities than their black counterparts.[63] Population by state[edit]

Percentage of population self-reported as White American by state in 2010 :    less than 50 %    50 - 60 %    60 - 70 %    70 - 80 %    80 - 90 %    more than 90 %

2000 and 2010 censuses[edit]

White American population as of 2000 and 2010 censuses[64]

State Pop. 2000 % 2000 Pop. 2010 % 2010 % growth

Alabama 3,162,808 71.1% 3,275,394 68.5% +3.6%

Alaska 434,534 69.3% 473,576 66.7% +9.0%

Arizona 3,873,611 75.5% 4,667,121 73.0% +20.5%

Arkansas 2,138,598 80.0% 2,245,229 77.0% +5.0%

California 20,170,059 79.7% 21,453,934 74.0% +6.4%

Colorado 3,560,005 82.8% 4,089,202 81.3% +14.9%

Connecticut 2,780,355 81.6% 2,772,410 77.6% -0.3%

Delaware 584,773 74.6% 618,617 68.9% +5.8%

District of Columbia 176,101 30.8% 231,471 38.5% +31.4%

Florida 12,465,029 78.0% 14,109,162 75.0% +13.2%

Georgia 5,327,281 65.1% 5,787,440 59.7% +8.6%

Hawaii 294,102 24.3% 336,599 24.7% +14.4%

Idaho 1,177,304 91.0% 1,396,487 89.1% +18.6%

Illinois 9,125,471 73.5% 9,177,877 71.5% +0.6%

Indiana 5,320,022 87.5% 5,467,906 84.3% +2.8%

Iowa 2,748,640 93.9% 2,781,561 91.3% +1.2%

Kansas 2,313,944 86.1% 2,391,044 83.8% +3.3%

Kentucky 3,640,889 90.1% 3,809,537 87.8% +4.6%

Louisiana 2,856,161 63.9% 2,836,192 62.6% -0.7%

Maine 1,236,014 96.9% 1,264,971 95.2% +2.3%

Maryland 3,391,308 64.0% 3,359,284 58.2% -0.9%

Massachusetts 5,367,286 84.5% 5,265,236 80.4% -1.9%

Michigan 7,966,053 80.2% 7,803,120 78.9% -2.0%

Minnesota 4,400,282 89.4% 4,524,062 85.3% +2.8%

Mississippi 1,746,099 61.4% 1,754,684 59.1% +0.5%

Missouri 4,748,083 84.9% 4,958,770 82.8% +4.4%

Montana 817,229 90.6% 884,961 89.4% +8.3%

Nebraska 1,533,261 89.6% 1,572,838 86.1% +2.6%

Nevada 1,501,886 75.2% 1,786,688 66.2% +19.0%

New Hampshire 1,186,851 96.0% 1,236,050 92.3% +4.1%

New Jersey 6,104,705 72.6% 6,029,248 68.6% -1.2%

New Mexico 1,214,253 66.8% 1,407,876 68.4% +15.9%

New York 12,893,689 67.9% 12,740,974 65.7% -1.2%

North Carolina 5,804,656 72.1% 6,528,950 68.5% +12.5%

North Dakota 593,181 92.4% 605,449 90.0% +2.1%

Ohio 9,645,453 85.0% 9,539,437 82.7% -1.1%

Oklahoma 2,628,434 76.2% 2,706,845 72.2% +3.0%

Oregon 2,961,623 86.6% 3,204,614 83.6% +8.2%

Pennsylvania 10,484,203 85.4% 10,406,288 81.9% -0.7%

Rhode Island 891,191 85.0% 856,869 81.4% -3.8%

South Carolina 2,695,560 67.2% 3,060,000 66.2% +13.5%

South Dakota 669,404 88.7% 699,392 85.9% +4.5%

Tennessee 4,563,310 80.2% 4,921,948 77.6% +7.9%

Texas 14,799,505 71.0% 17,701,552 70.4% +19.6%

Utah 1,992,975 89.2% 2,379,560 86.1% +19.4%

Vermont 589,208 96.8% 596,292 95.3% +1.2%

Virginia 5,120,110 72.3% 5,486,852 68.6% +7.2%

Washington 4,821,823 81.8% 5,196,362 77.3% +7.8%

West Virginia 1,718,777 95.0% 1,739,988 93.9% +1.2%

Wisconsin 4,769,857 88.9% 4,902,067 86.2% +2.8%

Wyoming 454,670 92.1% 511,279 90.7% +12.4%

United States
United States
of America 211,460,626 75.1% 223,553,265 72.4% +5.7%

2015 and 2016 estimates[edit]

