The Info List - Western Church

The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope
and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity. Employing the Latin liturgical rites, with 1.255 billion members (2015), the Latin Church
Latin Church
is the original and still major part of Western Christianity,[2] in contrast to the Eastern Catholic churches. It is headquartered in the Vatican City, enclaved in Rome, Italy. Historically, the leadership of the Latin Church, i.e., the Holy See, has been viewed as one of the five patriarchates of the Pentarchy
of early Christianity, along with the patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Due to geographic and cultural considerations, the latter patriarchates developed into churches with distinct Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
traditions. The majority of Eastern Christian churches broke full communion with the bishop of Rome
and the Latin Church, following various theological and leadership disputes in the centuries following the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451 AD. These included notably the Nestorian Schism
Nestorian Schism
(Church of the East), Chalcedonian Schism
Chalcedonian Schism
(Oriental Orthodoxy), and the East-West Schism (Eastern Orthodoxy).[3] The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
of the 16th century saw an analogous schism. Until 2005, the Pope
claimed the title " Patriarch
of the West"; Pope
Benedict XVI lifted this title for ecumenical purposes while continuing to exercise a direct patriarchal role over the Latin Church. The Latin Church
Latin Church
is notable within Western Christianity
Western Christianity
for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments. In the Catholic Church, in addition to the Latin Church
Latin Church
directly headed by the Pope
as Latin patriarch, there are 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, self-governing particular churches sui iuris with their own hierarchies. These churches trace their origins to the other four patriarchates of the ancient pentarchy, but either never historically broke full communion or returned to it with the Papacy at some time. These differ from each other in liturgical rite (ceremonies, vestments, chants, language), devotional traditions, theology, canon law, and clergy, but all maintain the same faith, and all see full communion with the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, as essential to being Catholic as well as part of the one true church as defined by the Four Marks of the Church
Four Marks of the Church
in Catholic ecclesiology. The approximately 13 million Eastern Catholics
Eastern Catholics
represent a minority of Christians in communion with the Pope, compared to more than 1 billion Latin Catholics. Additionally, there are roughly 250 million Eastern Orthodox and 86 million Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
around the world. Unlike the Latin Church, the Pope
does not exercise a direct patriarchal role over the Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
and their faithful, instead encouring their internal hierarchies separate from that of the Latin Church, analogous to the traditions shared with the corresponding Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
churches in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.[3]


1 Terminology

1.1 "Church" and "rite"

2 Distinguishing characteristics

2.1 Liturgical patrimony 2.2 Disciplinary patrimony

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Terminology[edit] See also: Catholic Church
Catholic Church
§ Name The church is called the Latin Church
Latin Church
in most available sources, albeit some sources indicate that is occasionally referred to as the "Roman Catholic Church", for instance by some Eastern Catholics.[4] In an historical context, it is sometimes also referred to as the Western Church. "Church" and "rite"[edit] Further information: Catholic liturgical rites
Catholic liturgical rites
and particular churches The 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
defines the use within that code of the words "church" and "rite".[5][6] In accordance with these definitions of usage within the code that governs the Eastern Catholic churches, the Latin Church
Latin Church
is one such group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy and recognized by the supreme authority of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a sui iuris particular church. The Latin rite is the whole of the patrimony of that distinct particular church, by which it manifests its own manner of living the faith, including its own liturgy, its theology, its spiritual practices and traditions and its canon law. A person is a member of or belongs to a particular church. A person also inherits, or "is of",[7] a particular patrimony or rite. Since the rite has liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary elements, a person is also to worship, to be catechized, to pray and to be governed according to a particular rite. Particular churches that inherit and perpetuate a particular patrimony are identified by metonymy with that patrimony. Accordingly, "rite" has been defined as "a division of the Christian church using a distinctive liturgy",[8] or simply as "a Christian Church".[9] In this sense, "rite" and "church" are treated as synonymous, as in the glossary prepared by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and revised in 1999, which states that each "Eastern-rite (Oriental) Church ... is considered equal to the Latin rite within the Church".[10] The Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
likewise stated that "it is the mind of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
that each individual Church or Rite should retain its traditions whole and entire and likewise that it should adapt its way of life to the different needs of time and place"[11] and spoke of patriarchs and of "major archbishops, who rule the whole of some individual church or rite".[12] It thus used the word "rite" as "a technical designation of what may now be called a particular church".[13] "Church or rite" is also used as a single heading in the United States Library of Congress classification of works.[14] Distinguishing characteristics[edit] Liturgical patrimony[edit] Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope
Benedict XVI) described the Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites
in 24 October 1998:[15]

