The Info List - Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. The building itself was a Benedictine
monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England
Church of England
"Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard
in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the seventh century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III.[4] Since the coronation of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have been in Westminster Abbey.[4][5] There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years.[6]


1 History

1.1 1042: Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
starts rebuilding St Peter's Abbey 1.2 Construction of the present church 1.3 16th and 17th centuries: dissolution and restoration

1.3.1 1540–1550: 10 years as a cathedral 1.3.2 After 1550: turbulent times

1.4 1722–1745: Western towers constructed 1.5 World War II 1.6 Post-war era 1.7 Gallery

2 Coronations 3 Royal weddings

3.1 Chronology

4 Dean and Chapter 5 Burials and memorials 6 Schools 7 Music

7.1 Organ

8 Bells 9 Chapter house 10 Museum

10.1 Exhibits

11 Development plans 12 Transport 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

History[edit] A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River Thames, has a vision of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
near the site. This seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey in later years – a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company. The recorded origins of the Abbey
date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan
Saint Dunstan
and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine
monks on the site. 1042: Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
starts rebuilding St Peter's Abbey[edit]

St Peter's Abbey
at the time of Edward's funeral, depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry

Between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey
to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.[7] A week later, he was buried in the church; and, nine years later, his wife Edith was buried alongside him.[8] His successor, Harold II, was probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
later the same year.[9] The only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. Some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South Transept, survive in the Norman Undercroft
of the Great School, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks,[10] although there was also a large community of lay brothers who supported the monastery's extensive property and activities. Construction of the present church[edit] Construction of the present church began in 1245 by Henry III[11] who selected the site for his burial.[12]

Layout plan dated 1894

North entrance of Westminster Abbey

The abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the later 12th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The Abbot
of Westminster often was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords
House of Lords
as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-10th century, and occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, and particularly with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life[13] provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.[citation needed] The proximity of the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections; in social origin the Benedictines of Westminster were as modest as most of the order. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor
Lord of the Manor
of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, and relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages.[14] The abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuary.[citation needed] The abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style
Gothic style
as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England. The Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonization. The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was largely finished by the architect Henry Yevele
Henry Yevele
in the reign of Richard II. Henry III also commissioned the unique Cosmati
pavement in front of the High Altar (the pavement has recently undergone a major cleaning and conservation programme and was re-dedicated by the Dean at a service on 21 May 2010).[15] The building was consecrated on 13 October 1269.[16] Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503 (known as the Henry VII Chapel
Henry VII Chapel
or the "Lady Chapel"). Much of the stone came from Caen, in France ( Caen
stone), the Isle of Portland
Isle of Portland
(Portland stone) and the Loire Valley
Loire Valley
region of France (tuffeau limestone).[citation needed] 16th and 17th centuries: dissolution and restoration[edit] In 1535, the abbey's annual income of £2400–2800 (equivalent to £1,340,000 to £1,570,000 as of 2016),[17] during the assessment attendant on the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
rendered it second in wealth only to Glastonbury Abbey. 1540–1550: 10 years as a cathedral[edit] Henry VIII assumed direct royal control in 1539 and granted the abbey the status of a cathedral by charter in 1540, simultaneously issuing letters patent establishing the Diocese
of Westminster. By granting the abbey cathedral status, Henry VIII gained an excuse to spare it from the destruction or dissolution which he inflicted on most English abbeys during this period. After 1550: turbulent times[edit] Westminster diocese was dissolved in 1550, but the abbey was recognised (in 1552, retroactively to 1550) as a second cathedral of the Diocese
of London
until 1556.[18][19][20] The already-old expression "robbing Peter to pay Paul" may have been given a new lease of life when money meant for the abbey, which is dedicated to Saint Peter, was diverted to the treasury of St Paul's Cathedral.

The Nave
of Westminster Abbey

The abbey was restored to the Benedictines under the Catholic Mary I of England, but they were again ejected under Elizabeth I in 1559. In 1560, Elizabeth re-established Westminster as a "Royal Peculiar" – a church of the Church of England
Church of England
responsible directly to the Sovereign, rather than to a diocesan bishop – and made it the Collegiate Church of St Peter (that is, a non-cathedral church with an attached chapter of canons, headed by a dean.) The last of Mary's abbots was made the first dean. It suffered damage during the turbulent 1640s, when it was attacked by Puritan
iconoclasts, but was again protected by its close ties to the state during the Commonwealth period. Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was given an elaborate funeral there in 1658, only to be disinterred in January 1661 and posthumously hanged from a gibbet at Tyburn. 1722–1745: Western towers constructed[edit] The abbey's two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, constructed from Portland stone
Portland stone
to an early example of a Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
design. Purbeck marble was used for the walls and the floors of Westminster Abbey, even though the various tombstones are made of different types of marble. Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott. A narthex (a portico or entrance hall) for the west front was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
in the mid-20th century but was not built. Images of the abbey prior to the construction of the towers are scarce, though the abbey's official website states that the building was without towers following Yevele's renovation, with just the lower segments beneath the roof level of the Nave
completed. World War II[edit]

