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The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[1] was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and seven Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
(CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany
West Germany
into NATO[2][3][4][5] in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,[6][7][8][9][10] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[11] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was established as a balance of power[12] or counterweight[13] to NATO; there was no direct military confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[13] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany),[12] which, in part, resulted in Albania
Albania
withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[14] and its electoral success in June 1989. East Germany
East Germany
withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in the Hungarian People's Republic, the Pact was declared at an end by the defence and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO
NATO
( East Germany
East Germany
through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the three Baltic states
Baltic states
(Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) that had been part of the Soviet Union.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Structure 3 Strategy 4 History

4.1 Beginnings 4.2 Members 4.3 During Cold War 4.4 End of the Cold War

5 Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Works cited

8 Further reading

8.1 Other languages 8.2 Memoirs

9 External links

Nomenclature[edit] Eastern Bloc Soviet Socialist Republics Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Russia Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Allied states Afghanistan Albania Angola Benin Bulgaria China Congo Cuba Czechoslovakia East Germany Ethiopia Grenada Hungary Kampuchea Laos Mongolia Mozambique North Korea Poland Romania Somalia South Yemen Vietnam Yugoslavia

Related organizations Cominform Comecon Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact World Federation of Trade Unions World Federation of Democratic Youth

Dissent and opposition Anti-Soviet partisans Albania Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland Romania Serbia Ukraine

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Forest Brothers Operation Jungle Soviet occupation

Protests and uprisings Plzeň 1953 East Germany
East Germany
1953 Georgia 1956 Poznań 1956 Hungary 1956 Novocherkassk 1962 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
1968 Invasion Red Square 1968

Charter 77
Charter 77
(Czechoslovakia) Solidarity (Poland) Jeltoqsan
Jeltoqsan
(Kazakhstan) Braşov rebellion (Romania) January Events (Lithuania) The Barricades
The Barricades
(Latvia) April 9 tragedy
April 9 tragedy
(Georgia) Black January
Black January
(Azerbaijan)

Cold War
Cold War
events Marshall Plan Czechoslovak coup Tito–Stalin split Berlin Blockade Korean War Secret Speech Sino-Soviet Split Berlin Wall Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam
Vietnam
War Cuban intervention in Angola Afghan War Moscow
Moscow
Olympics

Decline Singing Revolution Polish Round Table Agreement Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall January Events in Latvia Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars End of the Soviet Union Fall of communism in Albania Dissolution of Czechoslovakia vte A Soviet philatelic commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in 1975 stating that it remains "On guard for Peace and Socialism". In the Western Bloc, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty is known as:

