Warsaw Ghetto (German: Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer
Wohnbezirk in Warschau
Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; Polish:
getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the
Jewish ghettos in
German-occupied Europe during World War II. It was established by the
German authorities in the
Muranów neighborhood of the Polish capital
between October and November 16, 1940; within the new General
Government territory of German-occupied Poland. There were over
400,000 Jews imprisoned there, at an area of 3.4 km2
(1.3 sq mi), with an average of 7.2 persons per room;
barely subsisting on meager food rations. From the
Jews were deported to
Nazi camps and mass-killing centers. In the
summer of 1942 at least 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to the
Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp during Großaktion Warschau under the
guise of "resettlement in the East" over the course of the summer.
The death toll among the
Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto is estimated
to be at least 300,000 killed by bullet or gas, combined with
92,000 victims of rampant hunger and hunger-related diseases, the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the casualties of the final destruction of
3 Ghetto administration
5 Manufacture of German military supplies
7 Ghetto Uprising and final destruction of the ghetto
8 Preserving remnants of the
9 Selected locations
10 People of the
11 See also
14 External links
Before World War II,
Warsaw was one of the most diverse cities in the
Second Polish Republic. The majority of
Polish Jews lived in the
merchant districts of Muranów, Powązki, and Stara Praga, while most
Germans lived in Śródmieście. Over 90% of Catholics
lived further away from the bustling commercial and vital centre of
the capital. The
Jewish community was the most prominent there,
constituting over 88% of the inhabitants of Muranów; with the total
of about 32.7% of the population of the left-bank and 14.9% of the
right-bank Warsaw, or 332,938 people in total according to 1931
census. Many Jews left the city during the depression, which
was more severe and longer-lasting in Poland than elsewhere in
Europe. In 1938 the
Jewish population of the Polish capital was
estimated at 270,000 people.
The Siege of
Warsaw continued until September 29, 1939. On September
10 alone, the
Luftwaffe conducted 17 bombing raids on the city;
three days later, 50 German planes attacked the city centre, targeting
Wola and Żoliborz. In total, some 30,000 people were
killed, and 10 percent of the city was destroyed. Along with
the advancing Wehrmacht, the
Einsatzgruppe EG IV and the
Einsatzkommandos rolled into town. On November 7, 1939, the
Reichsführer-SS reorganized them into local security service (SD).
Meanwhile, the German fifth column members of
by the defenders of Warsaw) were released immediately. The commander
of EG IV,
Josef Meisinger (the "Butcher of
Warsaw"), was appointed chief of police for the newly formed Distrikt
Warschau. After the takeover of Warsaw, the German authorities
began the registration of the ethnic
Germans who were issued the
Kennkarte separate from the rest of the locals. By June 1940 there
Reichsdeutsche and 5,500
Volksdeutsche registered in
Warsaw. In the next two years their number more than doubled, on top
of over 50,000 German military personnel.
Borders of the
Warsaw Ghetto in November 1940 (see interactive map),
with location of
Umschlagplatz for awaiting death trains
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
By the end of the
September campaign the number of Jews in and around
the capital increased dramatically with thousands of refugees escaping
the Polish-German front in any way possible, often on foot. In
less than a year, the number of refugees in
90,000. Once the partition of the country between Germany and the
invading Soviet Union was complete, on October 12, 1939, the
General Government was officially established by
Adolf Hitler in the
occupied area of central Poland. The
Jewish Council (Judenrat) in
Warsaw was formed by the Nazis on October 7. It was composed of 24
prominent individuals led by Adam Czerniaków, personally responsible
for carrying out German orders. The persecution of Jews began soon
thereafter. On October 26, the imposition of
Jewish forced labour was
announced, to clear the rubble from bomb damage among similar tasks.