Several forms of the Latin rite have always existed, and were only slowly withdrawn, as a result of the coming together of the different parts of Europe. Before the Council there existed side by side with the Roman rite, the Ambrosian rite, the Mozarabic rite
Mozarabic rite
of Toledo, the rite of Braga, the Carthusian
rite, the Carmelite
rite, and best known of all, the Dominican rite, and perhaps still other rites of which I am not aware.

Today, the most common Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites
are the Roman Rite (either in its ordinary form, the post- Vatican II
Vatican II
Mass of Pope
Paul VI officially authorized for present-day use, or in an extraordinary form such as the Tridentine Mass); the Ambrosian Rite; the Mozarabic Rite; and variations of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
(such as the Anglican Use). The 23 Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
share five families of liturgical rites. The Latin liturgical rites, like the Armenian, are used only in a single sui iuris particular church. Disciplinary patrimony[edit]

Part of a series on the

Jurisprudence of Catholic canon law

Current law

1983 Code of Canon Law

Omnium in mentem Magnum principium

Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Ad tuendam fidem Ex corde Ecclesiae Indulgentiarum Doctrina Pastor bonus

Pontificalis Domus

Veritatis gaudium Custom

Legal history

1917 Code of Canon Law

Corpus Juris Canonici

Decretist Regulæ Juris Decretals of Gregory IX


Decretum Gratiani Extravagantes Liber Septimus

Ancient Church Orders

Didache The Apostolic Constitutions

Canons of the Apostles

Collections of ancient canons

Collectiones canonum Dionysianae Collectio canonum quadripartita Collectio canonum Quesnelliana Collectio canonum Wigorniensis


Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals Benedictus Deus (Pius IV) Contractum trinius Defect of Birth Jus exclusivae Papal appointment

Oriental law

Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Eastern Canonical Reforms of Pius XII Nomocanon Archeparchy


Liturgical law

Ecclesia Dei Mysterii Paschalis Sacrosanctum concilium

Musicam sacram

Summorum Pontificum Tra le sollecitudini

Sacramental law

Canon 844 Ex opere operato Omnium in mentem Valid but illicit

Holy Orders

Impediment (canon law)


Clerical celibacy (Catholic Church) Nullity of Sacred Ordination

Apostolicae curae

Dimissorial letters Approbation


Apostolic Penitentiary Complicit absolution Canon penitentiary Internal forum Paenitentiale Theodori Penitential canons Seal of the Confessional


Eucharistic discipline Canon 915

Matrimonial law

Banns of Marriage Declaration of Nullity

Matrimonial Nullity Trial Reforms of Pope

Defender of the Bond Impediments to Marriage

Affinity Bigamy Clandestinity Impediment of crime Disparity of Cult Ligamen

Matrimonial Dispensation

Ratum sed non consummatum Sanatio in radice

Natural marriage

Pauline privilege Petrine privilege

Trials and tribunals


Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura Tribunal of the Roman Rota Apostolic Penitentiary

Tribunal Officers

Judicial Vicar/Officialis Auditor Advocatus Diaboli Defender of the Bond

Tribunal Procedure

Appeal as from an abuse Presumption

Canonical structures Particular churches

Particular churches sui juris

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches

Local particular churches

Abbacy nullius


Apostolic vicariate

Apostolic vicar

Apostolic administration

Apostolic administrator

Archdiocese Diocese

Aeque principaliter Cathedraticum In persona episcopi Chancery Deanery

Vicar forane

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Anglicanorum Coetibus

Personal Prelature

Juridic persons

Parish Roman Curia

Dicastery Congregation Pontifical council


Canonical coronation

Canonically crowned images

Computation of time Contract law Custom Delegata potestas non potest delegari Derogation Dispensation