White population by state[65]

State Pop. 2015 % 2015 Pop. 2016 % 2016 percentage growth numeric growth

Alabama 3,373,302 69.5% 3,372,524 69.3% -0.2% -778

Alaska 490,380 66.5% 490,389 66.1% -0.4% +9

Arizona 5,696,106 83.5% 5,772,667 83.3% -0.2% +76,561

Arkansas 2,369,986 79.6% 2,373,726 79.4% -0.2% +3,740

California 28,467,494 73.0% 28,539,253 72.7% -0.3% +71,759

Colorado 4,776,140 87.6% 4,846,441 87.5% -0.1% +70,301

Connecticut 2,900,643 80.9% 2,882,093 80.6% -0.3% -18,550

Delaware 664,555 70.4% 667,809 70.1% -0.3% +3,254

District of Columbia 295,756 44.1% 303,813 44.6% +0.5% +8,057

Florida 15,735,811 77.7% 15,996,473 77.6% -0.1% +260,662

Georgia 6,280,677 61.6% 6,311,001 61.2% -0.4% +30,324

Hawaii 370,398 26.0% 369,064 25.8% -0.2% -1,334

Idaho 1,545,433 93.5% 1,571,098 93.3% -0.2% +25,665

Illinois 9,933,221 77.4% 9,885,382 77.2% -0.2% -47,839

Indiana 5,677,021 85.8% 5,678,630 85.6% -0.2% +1,609

Iowa 2,861,917 91.6% 2,864,884 91.4% -0.2% +2,967

Kansas 2,522,857 86.8% 2,518,720 86.6% -0.2% -4,137

Kentucky 3,900,103 88.1% 3,903,419 88.0% -0.1% +3,316

Louisiana 2,953,830 63.2% 2,956,505 63.1% -0.1% +2,675

Maine 1,262,043 94.9% 1,262,168 94.8% -0.1% +125

Maryland 3,574,645 59.6% 3,567,397 59.3% -0.3% -7,248

Massachusetts 5,575,530 82.2% 5,570,872 81.8% -0.4% -4,658

Michigan 7,909,528 79.7% 7,902,903 79.6% -0.1% -6,625

Minnesota 4,678,791 85.3% 4,691,265 85.0% -0.3% +12,474

Mississippi 1,777,735 59.4% 1,772,995 59.3% -0.1% -4,740

Missouri 5,065,735 83.3% 5,071,682 83.2% -0.1% +5,947

Montana 921,719 89.3% 929,802 89.2% -0.1% +8,083

Nebraska 1,687,415 89.1% 1,694,976 88.9% -0.2% +7,561

Nevada 2,183,208 75.7% 2,209,037 75.1% -0.6% +25,289

New Hampshire 1,249,796 93.9% 1,251,893 93.8% -0.1% +2,097

New Jersey 6,496,420 72.7% 6,473,721 72.3% -0.4% -22,699

New Mexico 1,717,860 82.6% 1,718,307 82.6% 0.0 +447

New York 13,860,222 70.2% 13,797,556 69.9% -0.3% -62,666

North Carolina 7,144,627 71.2% 7,206,071 71.0% -0.2% +61,444

North Dakota 669,125 88.4% 665,977 87.9% -0.5% -3,148

Ohio 9,594,996 82.7% 9,576,321 82.4% -0.3% -18,675

Oklahoma 2,922,871 74.8% 2,925,602 74.5% -0.3% +2,731

Oregon 3,529,292 87.7% 3,578,285 87.4% -0.3% +48,993

Pennsylvania 10,567,168 82.6% 10,531,113 82.4% -0.2% -36,055

Rhode Island 894,570 84.7% 892,045 84.4% -0.3% -2,525

South Carolina 3,348,754 68.4% 3,396,931 68.5% +0.1% +48,177

South Dakota 732,532 85.4% 737,070 85.1% -0.3% +4,538

Tennessee 5,196,817 78.8% 5,234,030 78.7% -0.1% +37,213

Texas 21,874,482 79.7% 22,135,668 79.4% -0.3% +261,186

Utah 2,730,389 91.3% 2,778,175 91.0% -0.3% +47,786

Vermont 593,577 94.8% 590,869 94.6% -0.2% -2,708

Virginia 5,884,689 70.3% 5,891,553 70.0% -0.3% +6,864

Washington 5,756,563 80.4% 5,830,144 80.0% -0.4% +73,581

West Virginia 1,725,045 93.7% 1,713,756 93.6% -0.1% -11,289

Wisconsin 5,056,456 87.6% 5,057,070 87.5% -0.1% +614

Wyoming 544,777 92.8% 543,387 92.8% 0.0 -1,390

United States 247,543,007 77.1% 248,502,532 76.9% -0.2% +959,525

Non-Hispanic population[edit] Further information: List of U.S. states by non-Hispanic white population

Non-Hispanic White population by state[65]