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Until the 19th century, Westminster was the third seat of learning in England, after Oxford and Cambridge. It was here that the first third of the King James Bible
King James Bible
Old Testament
Old Testament
and the last half of the New Testament were translated. The New English Bible was also put together here in the 20th century. Westminster suffered minor damage during the Blitz on 15 November 1940. Then on May 10/11 1941, the Westminster Abbey
precincts and roof were hit by incendiary bombs. All the bombs were extinguished by ARP wardens, except for one bomb which ignited out of reach among the wooden beams and plaster vault of the lantern roof (of 1802) over the North Transept. Flames rapidly spread and burning beams and molten lead began to fall on the wooden stalls, pews and other ecclesiastical fixtures 130 feet below. Despite the falling debris, the staff dragged away as much furniture as possible before withdrawing. Finally the Lantern roof crashed down into the crossing, preventing the fires from spreading further. In the 1990s, two icons by the Russian icon painter Sergei Fyodorov were hung in the abbey.[21] In 1997, the abbey, which was then receiving approximately 1.75 million visitors each year, began charging admission fees to visitors.[22] Post-war era[edit] On 6 September 1997, the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales was held at the abbey. On 17 September 2010, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
became the first pope to set foot in the abbey.[23] Gallery[edit]

Westminster Abbey
with a procession of Knights of the Bath, by Canaletto, 1749

Flag of Westminster Abbey, featuring the Tudor arms between Tudor Roses above the attributed arms of Edward the Confessor

Layout of Westminster Abbey, 2008

Westminster Abbey
by night, 2009


King Edward's Chair

Main articles: Coronation of the British monarch
Coronation of the British monarch
and List of British coronations Since the coronations in 1066 of both King Harold and William the Conqueror, every English and British monarch (except Edward V
Edward V
and Edward VIII, who were never crowned) has been crowned in Westminster Abbey.[4][5] In 1216, Henry III could not be crowned in London
when he came to the throne, because the French prince Louis had taken control of the city, and so the king was crowned in Gloucester Cathedral. This coronation was deemed by Pope Honorius III
Honorius III
to be improper, and a further coronation was held in Westminster Abbey
on 17 May 1220.[24] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
is the traditional cleric in the coronation ceremony.[citation needed] King Edward's Chair
King Edward's Chair
(or St Edward's Chair), the throne on which English and British sovereigns have been seated at the moment of crowning, is now housed within the Abbey
in St George's Chapel near the West Door, and has been used at every coronation since 1308. From 1301 to 1996 (except for a short time in 1950 when the stone was temporarily stolen by Scottish nationalists), the chair also housed the Stone of Scone
Stone of Scone
upon which the kings of Scots are crowned. Although the Stone is now kept in Scotland, in Edinburgh Castle, it is intended that the Stone will be returned to St Edward's Chair for use during future coronation ceremonies.[25] Royal weddings[edit] Chronology[edit]

The 1382 wedding of Richard II to Anne of Bohemia

11 November 1100: King Henry I of England
Henry I of England
was married to Matilda of Scotland 4 January 1243: Richard, Earl of Cornwall
Richard, Earl of Cornwall
(later King of Germany), brother of King Henry III of England, to Sanchia of Provence
Sanchia of Provence
(his second wife). Sanchia was sister of Eleanor of Provence, Henry III's queen. 9 April 1269: Edmund of Crouchback, 1st Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, son of King Henry III was married to Lady Aveline de Forz 30 April 1290: Joan of Acre, daughter of King Edward I, was married to the 7th Earl of Gloucester 8 July 1290: Margaret of England, daughter of King Edward I, was married to John II, son of Duke of Brabant 20 January 1382: King Richard II of England
Richard II of England
was married to Anne of Bohemia 18 January 1486: King Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England
was married to Elizabeth of York 27 February 1919: Princess Patricia of Connaught
Princess Patricia of Connaught
was married to Capt the Hon Alexander Ramsay 28 February 1922: The Princess Mary, daughter of King George V, was married to Viscount Lascelles 26 April 1923: The Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), second son of King George V, was married to Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later to become Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) 29 November 1934: The Prince George, Duke of Kent, son of King George V, was married to Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark 20 November 1947: Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II), elder daughter of King George VI, was married to the Duke of Edinburgh (who was Lt Philip Mountbatten until that morning) 6 May 1960: Princess Margaret, second daughter of King George VI, was married to Antony Armstrong-Jones (later Earl of Snowdon) 24 April 1963: Princess Alexandra of Kent was married to the Hon Angus Ogilvy 14 November 1973: Princess Anne, only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II, was married to Captain Mark Phillips 23 July 1986: Prince Andrew, Duke of York, second son of Queen Elizabeth II, was married to Miss Sarah Ferguson 29 April 2011: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, was married to Miss Catherine Middleton[26]