One month later, on November 20, the bank accounts of
Polish Jews and
any deposits exceeding 2,000 zł were blocked. On November 23, all
Jewish establishments were ordered to display a
Jewish star on doors
and windows. Beginning December 1, all Jews older than ten were
compelled to wear a white armband, and on December 11, they were
forbidden from using public transit. On January 26, 1940, the Jews
were banned from holding communal prayers ostensibly due to the risk
of "spreading epidemics". Food stamps were being introduced by the
German authorities, and the liquidation of all smaller Jewish
communities in the vicinity of
Warsaw had intensified. The Jewish
population of the capital reached 359,827 before the end of the
Jewish men for forced labor by the Orpo police, Krakowskie
Przedmieście, March 1940
On the orders of
Warsaw District Governor, Ludwig Fischer, the Ghetto
wall construction started on April 1, 1940, circling the area of
Warsaw inhabited predominantly by Jews. The work was supervised by the
Warsaw Judenrat. The Nazi authorities expelled 113,000 ethnic
Poles from the neighbourhood, and ordered the relocation of 138,000
Warsaw Jews from the suburbs into the city centre. On October 16,
1940, the creation of the ghetto covering the area of 307 hectares
(3.07 km2) was announced officially by the German
Governor-General, Hans Frank. The population of the ghetto was 450,000
initially. Before the Holocaust began the number of Jews
imprisoned there was between 375,000 and 400,000 (about 30% of the
general population of the capital). The area of the ghetto
constituted only about 2.4% of the overall metropolitan area.
Germans closed the
Warsaw Ghetto to the outside world on November
15, 1940. The wall around it was typically 3 m (9.8 ft)
high and topped with barbed wire. Escapees were shot on sight. German
policemen from Battalion 61 used to hold victory parties on the days
when a large number of desperate prisoners were shot at the ghetto
fence. The borders of the ghetto changed and its overall area was
gradually reduced, as the captive population was ravaged by outbreaks
of infectious diseases, mass hunger, and regular executions.
Warsaw Ghetto wall and footbridge over Chłodna Street in 1942
The ghetto was divided in two along Chłodna Street (pl), which was
excluded from it, due to its local importance at that time (as one of
Warsaw's east-west thoroughfares). The area south-east of Chłodna
was known as the "Small Ghetto", while the area north of it became
known as the "Large Ghetto". The two zones were connected at an
intersection of Chłodna with Żelazna Street, where a special gate
was built. In January 1942, the gate was removed and a wooden
footbridge was built over it, which became one of the postwar
symbols of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.
The first commissioner of the
Warsaw Ghetto, appointed by Fischer, was
SA-Standartenführer Waldemar Schön, who also supervised the initial
Jewish relocations in 1940. He was an attritionist best known for
orchestrating an "artificial famine" (künstliche Hungersnot) in
January 1941. Schön had eliminated virtually all food supplies to the
ghetto causing an uproar among the SS upper echelon. He was
relieved of his duties by Frank himself in March 1941 and replaced by
Kommissar Heinz Auerswald, a "productionist" who served until November
1942. Like in all Nazi ghettos across occupied Poland, the Germans
ascribed the internal administration to a
Judenrat Council of the
Jews, led by an "Ältester" (the Eldest). In Warsaw, this role was
relegated to Adam Czerniaków, who chose a policy of collaboration
with the Nazis in the hope of saving lives.
Adam Czerniaków confided
his harrowing experience in nine diaries. In July 1942, when the
Germans ordered him to increase the contingent of people to be
deported, he committed suicide.
Czerniaków's collaboration with the German occupation policies was a
paradigm for attitude of the majority of European Jews vis à vis
Nazism. Although his personality as president of the
may not become as infamous as Chaim Rumkowski, Ältester of the
Łódź Ghetto; the SS policies he had followed were systematically
Jewish Ghetto Police in Warsaw
Czerniakow's first draft of October, 1939; for organizing the Warsaw
Judenrat, was just a rehash of conventional kehilla departments:
chancellery, welfare, rabbinate, education, cemetery, tax department,
accounting, vital statistics... But the Kehilla was an anomalous
institution. Throughout its history in czarist Russia, it served also
as an instrument of the state, obligated to carry out the regime's
policies within the
Jewish community, even though these policies were
frequently oppressive and specifically anti-Jewish. — Lucy
The War Against the Jews
The War Against the Jews 
The Council of Elders was supported internally by the
Police (Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst), formed at the end of September
1940 with 3,000 men, instrumental in enforcing law and order as well
as carrying out German ad-hoc regulations, especially after 1941, when
the number of refugees and expellees in
Warsaw reached 150,000 or
nearly one third of the entire
Jewish population of the capital.