State Pop. 2015 % 2015 Pop. 2016 % 2016 percentage growth numeric growth

Alabama 3,206,017 66.0% 3,201,937 65.8% -0.2% -4,080

Alaska 454,782 61.6% 453,915 61.2% -0.4% -867

Arizona 3,809,881 55.9% 3,844,532 55.5% -0.4% +34,651

Arkansas 2,178,888 73.2% 2,177,898 72.9% -0.3% -990

California 14,880,574 38.2% 14,802,979 37.7% -0.5% -77,595

Colorado 3,753,560 68.9% 3,802,465 68.6% -0.3% +48,905

Connecticut 2,448,730 68.3% 2,420,461 67.7% -0.6% -28,269

Delaware 597,073 63.2% 598,485 62.9% -0.3% +1,412

District of Columbia 242,060 36.1% 248,169 36.4% +0.3% +6,109

Florida 11,200,754 55.3% 11,314,909 54.9% -0.4% +114,155

Georgia 5,493,595 53.8% 5,503,895 53.4% -0.4% +10,300

Hawaii 319,112 22.4% 316,077 22.1% -0.3% -3,035

Idaho 1,366,457 82.7% 1,386,279 82.4% -0.3% +19,822

Illinois 7,963,439 62.0% 7,896,462 61.7% -0.3% -93,977

Indiana 5,290,028 80.0% 5,282,559 79.6% -0.4% -7,469

Iowa 2,704,016 86.6% 2,702,702 86.2% -0.4% -1,314

Kansas 2,225,679 76.6% 2,217,600 76.3% -0.3% -8,079

Kentucky 3,770,531 85.2% 3,770,240 85.0% -0.2% -291

Louisiana 2,762,836 59.2% 2,760,505 59.0% -0.2% -2,331

Maine 1,245,105 93.6% 1,244,762 93.5% -0.1% -343

Maryland 3,120,807 52.0% 3,099,419 51.5% -0.5% -21,388

Massachusetts 4,993,805 73.6% 4,972,277 73.0% -0.6% -21,528

Michigan 7,501,007 75.6% 7,486,890 75.4% -0.2% -14,177

Minnesota 4,442,065 81.0% 4,448,493 80.6% -0.4% +6,428

Mississippi 1,706,231 57.1% 1,700,036 56.9% -0.2% -6,195

Missouri 4,857,656 80.0% 4,857,925 79.7% -0.3% +269

Montana 894,287 86.6% 901,301 86.4% -0.2% +7,014

Nebraska 1,515,363 80.0% 1,517,526 79.6% -0.4% +2,163

Nevada 1,463,294 50.7% 1,468,421 49.9% -0.8% +5,127

New Hampshire 1,211,938 91.1% 1,212,634 90.8% -0.3% +696

New Jersey 5,037,204 56.4% 4,990,905 55.8% -0.6% -46,299

New Mexico 798,211 38.4% 792,167 38.1% -0.3% -6,044

New York 11,093,447 56.2% 11,009,263 55.7% -0.5% -84,184

North Carolina 6,407,365 63.8% 6,447,335 63.5% -0.3% +39,970

North Dakota 648,034 85.6% 644,127 85.0% -0.6% -3,907

Ohio 9,258,140 79.8% 9,230,244 79.5% -0.3% -27,896

Oklahoma 2,602,100 66.6% 2,596,769 66.1% -0.5% -5,331

Oregon 3,090,378 76.8% 3,126,217 76.4% -0.4% +35,839

Pennsylvania 9,906,474 77.4% 9,848,778 77.0% -0.4% -57,969

Rhode Island 780,522 73.9% 774,832 73.3% -0.6% -5,690

South Carolina 3,128,841 63.9% 3,169,878 63.9% 0.0 +41,037

South Dakota 709,991 82.7% 713,665 82.5% -0.2% +3,674

Tennessee 4,910,112 74.4% 4,937,280 74.2% -0.2% +27,168

Texas 11,824,057 43.1% 11,872,926 42.6% -0.5% +48,869

Utah 2,368,257 79.2% 2,404,802 78.8% -0.4% +36,545

Vermont 584,256 93.3% 581,225 93.0% -0.3% -3,031

Virginia 5,261,313 62.9% 5,252,972 62.4% -0.5% -8,341

Washington 5,013,824 70.0% 5,062,580 69.5% -0.5% +48,756

West Virginia 1,701,827 92.4% 1,689,821 92.2% -0.2% -12,006

Wisconsin 4,726,306 81.9% 4,719,824 81.7% -0.2% -6,482

Wyoming 494,173 84.2% 492,245 84.1% -0.1% -1,928

United States 197,964,402 61.7% 197,969,608 61.3% -0.3% +5,206

Culture[edit] From their earliest presence in North America, White Americans
Americans
have contributed literature, art, cinema, religion, agricultural skills, foods, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to American culture. White American culture
American culture
derived its earliest influences from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of American culture.[66] The overall American culture
American culture
reflects White American culture. The culture has been developing since long before the United States
United States
formed a separate country. Much of American culture
American culture
shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain
Great Britain
spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[67] Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America[edit]

Three members of the Kennedy political dynasty, John, Robert and Edward. All eight of their great-grandparents emigrated from Ireland.

In his 1989 book Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, David Hackett Fischer explores the details of the folkways of four groups of settlers from the British Isles
British Isles
that came to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries from distinct regions of Britain and Ireland. His thesis is that the culture of each group persisted (albeit in modified form), providing the basis for the modern United States.[68] According to Fischer, the foundation of America's four regional cultures was formed from four mass migrations from four regions of the British Isles
British Isles