Dean and Chapter[edit] Main article: Dean and Chapter of Westminster

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Westminster Abbey
is a collegiate church governed by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, as established by Royal charter
Royal charter
of Queen Elizabeth I dated 21 May 1560,[27] which created it as the Collegiate Church of St Peter Westminster, a Royal Peculiar
Royal Peculiar
under the personal jurisdiction of the Sovereign. The members of the Chapter are the Dean and four canons residentiary; they are assisted by the Receiver General and Chapter Clerk. One of the canons is also Rector of St Margaret's Church, Westminster, and often also holds the post of Chaplain
to the Speaker of the House of Commons. In addition to the Dean and canons, there are at present three full-time minor canons: the precentor, the sacrist and the chaplain. The office of Priest Vicar was created in the 1970s for those who assist the minor canons. Together with the clergy and Receiver General and Chapter Clerk, various lay officers constitute the college, including the Organist
and Master of the Choristers, the Registrar, the Auditor, the Legal Secretary, the Surveyor of the Fabric, the Head Master of the choir school, the Keeper of the Muniments (archives) and the Clerk of the Works, as well as 12 lay vicars, 10 choristers and the High Steward and High Bailiff. The 40 Queen's Scholars who are pupils at Westminster School
Westminster School
(the School has its own Governing Body) are also members of the collegiate.[clarification needed][citation needed] The three minor canons as well as the organist and Master of the Choristers are most directly concerned with liturgical and ceremonial matters.[citation needed] Burials and memorials[edit] Main article: Burials and memorials in Westminster Abbey

Audio description of the shrine of Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
by John Hall

A recumbent effigy on a tomb in Westminster Abbey

The cloister and garth

Henry III rebuilt the abbey in honour of a royal saint, Edward the Confessor, whose relics were placed in a shrine in the sanctuary. Henry III himself was interred nearby, as were many of the Plantagenet kings of England, their wives and other relatives. Until the death of George II of Great Britain
George II of Great Britain
in 1760, most kings and queens were buried in the abbey, some notable exceptions being Henry VI, Edward IV, Henry VIII and Charles I who are buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Other exceptions include Edward II buried at Gloucester Cathedral, John buried at Worcester Cathedral, Henry IV buried at Canterbury Cathedral
and Richard III, now buried at Leicester Cathedral, and the de facto queen Lady Jane Grey, buried in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula in the Tower
of London. Most monarchs and royals who died after 1760 are buried either in St George's Chapel or at Frogmore
to the east of Windsor Castle.[citation needed] From the Middle Ages, aristocrats were buried inside chapels, while monks and other people associated with the abbey were buried in the cloisters and other areas. One of these was Geoffrey Chaucer, who was buried here as he had apartments in the abbey where he was employed as master of the King's Works. Other poets, writers and musicians were buried or memorialised around Chaucer in what became known as Poets' Corner. Abbey
musicians such as Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell
were also buried in their place of work.[28] Subsequently, it became one of Britain's most significant honours to be buried or commemorated in the abbey.[29] The practice of burying national figures in the abbey began under Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
with the burial of Admiral Robert Blake in 1657.[30] The practice spread to include generals, admirals, politicians, doctors and scientists such as Isaac Newton, buried on 4 April 1727, Charles Darwin, buried 26 April 1882, and Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(pending). Another was William Wilberforce who led the movement to abolish slavery in the United Kingdom and the Plantations, buried on 3 August 1833. Wilberforce was buried in the north transept, close to his friend, the former Prime Minister, William Pitt.[31] During the early 20th century it became increasingly common to bury cremated remains rather than coffins in the abbey. In 1905 the actor Sir Henry Irving
Henry Irving
was cremated and his ashes buried in Westminster Abbey, thereby becoming the first person ever to be cremated prior to interment at the abbey.[32] The majority of interments at the Abbey are of cremated remains, but some burials still take place – Frances Challen, wife of Sebastian Charles, Canon of Westminster, was buried alongside her husband in the south choir aisle in 2014.[33] Members of the Percy family have a family vault, The Northumberland Vault, in St Nicholas's chapel within the abbey.[34] In the floor, just inside the great west door, in the centre of the nave, is the tomb of The Unknown Warrior, an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during the First World War. He was buried in the abbey on 11 November 1920. This grave is the only one in the abbey on which it is forbidden to walk.[35] At the east end of the Lady Chapel is a memorial chapel to the airmen of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
who were killed in the Second World War. It incorporates a memorial window to the Battle of Britain, which replaces an earlier Tudor stained glass window destroyed in the war.[36]