Albanian: Pakti i miqësisë, bashkëpunimit dhe i ndihmës së përbashkët Armenian: Բարեկամության, համագործակցության եւ փոխադարձ օգնության պայմանագիր Romanized Armenian: Barekamut’yan, hamagortsakts’ut’yan yev p’vokhadardz ognut’yan paymanagir Azerbaijani: Dostluq, Əməkdaşlıq və qarşılıqlı yardım müqaviləsi Belarusian: Дагавор аб дружбе, супрацоўніцтве і ўзаемнай дапамозе Romanized Belarusian: Dagavor ab druzhe, supratsoŭnitstve i ŭzaemnaŭ dapamoze Bulgarian: Договор за дружба, сътрудничество и взаимопомощ Romanized Bulgarian: Dogovor za druzhba, satrudnichestvo i vzaimopomosht Czech: Smlouva o přátelství, spolupráci a vzájemné pomoci Slovak: Zmluva o priateľstve, spolupráci a vzájomnej pomoci Estonian: Sõprus, koostöö ja vastastikune abi Georgian: მეგობრობის, თანამშრომლობისა და ურთიერთდახმარების ხელშეკრულება Romanized Georgian: megobrobis, tanamshromlobisa da urtiertdakhmarebis khelshek’ruleba German: Vertrag über Freundschaft, Zusammenarbeit und gegenseitigen Beistand Hungarian: Barátsági, együttműködési és kölcsönös segítségnyújtási szerződés Kazakh: Достық, ынтымақтастық және өзара көмек туралы келісім Romanized Kazakh: Dostıq, ıntımaqtastıq jäne özara kömek twralı kelisim Kyrgyz: Достук, кызматташтык жана өз ара жардам көрсөтүү жөнүндө келишим Romanized Kyrgyz: Dostuk, kızmattaştık jana öz ara jardam körsötüü jönündö kelişim Latvian: Līgums par draudzību, sadarbību un savstarpēju palīdzību Lithuanian: Draugystės, bendradarbiavimo ir savitarpio pagalbos sutartis Polish: Układ o przyjaźni, współpracy i pomocy wzajemnej Romanian: Tratatul de prietenie, cooperare și asistență mutuală Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи Romanized Russian: Dogovor o druzhbe, sotrudnichestve i vzaimnoy pomoshchi Tajik: Шартномаи дӯстӣ, ҳамкорӣ ва кӯмаки мутахассис Romanized Tajik: Şartnomai dūstī, hamkorī va kūmaki mutaxassis Turkish: Dostluk Antlaşması, İşbirliği ve Karşılıklı Yardımlaşma Ukrainian: Договір про дружбу, співробітництво і взаємну допомогу Romanized Ukrainian: Dogovir pro druzhbu, spivrobitnitstvo i vzaêmnu dopomogu Uzbek: Do'stlik, hamkorlik va o'zaro yordam shartnomasi Structure[edit] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty's organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. Furthermore, the Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization which commanded and controlled all the military forces of the member countries was also a First Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR, and the Chief of Combined Staff of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization was also a First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty armed forces.[15]

Strategy[edit] The strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe and not let the Americans take it from them. This policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
arrogated the right to define socialism and communism and act as the leader of the global socialist movement. A corollary to this idea was the necessity of intervention if a country appeared to be violating core socialist ideas and Communist Party functions, which was explicitly stated in the Brezhnev Doctrine.[16] Geostrategic principles also drove the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with the desire to create a buffer zone to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers.

History[edit] Beginnings[edit] The Presidential Palace in Warsaw, Poland, where the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was established and signed on 14 May 1955 Before the creation of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany
East Germany
and Poland.[9] These states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany.[17] The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany
West Germany
inside NATO. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany
Germany
being once again a military power and a direct threat. The terrible consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory among the Soviets and Eastern Europeans.[3][4][18][19][20] As the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
already had bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluous',[21] and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, NATO
NATO
officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'.[22] Previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO.[23][24][25] The Soviet request to join NATO
NATO
arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. Soviet foreign minister Molotov made proposals to have Germany
Germany
reunified[26] and elections for a pan-German government,[27] under conditions of withdrawal of the four powers' armies and German neutrality,[28] but all were refused by the other foreign ministers, Dulles (USA), Eden (UK), and Bidault (France).[29] Proposals for the reunification of Germany
Germany
were nothing new: earlier on 20 March 1952, talks about a German reunification, initiated by the so-called 'Stalin Note', ended after the United Kingdom, France, and the United States
United States
insisted that a unified Germany
Germany
should not be neutral and should be free to join the European Defence Community
European Defence Community
(EDC) and rearm. James Dunn (USA), who met in Paris
Paris
with Eden, Adenauer, and Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
(France), affirmed that "the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians and to press on the European Defense Community".[30] According to John Gaddis "there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer" from the USSR.[31] While historian Rolf Steininger asserts that Adenauer's conviction that "neutralization means sovietization" was the main factor in the rejection of the Soviet proposals,[32] Adenauer also feared that German unification might have resulted in the end of the CDU's dominance in the West German Bundestag.[33] Consequently, Molotov, fearing that the EDC would be directed in the future against the USSR and "seeking to prevent the formation of groups of European States directed against other European States",[34] made a proposal for a General European Treaty on Collective Security in Europe "open to all European States without regard as to their social systems"[34] which would have included the unified Germany
Germany
(thus making the EDC – perceived by the USSR as a threat – unusable). But Eden, Dulles, and Bidault opposed the proposal.[35] One month later, the proposed European Treaty was rejected not only by supporters of the EDC but also by Western opponents of the European Defence Community (like French Gaullist
Gaullist
leader Palewski) who perceived it as "unacceptable in its present form because it excludes the USA from participation in the collective security system in Europe".[36] The Soviets then decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK, and France
France
to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement.[36] And considering that another argument deployed against the Soviet proposal was that it was perceived by Western powers as "directed against the North Atlantic Pact and its liquidation",[36][37] the Soviets decided to declare their "readiness to examine jointly with other interested parties the question of the participation of the USSR in the North Atlantic bloc", specifying that "the admittance of the USA into the General European Agreement should not be conditional on the three Western powers agreeing to the USSR joining the North Atlantic Pact".[36]

Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact "Big Seven" threats displaying the equipment of the communist forces Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by the UK, US, and French governments shortly after.[25][38] Emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, a fierce supporter of NATO
NATO
expansion. He opposed the request to join NATO
NATO
made by the USSR in 1954[39] saying that "the Soviet request to join NATO
NATO
is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force".[40] In April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon, Eisenhower, and Dulles. Ratification of the EDC was delayed but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that the EDC would have to become a part of NATO.[41] Memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany
Germany
was feared by France
France
too.[4][42] On 30 August 1954 French Parliament rejected the EDC, thus ensuring its failure[43] and blocking a major objective of US policy towards Europe: to associate Germany
Germany
militarily with the West.[44] The US Department of State started to elaborate alternatives: Germany
Germany
would be invited to join NATO
NATO
or, in the case of French obstructionism, strategies to circumvent a French veto would be implemented in order to obtain a German rearmament outside NATO.[45]

A typical Soviet military jeep UAZ-469, used by most countries of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact On 23 October 1954 – only nine years after the Western Allies (UK, USA, and USSR) defeated Nazi Germany
Germany
ending World War II
World War II
in Europe – the admission of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
to the North Atlantic Pact was finally decided. The incorporation of West Germany
West Germany
into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time.[46] In November 1954, the USSR requested a new European Security Treaty,[47] in order to make a final attempt to not have a remilitarized West Germany
West Germany
potentially opposed to the Soviet Union, with no success. On 14 May 1955, the USSR and other seven European countries "reaffirming their desire for the establishment of a system of European collective security based on the participation of all European states irrespective of their social and political systems"[48] established the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in response to the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
into NATO,[3][5] declaring that: "a remilitarized Western Germany
Germany
and the integration of the latter in the North-Atlantic bloc [...] increase the danger of another war and constitutes a threat to the national security of the peaceable states; [...] in these circumstances the peaceable European states must take the necessary measures to safeguard their security".[48] One of the founding members, East Germany
East Germany
was allowed to re-arm by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the National People's Army
National People's Army
was established as the armed forces of the country to counter the rearmament of West Germany and vice versa.[49]

Members[edit] Meeting of seven representatives of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact countries in East Berlin
East Berlin
in May 1987. From left to right: Gustáv Husák, Todor Zhivkov, Erich Honecker, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Wojciech Jaruzelski, and János Kádár The eight member countries of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact pledged the mutual defence of any member who would be attacked. Relations among the treaty signatories were based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence. However, almost all governments of those member states were indirectly controlled by the Soviet Union.[50] The founding signatories to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance consisted of the following communist governments:

Albania
Albania
(withheld support in 1961 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, formally withdrew in 1968)  Bulgaria[51]  Czechoslovakia[51]   East Germany
East Germany
(withdrew on 2 October 1990 prior to German reunification)[51]  Hungary (temporarily withdrew from 1–4 November 1956 during the Hungarian Revolution)[51]  Poland[51]  Romania[51]  Soviet Union[51]  Mongolia: In July 1963 the Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
asked to join the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact under Article 9 of the treaty.[52] Due to the emerging Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia remained in an observer status.[52] The Soviet government agreed to station troops in Mongolia in 1966.[53]