During the first year and a half, thousands of
Polish Jews as well as
Romani people from smaller towns and the countryside were brought
into the Ghetto. Nevertheless, the typhus epidemics and starvation
kept the inhabitants at about the same number. An average daily
food ration in 1941 for Jews in
Warsaw was limited to 184 calories,
compared to 699 calories allowed for the gentile Poles and 2,613
calories for the Germans. In August, the rations fell to 177
calories per person. The German authorities were solely responsible
for the arrival of food aid, consisting usually of dry bread, flour
and potatoes of the lowest quality, groats, turnips, and a small
monthly supplement of margarine, sugar, and meat.
Warsaw Ghetto, 1941, intersection of Ksawery Lubecki and Gęsia street
A child dying on the sidewalk of the
Warsaw Ghetto, September 19, 1941
The only real means of survival was the smuggling of food and
bartering; with men, women and children all taking part in it. Up to
80 percent of food consumed in the Ghetto was brought in
illegally. Private workshops were created to manufacture goods to
be sold secretly on the Aryan side of the city. Foodstuffs were
smuggled often by children alone who crossed the Ghetto wall any way
possible by the hundreds, sometimes several times a day, returning
with goods that could weigh as much as they did. Smuggling was often
the only source of subsistence for the Ghetto inhabitants, who would
otherwise have died of starvation. Unemployment leading to lack of
funds was a major problem in the ghetto.
Despite grave hardships, life in the
Warsaw Ghetto had educational and
cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations.
Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and
recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some
schools were illegal and operated under the guise of soup kitchens.
There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a
symphony orchestra. Rabbi Alexander Friedman, secretary-general of
Agudath Israel of Poland, was one of the Torah leaders in the Warsaw
Ghetto; he organized an underground network of religious schools,
including "a Yesodei HaTorah school for boys, a
Bais Yaakov school for
girls, a school for elementary
Jewish instruction, and three
institutions for advanced
Jewish studies". These schools,
operating under the guise of kindergartens, medical centers and soup
kitchens, were a place of refuge for thousands of children and teens,
and hundreds of teachers. In 1941, when the
Germans gave official
permission to the local
Judenrat to open schools, these schools came
out of hiding and began receiving financial support from the official
Manufacture of German military supplies
Textile manufacturing in the Ghetto
Not long after the Ghetto was closed off from the outside world, a
number of German war profiteers such as
Többens and Schultz
Többens and Schultz appeared
in the capital. At first, they acted as middlemen between the high
command and the Jewish-run workshops. By spring 1942, the Stickerei
Abteilung Division with headquarters at Nowolipie 44 Street had
already employed 3,000 workers making shoes, leather products,
sweaters and socks for the Wehrmacht. Other divisions were making furs
and wool sweaters also, guarded by the Werkschutz police. Some
15,000 Jews were working in the Ghetto for Walter C. Többens from
Hamburg, a convicted war criminal, including at his factories on
Prosta and Leszno Streets among other locations. His
exploitation was a source of envy for other Ghetto inmates living in
fear of deportations. In early 1943 Többens gained for himself
the appointment of a
Jewish deportation commissar of
Warsaw in order
to keep his own workforce secure, and maximize profits. In May
1943 Többens transferred his businesses, including 10,000 Jewish
slave workers to the
Poniatowa concentration camp
Poniatowa concentration camp barracks. Fritz
Schultz took his manufacture along with 6,000 Jews to the nearby
Trawniki concentration camp.
Umschlagplatz holding pen for deportations to
Treblinka death camp
Approximately 100,000 Ghetto inmates died of hunger-related diseases
and starvation before the mass deportations started in the summer of
1942. Earlier that year, during the
Wannsee Conference near Berlin,
Final Solution was set in motion. It was a secretive plan to
Jewish inhabitants of the General Government. The
techniques used to deceive victims were based upon experience gained
Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp (Kulmhof). The ghettoised Jews
were rounded up, street by street, under the guise of "resettlement",
and marched to the
Umschlagplatz holding area. From there, they
were sent aboard Holocaust trains to the
Treblinka death camp, built
in a forest 80 kilometres (50 mi) northeast of Warsaw. The
operation was headed by the German Resettlement Commissioner,
Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle, on behalf of Sammern-Frankenegg.