Funeral procession of Diana, Princess of Wales at Westminster

On 6 September 1997 the formal, though not "state" funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, was held. It was a royal ceremonial funeral including royal pageantry and Anglican funeral liturgy. A second public service was held on Sunday at the demand of the people. The burial occurred privately later the same day. Diana's former husband, sons, mother, siblings, a close friend, and a clergyman were present. Diana's body was clothed in a black long-sleeved dress designed by Catherine Walker, which she had chosen some weeks before. A set of rosary beads was placed in her hands, a gift she had received from Mother Teresa, who died a day before Diana's funeral. Her grave is on the grounds of her family estate, Althorp, on a private island.[37] In 1998 ten vacant statue niches on the façade above the Great West Door were filled with representative 20th-century Christian martyrs of various denominations. Those commemorated are Maximilian Kolbe, Manche Masemola, Janani Luwum, Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Russia, Martin Luther King Jr., Óscar Romero, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Esther John, Lucian Tapiedi, and Wang Zhiming.[38][39] On 9 April 2002 the ceremonial funeral of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother was held in the abbey. She was interred later the same day in the George VI
George VI
Memorial Chapel at St George's Chapel, Windsor
St George's Chapel, Windsor
Castle next to her husband, King George VI, who had died 50 years previously. At the same time, the ashes of the Queen Mother's daughter, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, who had died on 9 February 2002, were also interred in a private family service.[40] Schools[edit] Westminster School
Westminster School
and Westminster Abbey
Choir School are also in the precincts of the abbey. It was natural for the learned and literate monks to be entrusted with education, and Benedictine
monks were required by the Pope to maintain a charity school in 1179. The Choir School educates and trains the choirboys who sing for services in the Abbey. Music[edit] Westminster Abbey
is renowned for its choral tradition, and the repertoire of Anglican church music
Anglican church music
is heard in daily worship, particularly at the service of Choral Evensong.[41][42] Organ[edit] See also: List of Westminster Abbey
organists The organ was built by Harrison & Harrison in 1937, then with four manuals and 84 speaking stops, and was used for the first time at the coronation of King George VI. Some pipework from the previous Hill organ of 1848 was revoiced and incorporated in the new scheme. The two organ cases, designed and built in the late 19th century by John Loughborough Pearson, were re-instated and coloured in 1959.[43] In 1982 and 1987, Harrison and Harrison enlarged the organ under the direction of the then abbey organist Simon Preston to include an additional Lower Choir Organ and a Bombarde Organ: the current instrument now has five manuals and 109 speaking stops. In 2006, the console of the organ was refurbished by Harrison and Harrison, and space was prepared for two additional 16 ft stops on the Lower Choir Organ and the Bombarde Organ.[43] One part of the instrument, the Celestial Organ, is currently not connected or playable. The current Organist
and Master of the Choristers, James O'Donnell, has been in post since 2000. Bells[edit]

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The bells at the abbey were overhauled in 1971. The ring is now made up of ten bells, hung for change ringing, cast in 1971, by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, tuned to the notes: F#, E, D, C#, B, A, G, F#, E and D. The Tenor bell in D (588.5 Hz) has a weight of 30 cwt, 1 qtr, 15 lb (3403 lb or 1544 kg).[44] In addition there are two service bells, cast by Robert Mot, in 1585 and 1598 respectively, a Sanctus bell cast in 1738 by Richard Phelps and Thomas Lester and two unused bells—one cast about 1320, by the successor to R de Wymbish, and a second cast in 1742, by Thomas Lester.[44] The two service bells and the 1320 bell, along with a fourth small silver "dish bell", kept in the refectory, have been noted as being of historical importance by the Church Buildings Council of the Church of England.[45] Chapter house[edit]

Chapter house

The chapter house was built concurrently with the east parts of the abbey under Henry III, between about 1245 and 1253.[46] It was restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
in 1872. The entrance is approached from the east cloister walk and includes a double doorway with a large tympanum above.[46] Inner and outer vestibules lead to the octagonal chapter house, which is of exceptional architectural purity. It is built in a Geometrical Gothic style
Gothic style
with an octagonal crypt below. A pier of eight shafts carries the vaulted ceiling. To the sides are blind arcading, remains of 14th-century paintings and numerous stone benches above which are innovatory large 4-light quatre-foiled windows.[46] These are virtually contemporary with the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris.[46] The chapter house has an original mid-13th-century tiled pavement. A door within the vestibule dates from around 1050 and is believed to be the oldest in England.[47] The exterior includes flying buttresses added in the 14th century and a leaded tent-lantern roof on an iron frame designed by Scott. The Chapter house
Chapter house
was originally used in the 13th century by Benedictine
monks for daily meetings. It later became a meeting place of the King's Great Council and the Commons, predecessors of Parliament. The Pyx Chamber formed the undercroft of the monks' dormitory. It dates to the late 11th century and was used as a monastic and royal treasury. The outer walls and circular piers are of 11th-century date, several of the capitals were enriched in the 12th century and the stone altar added in the 13th century. The term pyx refers to the boxwood chest in which coins were held and presented to a jury during the Trial of the Pyx, in which newly minted coins were presented to ensure they conformed to the required standards. The chapter house and Pyx Chamber at Westminster Abbey
are in the guardianship of English Heritage, but under the care and management of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. English Heritage
English Heritage
have funded a major programme of work on the chapter house, comprising repairs to the roof, gutters, stonework on the elevations and flying buttresses as well as repairs to the lead light. Museum[edit] The Westminster Abbey
Museum was located in the 11th-century vaulted undercroft beneath the former monks' dormitory in Westminster Abbey. This is one of the oldest areas of the abbey, dating back almost to the foundation of the church by Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
in 1065. This space had been used as a museum since 1908.[48] Exhibits[edit]