by four distinct ethno-cultural groups. New England's formative period occurred between 1629 and 1640 when Puritans, mostly from East Anglia, settled there, thus forming the basis for the New England regional culture.[69] The next mass migration was of southern English Cavaliers and their working class English servants to the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
region between 1640 and 1675. This spawned the creation of the American Southern culture.[70] Then, between 1675 and 1725, thousands of Irish, Cornish, English and Welsh Quakers plus many Germans sympathetic to Quaker ideas, led by William Penn, settled the Delaware
Delaware
Valley. This resulted in the formation of the General American culture, although, according to Fischer, this is really a "regional culture", even if it does today encompass most of the U.S. from the mid-Atlantic states to the Pacific Coast.[71] Finally, a huge number of settlers from the borderlands between England and Scotland, and from northern Ireland, migrated to Appalachia
Appalachia
between 1717 and 1775. This resulted in the formation of the Upland South regional culture, which has since expanded to the west to West Texas
Texas
and parts of the American Southwest.[72] In his book, Fischer brings up several points. He states that the U.S. is not a country with one "general" culture and several "regional" culture, as is commonly thought. Rather, there are only four regional cultures as described above, and understanding this helps one to more clearly understand American history as well as contemporary American life. Fischer asserts that it is not only important to understand where different groups came from, but when. All population groups have, at different times, their own unique set of beliefs, fears, hopes and prejudices. When different groups came to America and brought certain beliefs and values with them, these ideas became, according to Fischer, more or less frozen in time, even if they eventually changed in their original place of origin.[73] Admixture[edit] See also: Race and genetics Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites[edit] Some White Americans
Americans
have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans).[74] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans[75] DNA analysis on White Americans
Americans
by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture.[76] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture.[77] Shriver discovered his ancestry is 10 percent African, and Shriver's partner in DNA Print Genomics, J.T. Frudacas, contradicted him two years later stating "Five percent of European Americans
European Americans
exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry."[78] From the 23andMe
23andMe
database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry.[79] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of self-identified White Americans
Americans
unknowingly carrying hidden African ancestry.[80] White Americans
Americans
(European Americans) on average are: 98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American. Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans
Americans
from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans
European Americans
is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans
European Americans
from Minnesota
Minnesota
and the Dakotas.[79][80] Admixture in Hispanic Whites[edit] Although most Hispanic Americans
Americans
self-identify in the white racial category of the US Census and/or other official government data collecting, an overwhelming majority of them would in their personal lives consider themselves as ethnically mestizo (of mixed European and Amerindian background) or mulatto (of mixed European and sub-Saharan African background).[81][not in citation given] Thus, only a minority of those Hispanic Americans
Americans
who self-identified in their personal lives as mestizo or mulatto actually selected "multiracial" as their race on the U.S. census, with 9 out of every 10 of them preferring to pick white, one of the five single race categories available on the U.S. census.[81][not in citation given] In contrast to non-Hispanic European Americans, whose average European ancestry ranges about 98.6%,[79][82] genetic research has found that the average European admixture among self-identified Hispanic White Americans
Americans
is 73% European, while the average European admixture for Hispanic Americans
Americans
overall (regardless of their self-identified race) is 65.1% European admixture. See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal

