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KARL RUDOLF WERNER BRAUNE (11 April 1909 − 7 June 1951) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era and a Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrator. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union of 1941, Braune was the commander of Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
11b, part of Einsatzgruppe D . Braune organized and conducted mass murders of Jews
Jews
in the Army Group South Rear Area and the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (southern Ukraine and in the Crimea
Crimea
). For his role in these crimes, Braune was tried before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal in 1948 in the Einsatzgruppen trial . He was convicted, sentenced to death and executed in 1951.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Nazi career

* 2.1 Einsatzgruppe commander

* 3 Trial and conviction * 4 Notes * 5 References

EARLY LIFE

Braune attended a type of German school known as a Gymnasium and graduated in 1929 with a prestigious diploma known as an abitur . He then studied jurisprudence at the universities of Jena , Bonn , and Munich . He graduated in 1933 with a degree in civil law from the University of Jena. On July 1, 1931, at the age of 22, and while still a student, Braune joined the Nazi party
Nazi party
and was assigned membership number 581,277.

NAZI CAREER

In November 1931, Braune became a member of the Nazi paramilitary organization known as the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
, sometimes called "stormtroopers" in English, and which is generally referred to by its German initials of SA. In November 1934, he joined the SS and was assigned membership number 107,364. At the same time in 1934 Braune began working at the German police organization called the Security Service ( Sicherheitsdienst ), known by its German initials as the SD. In 1936, Braune was also working for another police organization, the Gestapo
Gestapo
. In 1938 he became acting Gestapo
Gestapo
leader in Münster . In 1940, he became a Gestapo
Gestapo
boss, first in Koblenz
Koblenz
, next in the state police office in Wesermünde and then, in May 1941, in Halle .

EINSATZGRUPPE COMMANDER

From October 1941 to the beginning of September 1942, Braune was the commander of Special
Special
Detachment 11b, part of Einsatzgruppen D, which was under the command of Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
, who later would be executed as a war criminal. Werner Braune's younger brother Fritz Braune (de) (18 July 1910- after 1973) was the commander of Special
Special
Detachment 4b. Under the command of Werner Braune, Special
Special
Detachment 11b carried out the massacre of Simferopol , in the Crimea
Crimea
, where in the course of the three days from 11 to 13 December 1941 they murdered 14,300 Jews. In September 1942 Braune returned to Halle. In 1943 he was promoted to the rank of SS Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel). From 1943 through 1944, he was the leader of the German Foreign Service Academy, until, in 1945, he was sent to Norway
Norway
as the commander of the Security Police (" Sicherheitspolizei " or SiPO) and SD.

TRIAL AND CONVICTION

Braune's mugshot for Nuremberg Military Tribunal , 1 March 1948.

Following the war, Braune was indicted as a war criminal in the Einsatzgruppen trial that was held before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal . Braune's only defense was that he was acting under superior orders , sometimes referred to as the "Nuremberg defense". This was rejected by the court:

In October 1941 he was assigned to Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
11b. As chief of this unit Braune knew of the Fuehrer Order and executed it to the hilt. His defense is the general one of superior orders which avails Braune no more than it does anyone else who executes a criminal order with the zeal that Braune brought to the Fuehrer Order. Various reports implicate Braune and his Kommando in the sordid business of illegal killings.

The Tribunal has already spoken of the Christmas massacre of Simferopol . Braune was the Kommando leader in charge of this operation. He has admitted responsibility for this murder in unequivocal language.

On 10 April 1948 Braune was sentenced to death and shortly after midnight on 7 June 1951 he was executed by hanging at the Landsberg war criminals prison . Also hanged on 7 June 1951 at Landsberg prison were six other Nazi war criminals including Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
, Erich Naumann , Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
and Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
.

NOTES

* ^ A B C "Five death sentences were confirmed: the sentence against Oswald Pohl, as well as those passed against the leaders of the Mobile Killing Units, Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Neumann, and Otto Ohrlendorf. . . . In the early morning hours of 7 June, the [] Nazi criminals were hanged in the Landesburg prison courtyard." Norbert Frei, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. Columbia University Press, 2002. p. 165 and p. 173 * ^ A B "Mr. Brit ist eingetroffen". Der Spiegel. 13 (24): 12. June 1951. * ^ Trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council law no. 10, Volume 4 (PDF). Nuremberg: United States Government Printing Office . p. 214. * ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen Trial, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, page 121 - "Table 3 - Education of the Defendants". * ^ Braune, Werner, Gibt es eine Zwangsvollstreckung aus Verurteilungen zur Abgabe einer Willenserklärung?. Osnabrück 1934. (Dissertationsschrift von 1932 an der Universität Jena.) * ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen Trial. Cambridge 2009, S. 126 - "Table 4 - Joining Date of Defendants", page 126. * ^ Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen Trial. Cambridge 2009, page 129, - "Table 5 - Joining Date of the SA, SS, SD and Gestapo". * ^ A B Klee, Ernst , Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2005, page 72. * ^ Nuremberg Military Tribunal, United States of America vs. Otto Ohlendorf, et. al. (" Einsatzgruppen trial"), Judgment, at pages 545-47.

REFERENCES

* Hilary Earl: The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1 . * Norbert Frei : Vergangenheitspolitik: die Anfänge der Bundesrepublik und die NS-Vergangenheit. Beck, München 1996, ISBN 3-406-41310-2 . * Ernst Klee : Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007. ISBN 978-3-596-16048-8 . (Aktualisierte 2. Auflage) * Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 4: United States of America vs. Otto Ohlendorf, et al. (Case 9: „ Einsatzgruppen Case“). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia 1950. In: „National Archives Microfilm Publications“, NM Series 1874-1946, Microfilm Publication M936. National Archives and Record Service, Washington 1973. (Auszüge aus der Urteilsbegründung zu Werner Braune: S. 545–547.)

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust
Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway
Norway
Poland Russia

CRIMES

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobych * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa * Pripyat Swamps

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

* Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Werner Braune * Lothar Fendler * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Günther Herrmann * Friedrich Jeckeln * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Fritz Katzmann
Fritz Katzmann
* Erich Koch * Felix Landau * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Paul Otto Radomski * Otto Rasch * Walter Schimana * Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Heinrich Seetzen * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Dieter Wisliceny

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Regiment South * Reichskommissariat Ukraine

COLLABORATORS Individuals Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

GHETTOS, CAMPS AND PRISONS

* Bogdanovka * Drohobych Ghetto * Syrets concentration camp * Vapniarka concentration camp

RESISTANCE AND SURVIVORS

* Priest\'s Grotto * Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste
Volksliste
Evidence Graebe affidavit

CONCEALMENT AND DENIAL

* Sonderaktion 1005

INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Klymentiy Sheptytsky * Omelyan Kovch * Hermann Friedrich Graebe

MEMORIALS

* Babi Yar memorials * List of Babi Yar victims

See also History of the Jews
Jews
in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Erich Naumann * Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein
Ernst Biberstein
* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Waldemar Klingelhöfer
* Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
* Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Franz Six
Franz Six
* Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker * Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst
Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto
Łachwa Ghetto
* Minsk Ghetto
Minsk Ghetto
* Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg * Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka
Zmievskaya Balka
* Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 42771559 * GND :