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The exhibits included a collection of royal and other funeral effigies (funeral saddle, helm and shield of Henry V), together with other treasures, including some panels of mediaeval glass, 12th-century sculpture fragments, Mary II's coronation chair and replicas of the coronation regalia, and historic effigies of Edward III, Henry VII and his queen, Elizabeth of York, Charles II, William III, Mary II and Queen Anne. Later wax effigies included a likeness of Horatio, Viscount Nelson, wearing some of his own clothes and another of Prime Minister William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, modelled by the American-born sculptor Patience Wright.[citation needed] During recent conservation of Elizabeth I's effigy, a unique corset dating from 1603 was found on the figure, which was displayed separately. A recent addition to the exhibition was the late 13th-century Westminster Retable, England's oldest altarpiece, which was most probably designed for the high altar of the abbey. Although it has been damaged in past centuries, the panel has been expertly cleaned and conserved. This Museum has now closed, and will re-open in June 2018 in the Diamond Jubilee Galleries, high up in the main Abbey
building. Development plans[edit] In June 2009 the first major building work at the abbey for 250 years was proposed. A corona – a crown-like architectural feature – was suggested to be built around the lantern over the central crossing, replacing an existing pyramidal structure dating from the 1950s. This was part of a wider £23m development of the abbey expected to be completed in 2013.[49][50] On 4 August 2010 the Dean and Chapter announced that, "[a]fter a considerable amount of preliminary and exploratory work", efforts toward the construction of a corona would not be continued.[51] In 2012, architects Panter Hudspith completed refurbishment of the 14th-century food-store originally used by the abbey's monks, converting it into a restaurant with English oak furniture by Covent Garden-based furniture makers Luke Hughes and Company. This is now the Cellarium Café and Terrace. A project that is proceeding is the creation of The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries in the medieval triforium of the abbey. The aim is to create a new display area for the abbey's treasures in the galleries high up around the abbey's nave. To this end a new Gothic access tower with lift has been designed by the abbey architect and Surveyor of the Fabric, Ptolemy Dean. It has been announced that the new galleries will open in June 2018.[52] Transport[edit]

Underground St James's Park Westminster

River Services Westminster Millennium Pier
Westminster Millennium Pier



Great West Door and towers, as seen from Tothill Street

View from the nearby London
Eye to the north east

At night, from Dean's Yard
Dean's Yard
to the south; artificial light highlights the flying buttresses

Handel Commemoration in 1784

The Quire in 1848

Tomb of King Henry III of England.

West face from below

Cloisters looking south west towards Victoria Tower.

North façade, built in Gothic style

Exterior wall inscription

10 martyrs of the 20th century

One of the chapels

Relief of Christ (façade)

Facade by night

Coloured light projected onto the Abbey
for Lumiere festival
Lumiere festival

View through the gate into the Little Cloister, with St. Catherine's Chapel garden beyond

See also[edit]

Anglicanism portal London

Archdeacon of Westminster List of Deans of Westminster List of churches in London The Abbey
- a three-part BBC TV
documentary written and hosted by playwright Alan Bennett


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inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.  ^ " Abbey
History". Westminster-abbey.org. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ Duffy, Eamon & Loades, David (eds.) The Church of Mary Tudor. pp. 79–82. Retrieved 24 July 2014 ^ Knighton, C. S. (ed.). Acts of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 1543–1609: Part One. pp. xviii–xx. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "John Windsor's Guide To Collecting Contemporary Art". The Independent. 10 November 1998. Retrieved 28 April 2011.  ^ "Westminster Abbey
now example of how to handle tourists". Episcopal News Service. 6 March 2002. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ Schjonberg, Mary Frances (17 September 2010). "Benedict becomes first pope to visit Lambeth, Westminster Abbey". Episcopal Life Online. Retrieved 17 September 2010.  ^ "Henry III, Archonotology.org". Retrieved 21 April 2008.  ^ "The Stone still waiting for its final destiny". BBC. 28 November 2016. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "Newsbeat – Royal wedding: Prince William and Kate Middleton marry". BBC. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.  ^ Westminster Abbey
and Saint Margaret Westminster Act 1972. London, UK: HMSO. 1972. p. 1.  ^ " Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell
& family". www.westminster-abbey.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26.  ^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 26.  ^ Westminster Abbey
Mrs. A. Murray Smith, published 30 August 1904. ^ " William Wilberforce
William Wilberforce
& family". Westminster-abbey.org. 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.  ^ "Woking Crematorium". Internet. The Cremation
Society of Great Britain. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Sebastian Charles". Internet. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Retrieved 19 September 2015.  ^ "Westminster Abbey » Elizabeth, Duchess of Northumberland & Percy family".  ^ "The Tomb of The Unknown Warrior". British Legion. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ "The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Chapel". Official website. Retrieved 8 August 2015.  ^ "Diana Returns Home". BBC News. 1997. Retrieved 21 July 2016.  ^ Heller, Jenny E. (22 September 1998). "Westminster Abbey
Elevates 10 Foreigners". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2016.  ^ Streeter, Michael (17 October 1997). "Heritage: Westminster Abbey prepares modern martyrs' corner". The Independent. Retrieved 21 July 2016.  ^ "Queen Mother is laid to rest". BBC News. 10 April 2002.  ^ "Westminster Abbey : Choral Evensong". choralevensong.org. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ "Choral services". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ a b "N00646". Npor.org.uk. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ a b Westminster—Collegiate Church of S Peter (Westminster Abbey), Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers, 25 October 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2008. ^ "Database of Historically Significant Bells and Bell Frames". Churchcare website. Church of England. 1 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2008. search on "Westminster Abbey" for bell details  ^ a b c d Scott, Sir George Gilbert (1863). Gleanings from Westminster abbey. pp. 41–43, 56–58.  ^ England, Historic. "The Chapter House and Pyx Chamber in the abbey cloisters, Westminster Abbey
- 1003579 Historic England". historicengland.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-20.  ^ Trowles 2008, p. 156 ^ "Building work announced for Abbey". BBC News. 28 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.  ^ Kennedy, Maev (29 June 2009). "Dean lines up new crown shaped roof for Westminster Abbey". theguardian.com. Retrieved 29 June 2009.  ^ " Abbey
Development Plan Update". Westminster Abbey. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2010.  ^ www.westminsterabbey.org