Upon learning of this plan, Adam Czerniaków, leader of the Judenrat
Council committed suicide. He was replaced by Marc Lichtenbaum,
tasked with managing roundups with the aid of
Jewish Ghetto Police.
No-one was informed about the real state of affairs.
The extermination of Jews by means of poisonous gases was carried out
Treblinka II under the auspices of Operation Reinhard, which also
included Bełżec, Majdanek, and Sobibór death camps. About
Warsaw Ghetto inmates (or at least 300,000 by different
accounts) were sent to
Treblinka during the Grossaktion Warschau, and
murdered there between
Tisha B'Av (July 23) and
Yom Kippur (September
21) of 1942. The ratio between Jews killed on the spot by Orpo and
Sipo during roundups, and those deported was approximately 2
The Grossaktion Warschau 1942 boarding onto the Holocaust trains
For eight weeks, the deportations of Jews from
Warsaw to Treblinka
continued on a daily basis via two shuttle trains: each transport
carrying about 4,000 to 7,000 people crying for water; 100 people to a
cattle truck. The first daily trains rolled into the camp early in the
morning often after an overnight wait at a layover yard; and the
second, in mid-afternoon. Dr Janusz Korczak, a famed educator,
Treblinka with his orphanage children in August 1942. He was
offered a chance to escape by Polish friends and admirers, but he
chose instead to share the fate of his life's work. All new
arrivals were sent immediately to the undressing area by the
Sonderkommando squad that managed the arrival platform, and from there
to the gas chambers. The stripped victims were suffocated to death in
batches of 200 with the use of monoxide gas. In September 1942, new
gas chambers were built, which could kill as many as 3,000 people in
just 2 hours. Civilians were forbidden to approach the camp area.
In the last two weeks of Großaktion Warschau ending on September 21,
1942, some 48,000
Warsaw Jews are deported to their deaths. The last
transport with 2,200 victims from the Polish capital included the
Jewish police involved with deportations, and their families. In
October 1942 the
Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) was formed and
tasked with opposing further deportations. It was led by 24 year–old
Mordechai Anielewicz. Meanwhile, between October 1942 and March
Treblinka received transports of almost 20,000 foreign Jews from
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia via Theresienstadt, and
from Bulgarian-occupied Thrace, Macedonia, and
Pirot following an
agreement with the Nazi-allied Bulgarian government.
By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their
deaths. The underground activity of Ghetto resistors in the group
Oyneg Shabbos increased after learning that the transports for
"resettlement" led to the mass killings. Also in 1942, Polish
Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on
the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. Many of
the remaining Jews decided to resist further deportations, and began
to smuggle in weapons, ammunition and supplies.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Captured Jews escorted by the
Waffen SS, Nowolipie Street, 1943
Ghetto Uprising and final destruction of the ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
On January 18, 1943, after almost four months without deportations,
Germans suddenly entered the
Warsaw Ghetto intent upon further
roundups. Within hours, some 600 Jews were shot and 5,000 others
removed from their residences. The
Germans expected no resistance, but
the action was brought to a halt by hundreds of insurgents armed with
handguns and Molotov cocktails.
Preparations to resist had been going on since the previous
autumn. The first instance of
Jewish armed struggle in
begun. The underground fighters from ŻOB (Żydowska Organizacja
Jewish Combat Organization) and ŻZW (Żydowski Związek
Jewish Military Union) achieved considerable success
initially, taking control of the Ghetto. They then barricaded
themselves in the bunkers and built dozens of fighting posts, stopping
the expulsions. Taking further steps, a number of
Żagiew were also executed. An offensive against the Ghetto
underground launched by Von Sammern-Frankenegg was unsuccessful. He
was relieved of duty by
Heinrich Himmler on April 17, 1943 and
The final battle started on the eve of
Passover of April 19, 1943,
when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the
ghetto. After initial setbacks, 2,000
Waffen SS soldiers under the
field command of
Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew up the
ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody
they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 28, and the
Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminating
with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of
Warsaw on May 16.