Taxa Innocentiana

Indult Impediment Interpretation

Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts

Jurisdiction Peritus Obreption & subreption Obrogation Promulgation Resignation of the Roman Pontiff Sede vacante Vacatio legis Valid but illicit

Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory



Treatise on Law


Law of persons

Person (canon law) Canonical age Canonical faculties Clerics and public office Clerical celebacy Consecrated life Defect of Birth Emancipation Juridic & physical persons Jus patronatus Laicization (dispensation)

Canonical documents

Notary (canon law)

Protonotary apostolic

Apostolic constitution Canon Concordat Decree Decretal Encyclical Motu proprio Ordinance Papal brief Papal bull Penitential Positive law Rescript

Penal law

Canon 1324 Canon 1398 Censure (canon law) Excommunication

List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church List of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church

List of excommunicated cardinals

Interdict Internal forum Laicization (penal) Latae sententiae

Procedural law Election of the Roman Pontiff

Universi Dominici gregis Papal renunciation


v t e

Canon law for the Latin Church
Latin Church
is codified in the Code of Canon Law, of which there have been two codifications, the first promulgated by Pope
Benedict XV in 1917, and the second by Pope
John Paul II in 1983.[16] In the Latin Church, the norm for administration of confirmation is that, except when in danger of death, the person to be confirmed should "have the use of reason, be suitably instructed, properly disposed, and able to renew the baptismal promises",[17] and "the administration of the Most Holy Eucharist
to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion."[18] In the Eastern Churches these sacraments are usually administered immediately after baptism, even for an infant.[19] Celibacy, as a consequence of the duty to observe perfect continence, is obligatory for priests in the Latin Church.[20] Rare exceptions are permitted for men who, after ministering as clergy in other churches, join the Catholic Church.[21] This contrasts with the discipline in most Eastern Catholic Churches. In the Latin Church, a married man may not be admitted even to the diaconate unless he is legitimately destined to remain a deacon and not become a priest.[22] Marriage after ordination is not possible, and attempting it can result in canonical penalties.[23] At the present time, Bishops in the Latin Church
Latin Church
are generally appointed by the Pope
on the advice of the various dicasteries of the Roman Curia, specifically the Congregation for Bishops, the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
(for countries in its care), the Section for Relations with States
Section for Relations with States
of the Secretariat of State (for appointments that require the consent or prior notification of civil governments), and the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (in the areas in its charge, even for the appointment of Latin bishops). The Congregations generally work from a "terna" or list of three names advanced to them by the local church most often through the Apostolic Nuncio or the Cathedral Chapter in those places where the Chapter retains the right to nominate bishops.[citation needed] See also[edit]


East–West Schism General Roman Calendar Latin liturgical rites Latin Mass


^ Marshall, Thomas William (1844). Notes of the Episcopal Polity of the Holy Catholic Church. London: Levey, Rossen and Franklin.  ^ http://press.vatican.va/content/salastampa/en/bollettino/pubblico/2017/04/06/170406e.html ^ a b  Fortescue, Adrian (1913). "Latin Church". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  ^ "Catholic Churches". Melkite Greek Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Information Center. 8 August 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ CCEO, canon 27 ^ CCEO, canon 28 §1 ^ Code of Canon Law, canons 383 §2, 450 §1, 476, 479 §2, 1021 ^ Rite, Merriam Webster Dictionary  ^ Rite, Collins English Dictionary  ^ Glossary of Church Terms ^ Decree on the Eastern Rite Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2 ^ Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 10 ^ William W. Bassett, The Determination of Rite, an Historical and Juridical Study (Gregorian University Bookshop, 1967 ISBN 978-88-7652129-4), p. 73 ^ Library of Congress Classification - KBS Table 2 ^ Rowland, Tracey (2008). Ratzinger's Faith: The Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 November 2017.  ^ Codes of Canon Law ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 889 §2 ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 913 §1 ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canons 695 §1 and 710 ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 277 §1 ^ Anglicanorum coetibus, VI §§1-2 ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1042 ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1087

External links[edit]

Holy See
Holy See
- Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Latin Church

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