Bradley, S. and N. Pevsner (2003) The Buildings of England – London 6: Westminster, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 105–207. ISBN 0-300-09595-3 Mortimer, Richard, ed., Edward the Confessor: The Man and the Legend, The Boydell Press, 2009. Eric Fernie, 'Edward the Confessor's Westminster Abbey', pp. 139–150. Warwick Rodwell, 'New Glimpses of Edward the Confessor's Abbey
at Westminster', pp. 151–167. Richard Gem, Craftsmen and Administrators in the Building of the Confessor's Abbey', pp. 168–172. ISBN 978-1-84383-436-6 Harvey, B. (1993) Living and Dying in England 1100–1540: The Monastic Experience, Ford Lecture series, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-820161-3 Morton, H. V. [1951] (1988) In Search of London, London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-18470-6 Trowles, T. (2008) Treasures of Westminster Abbey, London: Scala. ISBN 978-1-85759-454-6

Further reading[edit]

Westminster Abbey
900 Years. 1965 Brooke-Hunt, Violet The Story of Westminster Abbey. London: James Nisbet

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Westminster Abbey.

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Official website Walter Thornbury, Old and New London, Volume 3, 1878, pp. 394–462, British History Online Westminster Abbey
Article at Encyclopædia Britannica Historic images of Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey: A Peek Inside – slideshow by Life magazine Keith Short – Sculptor Images of stone carving for Westminster Abbey Carved Crests for the Knights of the Bath A history of the choristers and choir school of Westminster Abbey Catholic Encyclopedia: Westminster Abbey Adrian Fletcher’s Paradoxplace Westminster Abbey
Pages—Photos A panorama of Westminster Abbey
in daytime – JPG and 3D QuickTime versions Westminster Abbey
on Twitter Audio Guide of Westminster Abbey https://archive.org/details/TheWelshCrossMystery A study of the relic of the True Cross seized from Wales by King Edward I and venerated at Westminster Abbey. It was eventually stored with the Crown Jewels in the Tower
of London. Peter Ogwen Jones (2018). Free PDF book internet download.

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Westminster Abbey


Early modern

William Benson Richard Cox Hugh Weston William Bill Gabriel Goodman Lancelot Andrewes Richard Neile George Montaigne Robert Tounson John Williams Richard Steward John Earle John Dolben Thomas Sprat Francis Atterbury Samuel Bradford Joseph Wilcocks Zachary Pearce John Thomas Samuel Horsley

Late modern

William Vincent John Ireland Thomas Turton Samuel Wilberforce William Buckland Richard Chenevix Trench Arthur Penrhyn Stanley George Granville Bradley Armitage Robinson Herbert Edward Ryle William Foxley Norris Paul de Labilliere Alan Don Eric Abbott Edward Carpenter Michael Mayne Wesley Carr John Hall

Canons (current)

Vernon White (Sub-Dean, Archdeacon and Canon Theologian) David Stanton (Canon Treasurer and Almoner) Jane Sinclair
Jane Sinclair
(Rector of St Margaret's) Anthony Ball (Canon Steward) Chris Stoltz (Minor Canon and Precentor) Mark Birch (Minor Canon and Sacrist) Jenny Petersen (Minor Canon and Chaplain)


Coronation of the British monarch Liber Regalis Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
(patron saint) Burials and Memorials Poets' Corner St Margaret's, Westminster Henry Yevele
Henry Yevele
(architect) Surveyor of the Fabric of Westminster Abbey Diocese
of Westminster (1540–1550) Westminster Abbey
Muniments Westminster Abbey
Museum Westminster School Westminster Abbey
Choir School Dean's Yard Jerusalem Chamber

