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Karl Rudolf Werner Braune[3] (11 April 1909 − 7 June 1951) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era
Nazi era
and a Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrator. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union of 1941, Braune was the commander of Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
11b, part of Einsatzgruppe D. Braune organized and conducted mass murders of Jews
Jews
in the Army Group South Rear Area and the Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
(southern Ukraine and in the Crimea). For his role in these crimes, Braune was tried before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal
Nuremberg Military Tribunal
in 1948 in the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial. He was convicted, sentenced to death and executed in 1951.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nazi career

2.1 Einsatzgruppe commander

3 Trial and conviction 4 Notes 5 References

Early life[edit] Braune attended a type of German school known as a Gymnasium and graduated in 1929 with a prestigious diploma known as an abitur.[4] He then studied jurisprudence at the universities of Jena, Bonn, and Munich. He graduated in 1933 with a degree in civil law from the University of Jena.[5] On July 1, 1931, at the age of 22, and while still a student, Braune joined the Nazi party
Nazi party
and was assigned membership number 581,277.[6] Nazi career[edit] In November 1931, Braune became a member of the Nazi paramilitary organization known as the Sturmabteilung, sometimes called "stormtroopers" in English, and which is generally referred to by its German initials of SA. In November 1934, he joined the SS and was assigned membership number 107,364. At the same time in 1934 Braune began working at the German police organization called the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst), known by its German initials as the SD. In 1936, Braune was also working for another police organization, the Gestapo.[7] In 1938 he became acting Gestapo
Gestapo
leader in Münster. In 1940, he became a Gestapo
Gestapo
boss, first in Koblenz, next in the state police office in Wesermünde
Wesermünde
and then, in May 1941, in Halle.[8] Einsatzgruppe commander[edit] From October 1941 to the beginning of September 1942, Braune was the commander of Special
Special
Detachment 11b, part of Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
D, which was under the command of Otto Ohlendorf, who later would be executed as a war criminal. Werner Braune's younger brother Fritz Braune (de) (18 July 1910- after 1973) was the commander of Special
Special
Detachment 4b. Under the command of Werner Braune, Special Detachment 11b carried out the massacre of Simferopol, in the Crimea, where in the course of the three days from 11 to 13 December 1941 they murdered 14,300 Jews. In September 1942 Braune returned to Halle. In 1943 he was promoted to the rank of SS Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel). From 1943 through 1944, he was the leader of the German Foreign Service Academy, until, in 1945, he was sent to Norway as the commander of the Security Police ("Sicherheitspolizei" or SiPO) and SD.[8] Trial and conviction[edit]

Braune's mugshot for Nuremberg Military Tribunal, 1 March 1948.

Following the war, Braune was indicted as a war criminal in the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial that was held before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal. Braune's only defense was that he was acting under superior orders, sometimes referred to as the "Nuremberg defense". This was rejected by the court:

In October 1941 he was assigned to Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
11b. As chief of this unit Braune knew of the Fuehrer Order and executed it to the hilt. His defense is the general one of superior orders which avails Braune no more than it does anyone else who executes a criminal order with the zeal that Braune brought to the Fuehrer Order. Various reports implicate Braune and his Kommando in the sordid business of illegal killings.

The Tribunal has already spoken of the Christmas massacre of Simferopol. Braune was the Kommando leader in charge of this operation. He has admitted responsibility for this murder in unequivocal language.[9]

On 10 April 1948 Braune was sentenced to death and shortly after midnight on 7 June 1951 he was executed by hanging at the Landsberg war criminals prison.[1] Also hanged on 7 June 1951 at Landsberg prison were six other Nazi war criminals including Otto Ohlendorf, Erich Naumann, Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
and Oswald Pohl.[1][2] Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Five death sentences were confirmed: the sentence against Oswald Pohl, as well as those passed against the leaders of the Mobile Killing Units, Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Neumann, and Otto Ohrlendorf. . . . In the early morning hours of 7 June, the [] Nazi criminals were hanged in the Landesburg prison courtyard." Norbert Frei, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. Columbia University Press, 2002. p. 165 and p. 173 ^ a b "Mr. Brit ist eingetroffen". Der Spiegel. 13 (24): 12. June 1951.  ^ Trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council law no. 10, Volume 4 (PDF). Nuremberg: United States Government Printing Office. p. 214.  ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, page 121 - "Table 3 - Education of the Defendants". ^ Braune, Werner, Gibt es eine Zwangsvollstreckung aus Verurteilungen zur Abgabe einer Willenserklärung?. Osnabrück 1934. (Dissertationsschrift von 1932 an der Universität Jena.) ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial. Cambridge 2009, S. 126 - "Table 4 - Joining Date of Defendants", page 126. ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial. Cambridge 2009, page 129, - "Table 5 - Joining Date of the SA, SS, SD and Gestapo". ^ a b Klee, Ernst, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2005, page 72. ^ Nuremberg Military Tribunal, United States of America vs. Otto Ohlendorf, et. al. (" Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial"), Judgment, at pages 545-47.

References[edit]

Hilary Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1. Norbert Frei: Vergangenheitspolitik: die Anfänge der Bundesrepublik und die NS-Vergangenheit. Beck, München 1996, ISBN 3-406-41310-2. Ernst Klee: Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007. ISBN 978-3-596-16048-8. (Aktualisierte 2. Auflage) Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 4: United States of America vs. Otto Ohlendorf, et al. (Case 9: „ Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Case“). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia 1950. In: „National Archives Microfilm Publications“, NM Series 1874-1946, Microfilm Publication M936. National Archives and Record Service, Washington 1973. (Auszüge aus der Urteilsbegründung zu Werner Braune: S. 545–547.)

v t e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews
Jews
in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 42771

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