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The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

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Warsaw Concentration Camp
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The Info List - Warsaw Concentration Camp


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The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial
Memorial
and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261115

.
Warsaw Concentration Camp
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The Info List - Warsaw Concentration Camp


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The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial
Memorial
and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261115

.
Warsaw Concentration Camp
HOME
The Info List - Warsaw Concentration Camp


--- Advertisement ---



The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

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Camp command

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Gas chamber
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executioners

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Physicians

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Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

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.
Warsaw Concentration Camp


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The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial
Memorial
and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261115

.
Warsaw Concentration Camp


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The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial
Memorial
and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261115

.
l> Warsaw Concentration Camp


--- Advertisement ---



The Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland. Its main target was the Polish population of the city.

Contents

1 Pabst Plan 2 Establishment date 3 Organization 4 Death in KL Warschau

4.1 Bema Street tunnel

5 Liquidation 6 Personnel

6.1 Commandants 6.2 Other staff

7 Communist prison camp 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Pabst Plan[edit] According to the Nazi Pabst Plan, Warsaw
Warsaw
was to be turned into a provincial German city. To accomplish this, the Jewish population was grouped together in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
before being eventually removed and mostly exterminated. The Nazis' next step in their plan was the intended killing of the Polish population of the city, which thus became the target of the łapanka roundup policy of closing-off a street, in an attempt to detain large numbers of civilians at random. Between 1942 and 1944, deli there were about 400 victims of such roundups in Warsaw, with the detainees first being transferred to KL Warschau custody. Establishment date[edit] The earliest official mention of the Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp (KZ Warschau) is from June 19, 1943, which referred to the concentration camp in the ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. However, the term KZ Warschau was also used to describe similar camps that were discovered at an earlier date. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the camp was in operation from autumn 1942 until the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. The first commandant of the camp was SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Wilhelm Göcke, a former warehouse manager in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. In addition to its genocidal purposes, the camp was designed to provide a work force to clean up the leveled ruins of the former Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and ultimately turn this area into a planned recreational park for the SS. The exact date of the camp's creation remains unknown. Some historians have suggested that it was created following the orders of SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
on June 11, 1943. However, others, among them historian and Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) judge Maria Trzcińska,[1] claimed that the camp had already been operational prior to the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising of April 1943. The factual basis for this aforementioned claim is that on October 9, 1942, the SS head Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order in which he stated, regarding the population of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: "I've issued orders and requested that all the so-called arms factories workers working only as tailors, furriers or bootmakers be grouped in the nearest concentration camps, that is in Warsaw
Warsaw
and in Lublin." Organization[edit] In the Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968 published in 1986 in Deutschland KL, Warschau is designated as a Hauptlager ("main camp"), and as such it has the same status as KL Dachau.[2] Besides Germans
Germans
and the Volksdeutsche, the guards also included ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Latvians
Latvians
from Trawniki concentration camp.

U.S. aerial photograph of northern Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
area in May 1943

The camp was composed of six small sections located in different areas of Warsaw, all of which were connected by railway and were under unified organization and one command. In chronological order of opening, those were:

Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
(concentration camp) at Koło area (formerly a Kreigsgefangenenlager POW camp
POW camp
for the Polish Army
Polish Army
soldiers captured in 1939);) this part remains controversial since local residents claim Maria Trzcinska mistook buildings of "drewniane Kolo" housing project for a camp. Vernichtungslager
Vernichtungslager
(extermination camp) near the Warszawa Zachodnia train station (this part remains very controversial); Gęsia Street (now: Anielewicza Street) concentration camp (formerly Arbeitserziehungslager, or "reeducational labour camp") in the former ghetto known as Gęsiówka; a camp for foreign Jews
Jews
located on Nowolipie Street; Bonifraterska Street camp near Muranowski Square in the former ghetto; the former Gestapo
Gestapo
prison on Pawia Street known as Pawiak.

The overall area of the camp was 1.2 km² (0.46 sq mi), with 119 barracks purposely built to hold approximately 40,000 prisoners, its infrastructure including several crematoriums.

Death in KL Warschau[edit]

An insurgent patrol approaching the Gęsia 26 Street crematorium.

The IPN estimates that the number of victims exterminated at those camps to be "not less than tens of thousands". Trzcińska's estimate however places the number of the camp's victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles
Poles
and several thousand of non-Polish. Others estimate the number of deaths at 20,000 to 35,000 (not including some 37,000 people executed at Pawiak), with a proportionally larger percentage of Poles and other Europeans, including Jews, among the dead; smaller groups of victims included Greeks, Romani people, Belarusians
Belarusians
and the German-interned officers of the Italian Army. According to IPN, the majority of those executed at the camp were killed by gunfire, mostly with machine guns, both in the camp and in an adjoining "security zone". Some of the hostages and prisoners were also publicly executed in the streets of Warsaw
Warsaw
by means of firing squad shooting and hanging. Numerous other victims were also gassed in the gas chambers at Gęsia Street, where a considerable quantity of Zyklon B
Zyklon B
was found after the war. The first gassing there took place on October 17, 1943, killing at least 150 Poles
Poles
caught in a street roundup and about 20 Belgian Jews. A relatively small number of victims were sadistically killed by drunken guards in the so-called "amphitheatre" at Gęsiówka, or hanged at the so-called "death wall" (ściana śmierci) at Koło. There was also a mysterious T-shaped structure in the forest near Koło where the prisoners were occasionally transported by trucks and then never seen again. Besides the outright murders, a majority of deaths in the camps resulted from physical exhaustion and typhus epidemics. Dead bodies were either cremated in crematoriums or open-air pyres (including at a former sports stadium) or simply buried under collapsed buildings during the systematic demolition of the former ghetto. A team of the SS wearing white coats and posing as medical workers also patrolled the ruins in order to locate and shoot the remaining Jews
Jews
still hiding since the end of the ghetto uprising. Bema Street tunnel[edit]

Bema Street tunnel entry with a graffiti picture of the controversial ventilator machine.