Category Commons

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abbeys and priories in medieval England and Wales

Independent houses

Abergavenny Abbotsbury Abingdon Alcester Athelney Bardney Bath Battle Bedford Birkenhead Bradwell Brewood (Black Ladies) Buckfast Burton Bury St Edmunds Canterbury (Christ Church) Canterbury (St Augustine's) Canwell Cerne Chertsey Chester Cholsey Colchester Coventry Crowland Durham Ely Evesham Eynsham Farewell Priory Faversham Glastonbury Gloucester Humberston Luffield Malmesbury Milton Monk
Bretton Muchelney Molycourt Norwich (Holy Trinity) Pershore Peterborough Ramsey Reading Repton Rochester St Albans St Benet of Hulme Sandwell Selby Sherborne Shrewsbury Snelshall Tavistock Tewkesbury Thorney Upholland Walden Westminster Whitby Winchcombe Winchester (New Minister) Winchester (St Swithun) Worcester York (St Mary's)

Dependent houses

Aldeby Alkborough Alcester Alvecote Beadlow Bedemans Berg Belvoir Binham Breedon Brecon Bristol Bromfield Cardiff Cardigan Cranborne Darenth Deeping Dover Dunster Earls Colne Ewenny Ewyas Harold Exeter Farne Felixstowe Finchale Freiston Great Malvern Hatfield Peverel Henes (Sandtoft) Hereford Hertford Holy Island Horton Hoxne Hurley Jarrow Kidwelly Kilpeck King's Mead Kings Lynn Lammana Langley Leominster Leonard Stanley Lincoln Little Malvern Littlemore Lytham Middlesbrough Monkwearmouth Morville Norwich (St Leonard's) Oxford (of Canterbury) Oxford (of Durham) Oxford (of Gloucester) Penwortham Pilton Redbourne Richmond Rumburgh St Bees St Ives Scilly Snaith Snape Stamford Studley (Oxfordshire) Studley (Warwickshire) Sudbury Tickhill Tynemouth Wallingford Westbury-on-Trym Wetheral Wymondham Yarmouth

Alien priories

Allerton Mauleverer Andover Andwell Appuldurcombe Arundel Astley Aston Priors Atherington Avebury Axmouth Blyth Boxgrove Brimpsfield Burstall Burwell Caldy Carisbrooke Chepstow Clatford Cogges Corsham Covenham Cowick Creeting (St. Mary) Creeting (St. Olave) Debden Deerhurst Dunwich Ecclesfield Edith Weston Ellingham Everdon Eye Folkestone Frampton Goldcliff Grovebury Hamble Harmondsworth Hatfield Regis Haugham Hayling Headley Hinckley Holbeck Horsham St Faith Horsley Lancaster Lapley Lewisham Isleham Livers Ocle Llangennith Llangua Loders Minster Minster Lovell Minting Modbury Monks Kirby Monk
Sherborne (Pamber) Monmouth Newent Ogbourne St George Otterton Panfield Pembroke Pill Ruislip Runcton St Cross St Dogmells St Michael's Mount St Neots Sele Spalding Sporle Standon Steventon Stogursey Stoke-by-Clare Stratfield Saye Swavesey Takeley Throwley Tickford Titley Toft Monks Totnes Tutbury Tywardreath Upavon Ware Wareham Warminghurst Warmington Wath Weedon Beck Weedon Lois West Mersea Wilsford Wing Winghale Wolston Wootton Wawen York (Holy Trinity)

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History of London


Londinium Lundenwic City of London City of Westminster Middlesex County of London Greater London Timeline


Roman London Anglo-Saxon London Norman and Medieval London Tudor London Stuart London 18th-century London 19th-century London 1900–39 The Blitz 1945–2000 21st century


Peasants' Revolt Black Death Great Plague Great Fire 1854 cholera outbreak Great Stink Great Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition The Battle of Cable Street Festival of Britain Great Smog Swinging London London
Plan 1966 FIFA World Cup Final 7/7 bombings Olympic Games (1908 1948 2012) 2012 Summer Paralympics Grenfell Tower


Metropolitan Board of Works London
County Council Greater London
Council Greater London
Authority London
Assembly Mayor of London London


Bow Street Runners Metropolitan Police Service London
Ambulance Service London
Fire Brigade Port of London
Authority London
sewerage system London

City of London

City of London
Corporation Lord Mayor of the City of London Wards of the City of London Guildhall Livery Companies Lord Mayor's Show City of London
Police Bank of England


St Paul's Cathedral Tower
of London Palace of Whitehall Westminster Hall London
Bridge Tower
Bridge Westminster Abbey Big Ben The Monument Fortifications


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World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom


Bath Blenheim Palace Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey
and St. Martin's Church Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Derwent Valley Mills Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Cathedral Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Hadrian's Wall

Ironbridge Gorge Jurassic Coast Kew Royal Botanic Gardens Lake District Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Maritime Greenwich Saltaire Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and Fountains Abbey Tower
of London Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey
and St. Margaret's Church


Edinburgh Old Town and New Town Forth Bridge Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Antonine Wall