During Cold War[edit] Main article: Cold War Soviet tanks, marked with white crosses to distinguish them from Czechoslovak tanks,[54] on the streets of Prague
Prague
during the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968 For 36 years, NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact never directly waged war against each other in Europe; the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union and their respective allies implemented strategic policies aimed at the containment of each other in Europe, while working and fighting for influence within the wider Cold War
Cold War
on the international stage. These included the Korean War, Vietnam
Vietnam
War, Bay of Pigs invasion, Dirty War, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, and others.[55][56] In 1956, following the declaration of the Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
government of the withdrawal of Hungary from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the government.[57] Soviet forces crushed the nationwide revolt, leading to the death of an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens.[58] The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in August 1968.[59] All member countries, with the exception of the Socialist Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania, participated in the invasion.[60] The German Democratic Republic provided only minimal support, however.[60]

End of the Cold War[edit] In 1989, popular civil and political public discontent toppled the Communist governments of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty countries. Independent national politics made feasible with the perestroika and glasnost policies induced institutional collapse of the Communist government in the USSR in 1991.[61] From 1989 to 1991, Communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union. As the last acts of the Cold War
Cold War
were playing out, several Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary) participated in the U.S.-led coalition effort to liberate Kuwait
Kuwait
in the Gulf War. On 25 February 1991, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was declared disbanded at a meeting of defence and foreign ministers from remaining Pact countries meeting in Hungary.[62] On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel[63] formally ended the 1955 Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR.[63][64] The USSR disestablished itself in December 1991.

Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty[edit] Expansion of NATO
NATO
before and after the collapse of communism throughout Central and Eastern Europe On 12 March 1999, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland joined NATO; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia
Slovakia
joined in March 2004; Albania
Albania
joined on 1 April 2009.[65][66] Russia and some other post-USSR states joined the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in 1992, or the Shanghai Five
Shanghai Five
in 1996, which was renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
(SCO) after Uzbekistan's addition in 2001.[67] In November 2005, the Polish government[68] opened its Warsaw Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance, which published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. Yet the Polish government reserved publication of 100 documents, pending their military declassification. Eventually, 30 of the reserved 100 documents were published; 70 remained secret and unpublished. Among the documents published is the Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty's nuclear war plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine – a short, swift counter-attack capturing Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Netherlands east of the Rhine, using nuclear weapons, in self-defence, after a NATO
NATO
first strike.[69] The plan originated as a 1979[70] field training exercise war game and metamorphosed into official Warsaw Treaty battle doctrine, until the late 1980s – which is why the Polish People's Republic
Polish People's Republic
was a nuclear weapons base,[71] first, to 178, then, to 250 tactical-range rockets, though these numbers may differ. Doctrinally, as a Soviet-style (offensive) battle plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine
Seven Days to the River Rhine
gave commanders few defensive-war strategies for fighting NATO
NATO
in Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty territory.[69][72]

See also[edit] Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) – Modern military alliance between six former Soviet states. Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
(SCO) – Modern Eurasian political, economic and military organization. References[edit]

^ Withheld support in 1961 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, formally withdrew in 1968

^ "Text of Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 22 August 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Yost, David S. (1998). NATO
NATO
Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press. p. 31. ISBN 1-878379-81-X.

^ a b c "Formation of Nato and Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact". History Channel. Retrieved 22 December 2015.

^ a b c "The Warsaw
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Pact is formed". History Channel. Retrieved 22 December 2015.

^ a b "In reaction to West Germany's NATO
NATO
accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO
NATO
website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Retrieved 24 December 2015.

^ Broadhurst, Arlene Idol (1982). The Future of European Alliance Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86531-413-6.

^ Christopher Cook, Dictionary of Historical Terms (1983)

^ The Columbia Enclopedia, fifth edition (1993) p. 2926

^ a b The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015

^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany
Germany
in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO
NATO
were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"

^ " Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control". Wilson Center. Retrieved 5 October 2013.