According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed
on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps
(Treblinka, Poniatowa, Majdanek, Trawniki).
Preserving remnants of the
Ruins of the
Warsaw Ghetto in 1945; left, the Krasiński's Garden and
Swiętojerska street. The entire city district was leveled by the
German forces according to order from
Adolf Hitler after the
suppression of the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943
The ghetto was almost entirely leveled during the Uprising; however, a
number of buildings and streets survived, mostly in the "small ghetto"
area, which had been included into the Aryan part of the city in
August 1942 and was not involved in the fighting. In 2008 and 2010
Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers were built along the borders of the
Jewish quarter, where from 1940–1943 stood the gates to the
ghetto, wooden footbridges over Aryan streets, and the buildings
important to the ghetto inmates. The four buildings at 7, 9, 12 and 14
Próżna Street are among the best known original residential
buildings that in 1940–41 housed
Jewish families in the Warsaw
Ghetto. They have largely remained empty since the war. The street is
a focus of the annual
Jewish Festival. In 2011–2013 buildings
at number 7 and 9 underwent extensive renovations and have become
Nożyk Synagogue also survived the war. It was used as a horse
stable by the German Wehrmacht. The synagogue has today been restored
and is once again used as an active synagogue. The best preserved
fragments of the ghetto wall are located 55 Sienna Street, 62 Złota
Street, and 11 Waliców Street (the last two being walls of the
pre-war buildings). There are two
Warsaw Ghetto Heroes' monuments,
unveiled in 1946 and 1948, near the place where the German troops
entered the ghetto on 19 April 1943. In 1988 a stone monument was
built to mark the Umschlagplatz.
There is also a small memorial at ul.
Mila 18 to commemorate the site
of the Socialist ŻOB underground headquarters during the Ghetto
Uprising. In December 2012, a controversial statue of a kneeling and
Adolf Hitler was installed in a courtyard of the Ghetto. The
artwork by Italian artist, Maurizio Cattelan, entitled "HIM", has
received mixed reactions worldwide. Many feel that it is unnecessarily
offensive, while others, such as Poland's chief rabbi, Michael
Schudrich, feel that is thought-provoking, even "educational".
Ghetto is burning: the
Germans march the Jews along Nowolipie Street,
Originally captioned "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs," photo of women
1941 announcement signed by
Ludwig Fischer about the risk of typhus
from contacting Jews
Erecting ghetto wall on Świętokrzyska seen from Marszałkowska
Remnant of the Ghetto wall behind a house at 55 Sienna Street
Ghetto wall remnant behind a house at 62 Złota Street
Former ghetto wall at 11 Waliców Street
Warsaw Ghetto Heroes monument
Miła 18 memorial
One of 22
Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers
Umschlagplatz Memorial on Stawki Street
Warsaw Insurgents Cemetery of 6,588 Jews executed at RKS
People of the
Tosia Altman – ghetto resistance fighter, escaped the Ghetto in 1943
uprising through the sewers. Died after she was caught by the Gestapo
when the celluloid factory where she hid caught fire.
Mordechai Anielewicz – ghetto resistance leader in the ŻOB (alias
Aniołek). Died with many of his comrades at their surrounded command
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum – ghetto resistance leader and commander of
the ŻZW. Killed in action during the ghetto uprising.
Maria Ajzensztadt – singer known as the Nightingale of the Ghetto
Adam Czerniaków – engineer and senator, head of the
Jewish council). Committed suicide in 1942.
Mira Fuchrer – ghetto resistance fighter in the ZOB. Died with many
of his comrades at their surrounded command post.
Yitzhak Gitterman – director of the American
Distribution Committee in Poland, resistance fighter. Killed in action
during the ghetto uprising.
Itzhak Katzenelson – teacher, poet, dramatist and resistance
fighter. Executed at Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944.