Heart of Neolithic Orkney New Lanark St. Kilda


Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I in Gwynedd Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Northern Ireland

Giant's Causeway

British Overseas Territories

Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
Complex Gough Island Inaccessible Island Henderson Island Town of St. George and Related Fortifications

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Buildings and structures


Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower
Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues


Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium


Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville


Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena


10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower
of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral



Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace


Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace


Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower


Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
Eye London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch


City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car


Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House


Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich
Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park


Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square


Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

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The Westminster Assembly


Westminster Confession of Faith Westminster Larger Catechism Westminster Shorter Catechism Directory for Public Worship Form of Presbyterial Church Government


John Arrowsmith Simeon Ashe Robert Baillie Thomas Baylie Robert Blair Samuel Bolton John Bond William Bridge Ralph Brownrigg Anthony Burges Cornelius Burges Jeremiah Burroughs Adoniram Byfield Richard Byfield Edmund Calamy Archibald Campbell John Campbell Richard Capel Joseph Caryl Thomas Case Daniel Cawdry William Cecil Francis Cheynell John Clotworthy Thomas Coleman John Conant Edward Conway John Cook Edward Corbet Robert Crosse Robert Devereux Robert Douglas Calybute Downing John Dury John Earle John Elphinstone Daniel Featley Basil Feilding Nathaniel Fiennes William Fiennes Thomas Ford Thomas Gataker George Gillespie John Glynne Thomas Goodwin William Gouge William Greenhill William Grey John Hacket Matthew Hale Henry Hammond Robert Harley John Harris Robert Harris Arthur Haselrig Alexander Henderson Philip Herbert Charles Herle Thomas Hill Richard Holdsworth Edward Howard Joshua Hoyle Archibald Johnston John Ley John Lightfoot Richard Love William Lyford John Maitland Stephen Marshall John Maynard William Mew Edward Montagu George Morley Matthew Newcomen William Nicholson Philip Nye Herbert Palmer Algernon Percy Andrew Perne William Pierrepont John Pym Edward Reynolds Robert Reynolds Henry Rich Francis Rous Benjamin Rudyerd Samuel Rutherford Robert Sanderson Henry Scudder Lazarus Seaman Obadiah Sedgwick John Selden Josias Shute Sidrach Simpson William Spurstowe Edmund Staunton Peter Sterry Oliver St John
Oliver St John
(1580–1646) Oliver St John
Oliver St John
(1598–1673) William Strode William Strong Zouch Tate Henry Tozer Anthony Tuckney William Twisse Henry Vane the Elder Henry Vane the Younger Richard Vines George Walker Samuel Ward Thomas Westfield Philip Wharton Jeremiah Whitaker John White Bulstrode Whitelocke John Wilde Henry Wilkinson Walter Yonge Thomas Young

Westminster Abbey Jerusalem Chamber

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Churches in the City of Westminster

Ancient parish churches (pre-1800)

St Anne, Soho St Clement Danes St George, Hanover Square St James, Piccadilly St Margaret, Westminster St Martin-in-the-Fields St Marylebone St Mary le Strand St Paul, Covent Garden


St John the Evangelist, Smith Square

Anglican daughter churches

All Saints, Margaret Street All Souls, Langham Place Annunciation, Marble Arch Grosvenor Chapel, Mayfair Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks Holy Trinity, South Kensington St Augustine, Kilburn St Cyprian, Clarence Gate St Gabriel, Warwick Square St James, Paddington St James the Less, Pimlico St John's Wood Church St Mark, Hamilton Terrace St Mary, Bourne Street St Mary, Bryanston Square St Mary, Paddington Green St Mary Magdalene, Paddington St Matthew, Bayswater St Matthew, Westminster St Paul, Knightsbridge St Peter, Eaton Square St Saviour, Pimlico St Stephen, Rochester Row St Stephen, Westbourne Park


Christ Church, Cosway Street Holy Trinity, Marylebone St Peter, Vere Street

Royal Peculiars

Henry VII Chapel Queen's Chapel, St James's Palace Savoy Chapel St Mary Undercroft Westminster Abbey

Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic

Immaculate Conception, Farm Street Notre Dame de France Our Lady of the Assumption and St Gregory, Westminster St Charles Borromeo, Westminster St James, Spanish Place St Mary of the Angels, Bayswater St Patrick, Soho Westminster Cathedral

Other denominations

Crown Court Church, Covent Garden Dormition Cathedral Emmanuel Evangelical Church Enon Chapel French Protestant Church, Soho Hinde Street Methodist Church One Mayfair Church Regent Hall St John's Wood Road Baptist Church St Sophia's Cathedral, Bayswater Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral
of the Holy Family in Exile, Mayfair Ulrika Eleonora Welsh Church of Central London West London
Methodist Mission West Street Chapel Methodist Central Hall Westminster Chapel

See also

Fitzrovia Chapel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132460849 LCCN: n80008753 ISNI: 0000 0001 2308 3054 GND: 4206437-5 SUDOC: 032533187 BNF: cb12354524b (data) ULA