^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism
Communism
in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5.

^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6.

^ [1] Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001

^ Fes'kov, V. I.; Kalashnikov, K. A.; Golikov, V. I. (2004). Sovetskai͡a Armii͡a v gody "kholodnoĭ voĭny," 1945–1991 [The Soviet Army in the Cold War
Cold War
Years (1945–1991)]. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publisher. p. 6. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7.

^ ' 'The Review of Politics Volume' ', 34, No. 2 (April 1972), pp. 190–209

^ Europa Antoni Czubiński Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1998, p. 298

^ World Politics: The Menu for Choice page 87 Bruce Russett, Harvey Starr, David Kinsella – 2009 The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was established in 1955 as a response to West Germany's entry into NATO; German militarism was still a recent memory among the Soviets and East Europeans.

^ "When the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
entered NATO
NATO
in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of a strengthened NATO
NATO
and a rearmed West Germany". Citation from: United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Treaty Organization, 1955". Office of the Historian. history.state.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2015.

^ "1955: After objecting to Germany's admission into NATO, the Soviet Union joins Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania in forming the Warsaw
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Pact.". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011.

^ The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, pp. 17, 11.02.2015

^ The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 1, 11.02.2015

^ " Soviet Union
Soviet Union
request to join NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

^ "1954: Soviet Union
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suggests it should join NATO
NATO
to preserve peace in Europe. U.S. and U.K. reject this". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011.

^ a b "Proposal of Soviet adherence to NATO
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as reported in the Foreign Relations of the United States
United States
Collection". UWDC FRUS Library. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

^ Molotov 1954a, pp. 197,201.

^ Molotov 1954a, p. 202.

^ Molotov 1954a, pp. 197–198, 203, 212.

^ Molotov 1954a, pp. 211–212, 216.

^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 56.

^ Gaddis, John (1997). We Know Now: Rethinking Cold War
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History. Clarendon Press. p. 126.

^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 80.

^ Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note
Stalin Note
of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 103.

^ a b "Draft general European Treaty on collective security in Europe — Molotov proposal (Berlin, 10 February 1954)" (PDF). CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ Molotov 1954a, p. 214.

^ a b c d "MOLOTOV'S PROPOSAL THAT THE USSR JOIN NATO, MARCH 1954". Wilson Center. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ Molotov 1954a, p. 216,.

^ "Final text of tripartite reply to Soviet note" (PDF). Nato website. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

^ Ian Traynor. "Soviets tried to join Nato in 1954". the Guardian.

^ "Memo by Lord Ismay, Secretary General of NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

^ Adenauer 1966a, p. 662.

^ "The refusal to ratify the EDC Treaty". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ "Debates in the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ "US positions on alternatives to EDC". United States
United States
Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ "US positions on german rearmament outside NATO". United States Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

^ " West Germany
West Germany
accepted into Nato". BBC News. 9 May 1955. Retrieved 17 January 2012.

^ "Indivisible Germany: Illusion or Reality?" James H. Wolfe Springer Science & Business Media, 06.12.2012 page 73

^ a b "Text of the Warsaw
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Security Pact (see preamble)". Avalon Project. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

^ "No shooting please, we're German". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ "How the Russians Used the Warsaw
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^ a b c d e f g "The Warsaw
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Pact is formed - May 14, 1955 - HISTORY.com". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ a b Mastny, Vojtech; Byrne, Malcolm (1 January 2005). "A Cardboard Castle?: An Inside History of the Warsaw
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Pact, 1955-1991". Central European University Press. Retrieved 23 August 2018 – via Google Books.

^ Reuters (3 March 1990). "Soviet Troops to Leave Mongolia in 2 Years". Retrieved 23 August 2018 – via LA Times.

^ "1968 - The Prague
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Spring". Austria 1989 - Year of Miracles. Retrieved 8 July 2019. In the morning hours of August 21, 1968, Soviet and Warsaw
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Pact tanks roll in the streets of Prague; to distinguish them from Czechoslovak tanks, they are marked with white crosses.