A debate surrounds the presumed existence of an enormous gas chamber in the pre-existing (Polish-built) road tunnel on Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Street near the train station Warszawa Zachodnia.[3] At 630 square meters (6,781 square feet) the tunnel would have been large enough to kill up to 1,000 people at one time, using poison gas like Zyklon B
Zyklon B
or carbon monoxide, if the new IPN testimonies were accurate. According to the propagators of the mass gassing theory based on three eye-witness accounts from the 1980s, the tunnel had been used to kill multiple truckloads of prisoners. However, all known Nazi gas chambers were typically much smaller and lower and so the use of a large tunnel as a gas chamber would be highly irregular and inefficient, and therefore improbable.[3] The Bema Street tunnel was restored to street traffic after the war. In a further controversy, the alleged gas exhauster machinery and mysterious massive ventilators that might have been used to remove the gas into the atmosphere following the gassings were removed and scrapped during renovation works in 1996 and the early 2000s. In recent years, the part of the tunnel was turned into an unofficial mausoleum site by citizens of Warsaw. In 2001 the Polish parliament Sejm
Sejm
appealed for construction of an official memorial at the tunnel.[4] The controversy has been debated secretly, not publicly, while almost completely unknown during the communist era of the Polish People's Republic (allegedly, the reason behind this secrecy was to inflate the casualty figures of the 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising by adding the victims of the camp to the uprising's actual death toll). In 2006, the Sejm
Sejm
once more recommended the initiation of a new investigation of the tunnel's past by a new team from the IPN, this time from the city of Łódź. Since 2007, the investigation is being once more conducted by IPN's Warsaw
Warsaw
team, so far ineffectually, according to critics.

Liquidation[edit]

Szare Szeregi
Szare Szeregi
resistance fighters posing with the liberated prisoners in Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp of Warsaw
Warsaw
in August 1944.

On July 20, 1943, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
ordered the complex to be liquidated and dismantled. The majority of prisoners were either executed or transferred to other concentration camps, such as Dachau, Gross-Rosen and Ravensbrück. Between July 28 and July 31, four major railway transports left Warsaw, containing some 12,300 prisoners. Only a small group of several hundred inmates, mostly Jews from the other occupied countries, were left in Pawiak
Pawiak
and Gęsiówka to dig up and burn the bodies buried under the blown-up buildings of the ghetto. The camp's documentation was burnt, and many of its structures and facilities were mined for demolition. On August 5, 1944, during the first days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, an assault group of Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(AK) stormed the Gęsiówka
Gęsiówka
sub-camp using a captured German tank, setting free the remaining 360 men and women, before the AK were forced to withdraw. On August 21, after a failed insurgent attack on Pawiak, the Germans
Germans
executed almost all (except seven) of the remaining inmates, and the prison was blown up.

Personnel[edit] Commandants[edit]

Wilhelm Göcke (June 1943 – September 1943) Nikolaus Herbet (September 1943 – July 1944)

Other staff[edit]

Wilhelm Ruppert

Communist prison camp[edit] After the Soviet takeover of Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945, the remnants of the camp were used as a POW camp
POW camp
and a place of detention of the "enemies of the people's power" political prisoners by the Soviet NKVD and then by the Polish MBP until 1954 (the last prisoners left in 1956). It was the second biggest prison after the Mokotów Prison.[5] See also[edit]

Antipolonism Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Camps in Poland
Poland
during World War II Gęsiówka List of Nazi-German concentration camps Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive Pawiak Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

Poland
Poland
portal Genocide
Genocide
portal Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal World War II portal

References[edit]

^ Jerzy Kochanowski (4 November 2009). "Śmierć w Warschau" [Death in Warschau]. Polityka.pl – Historia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Werner Hilgemann. Atlas zur deutschen Zeitgeschichte 1918-1968. Zurich 1986 ^ a b (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, "Prawda o KL Warschau" (Truth about KL Warschau), Biuro Edukacji Publicznej Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej ^ (in Polish) IPN, "Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau". Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-22.  - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 (retrieved from the Internet Archive, May 23, 2010) ^ (in Polish) IPN wydał książkę o obozie KL Warschau

Sources[edit]

Andreas Mix: Warschau-Stammlager. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1, Band 8, S. 93 Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory". Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69285-3 Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 83-88822-16-0. (in Polish) Bogusław Kopka, " Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau Historia i następstwa", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2007, ISBN 83-60464-46-4. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager
Konzentrationslager
Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002. (in Polish) Śmierć w Warschau, "Polityka", 12 XI 2007. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp.

KZ Warschau (in Polish) Many documents about KL Warschau in original (in Polish) Polish article (in Polish) KL Warschau (in Polish) Wieniec i kamienie pamięci ku czci ofiar KL Warschau (Onet.pl) (in Polish) Zapomniany KL Warschau[permanent dead link] (Życie Warszawy) (in Polish) Dowody KL Warschau (in Polish) Czas upamiętnić ofiary KL Warschau

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Physicians

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Schutzmannschaft
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Other nationalities

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Organizations

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Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
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Leaders

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Coordinates: 52°14′35″N 20°59′35″E / 52.242925°N 20.9930305556°E / 52.242925; 20.9930305556

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