Anglo Emigration from Europe European Americans Europhobia Hyphenated American Middle Eastern Americans Non-Hispanic Whites Race and ethnicity in the United States Stereotypes of White Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestant White ethnic White Hispanic and Latino Americans White Southerners

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

White Population 2000 from the US Census

v t e

European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch German Mennonites from Russia

Hungarian

Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk

Ukrainian

Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs

Turkish4

Southern Europe

Italian

Sicilian

Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe

Belgian

Flemish

British

Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/ Ulster
Ulster
Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7

Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole

Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians
Russians
throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I. 2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans
Americans
are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
Europe
called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

v t e

Middle Eastern Americans

Afghan1

Pashtun

Arab

Emirati Egyptian Iraqi Jordanian Kuwaiti Lebanese Omani Palestinian Saudi Syrian Yemeni

Armenian Assyrian Azerbaijani Coptic Georgian Iranian Israeli Jewish

Syrian Jews

Kurdish

Yazidis

Turkish

By location

Detroit

Notes 1 The U.S. Census Bureau considers Afghanistan
Afghanistan
a South Asian country, but does not classify Afghan Americans
Americans
as Asian,[1] but as Middle Eastern American.[2]

v t e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth

By religion

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Ahmadiyyas

Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians

By continent and ethnicity

Africa

African diaspora in the Americas

Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans

Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

African immigrants to the United States

Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States

Asia

Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

East Asia

Chinese Americans

Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans

Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans

South Asia

Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans

Southeast Asia

Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans

West Asia

Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans

Europe

White Americans

English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans

Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans

Oceania

Pacific Islands Americans

Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans

Americans
Americans
of Euro Oceanic origin

Australian Americans New Zealand Americans

North America

Native Americans
Americans
and Alaska
Alaska
Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

South America

Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans

Multiethnic

Melungeon

People of the United States
United States
/ Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism

v t e

White people

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Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

Worldwide diaspora

Africa

Algeria Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Morocco Namibia Saint Helena South Africa Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe

Asia

Pakistan

United States Canada Bermuda Bahamas Barbados Cayman Islands Jamaica Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Latin America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Caledonia New Zealand

Historical concepts

Apartheid Aryan First white child Honorary whites Play the white man Racial whitening

Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento

White Australia policy The White Man's Burden White gods

Sociological phenomena and theories

Acting white
Acting white
(Passing as white) Angry white male Missing white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight

South African farm attacks

White fragility White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashed film roles White savior

White American caricatures and stereotypes

Poor Whites

Redlegs Rednecks Mountain whites

Identity politics in the United States

US definitions of whiteness

One-drop rule

Alt-right Christian Identity Non-Hispanic whites White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Old Stock Americans White ethnic White Hispanic White nationalism White pride White separatism White supremacy

Scientific racism

Human skin color Color terminology for race Alpine Armenoid Dinaric East Baltic Irano-Afghan Mediterranean

.