^ "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam
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^ "Crisis Points of the Cold War
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- Boundless World History". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ "The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 - History Learning Site". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ CNN, Matthew Percival,. "Recalling the Hungarian revolution, 60 years on". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

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- Aug 20, 1968 - HISTORY.com". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ a b Nosowska, Agnieszka. " Warsaw
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Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia". www.enrs.eu. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, third edition, 1999, pp. 637–8

^ " Warsaw
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To Dissolve This Week". Csmonitor.com. 26 February 1991. Retrieved 4 June 2012.

^ a b Greenhouse, Steven. "DEATH KNELL RINGS FOR WARSAW PACT". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ Havel, Václav (2007). To the Castle and Back. Trans. Paul Wilson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26641-5.

^ https://www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9904-wsh/pres-eng/03acce.pdf

^ https://www.nato.int/docu/update/2004/03-march/e0329a.htm

^ 宋薇. "SCO from the Uzbekistan
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^ "Here's how the USSR planned to conquer Europe in an all-out nuclear war". 29 October 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ a b Catcher, Redd (11 July 2013). "DECODED: The Cold War
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in Europe 1945-1995 : Nuclear War in the West: Seven Days to the River Rhine". Retrieved 23 August 2018.

^ Mizokami, Kyle (2 July 2016). "Revealed: How the Warsaw
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^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ "7 Days to the Rhine". 2 January 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2018.

Works cited[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Adenauer, Konrad (1966a). Memorie 1945–1953 (in Italian). Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Molotov, Vyacheslav (1954a). La conferenza di Berlino (in Italian). Ed. di cultura sociale.  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

Further reading[edit]

Faringdon, Hugh. Confrontation: the strategic geography of NATO
NATO
and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.) Heuser, Beatrice (1998). "Victory in a Nuclear War? A Comparison of NATO
NATO
and WTO War Aims and Strategies". Contemporary European History. 7 (3): 311–327. doi:10.1017/S0960777300004264. Mackintosh, Malcolm. The evolution of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1969) Kramer, Mark N. "Civil-military relations in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, The East European component," International Affairs, Vol. 61, No. 1, Winter 1984–85. Lewis, William Julian (1982). The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact: Arms, Doctrine, and Strategy. Cambridge, Mass.: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis. ISBN 978-0-07-031746-8. Mastny, Vojtech; Byrne, Malcolm (2005). A Cardboard Castle ?: An Inside History of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, 1955–1991. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-07-3.

A. James McAdams, " East Germany
East Germany
and Detente." Cambridge University Press, 1985. McAdams, A. James. " Germany
Germany
Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993. Other languages[edit]

Umbach, Frank (2005). Das rote Bündnis: Entwicklung und Zerfall des Warschauer Paktes 1955 bis 1991 (in German). Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86153-362-7. Wahl, Alfred (2007). La seconda vita del nazismo nella Germania del dopoguerra (in Italian). Torino: Lindau. ISBN 978-88-7180-662-4. – Original Ed.: Wahl, Alfred (2006). La seconde histoire du nazisme dans l'Allemagne fédérale depuis 1945 (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. ISBN 2-200-26844-0.

Memoirs[edit]

Adenauer, Konrad (1966b). Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Memoirs 1945–53. Henry Regnery Company. Molotov, Vyacheslav (1954b). Statements at Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers of U.S.S.R., France, Great Britain and U.S.A., January 25 – February 18, 1954. Foreign Languages Publishing House.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact.

"What was the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact?". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Woodrow Wilson Center Cold War
Cold War
International History Project's Warsaw
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Pact Document Collection Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series / Soviet Union
Soviet Union
/ Appendix C: The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (1989) Map of Russia and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (omniatlas.com) Map of Europe and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact (omniatlas.com) The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, 1955–1968. by Hugh Collins Embry. Contain extensive documentation of the Pacts first 13 years.

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