Janusz Korczak – children's author, pediatrician, child pedagogist
and orphanage owner. Executed along with his orphans at
August, 1942, after refusing an offer to leave his orphans and escape.
Simon Pullman – conductor of the
Warsaw Ghetto symphony orchestra.
Treblinka in 1942.
Emanuel Ringelblum – historian, politician and social worker, leader
of the Ghetto chroniclers. Discovered in
Warsaw and executed together
with his family in 1944.
Kalonymus Kalman Shapira – grand rabbi of Piaseczno. Executed at
Aktion Erntefest in 1943.
Władysław Szlengel – poet of the
Warsaw ghetto; killed in 1943
Lidia Zamenhof – Bahá'í-Esperantist daughter of Dr. L. L.
Zamenhof. Executed at
Treblinka in 1942.
Nathalie Zand – Neurologist and research scientist. Practised as a
doctor within the ghetto. Thought to have been executed at Pawiak
prison, September 1942.
Rokhl Auerbakh – Polish
Jewish writer and essayist; member of the
Ghetto chroniclers group led by Emanuel Ringelblum
Mary Berg – 15-year-old diarist (in 1939) born to American mother in
Pawiak internee exchanged for German POWs in March 1944.
Adolf Berman – leader in
Jewish Underground in Warsaw; member of
Zegota and Centos – died in 1978
Yitzhak Zuckerman testifies for the prosecution during the trial of
Yitzhak Zuckerman – ghetto resistance leader ("Antek"), founder of
Lohamei HaGeta'ot kibbutz in Israel. Died in 1981.
Marek Edelman – Polish political and social activist, cardiologist.
He was the last surviving leader of the ŻOB. Died in 2009.
Jack P. Eisner – author of "The Survivor of the Holocaust". The
young boy who hung the
Jewish flag atop the burning building in the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ZZW fighter. Commemorator of the Holocaust.
Died in 2003.
Ruben Feldschu (Ben Shem) (1900–1980) – Zionist author and
Joseph Friedenson – editor of Dos Yiddishe Vort. Died in 2013.
Bronisław Geremek – Polish social historian and politician. Died in
Martin Gray – Soviet secret police officer and American and French
Mietek Grocher – Swedish author and the Holocaust remembrance
Alexander J. Groth – Professor of Political Science at the
University of California, Davis. Author of Lincoln: Authoritarian
Savior and Democracies Against Hitler: Myth, Reality and Prologue,
Holocaust Voices, Accomplices: Roosevelt, Churchill and the Holocaust.
Ludwik Hirszfeld – Polish microbiologist and serologist, died in
Morton Kamien – Polish-American economist, died in 2011.
Zivia Lubetkin – ghetto resistance leader,
Aliyah Bet activist,
later married Cukierman. Died in 1976.
Vladka Meed – ghetto resistance member; author. Died in 2012.
Uri Orlev – Israeli author of the semi-autobiographical novel The
Island on Bird Street recounting his experiences in the
Marcel Reich-Ranicki – German literary critic. Died in 2013.
Sol Rosenberg – American steel industrialist and philanthropist.
Died in 2009.
Simcha Rotem – ghetto resistance fighter ("Kazik"), Berihah
activist, post-war Nazi hunter.
Uri Shulevitz – book illustrator
Władysław Szpilman – Polish pianist, composer and writer, subject
of the film The Pianist by
Roman Polanski (survivor of the Kraków
Ghetto) based on his memoir. Died in 2000.
Menachem Mendel Taub
Menachem Mendel Taub – Kaliver rabbi in Israel.
Dawid Wdowiński – psychiatrist, political leader of the
Poland, resistance leader of the ŻZW, American memoirist. Died in
Władysław Bartoszewski – Polish resistance activist of the Żegota
organization in Warsaw.
Henryk Iwański – Polish resistance officer in the charge of support
for the Ghetto. Died in 1978.
Jan Karski – Polish resistance courier who reported on the Ghetto
for the Allies. Died in 2000.
Zofia Kossak-Szczucka – Polish writer and
World War II
World War II resistance
fighter and co-founder of Żegota. Died in 1968.
Irena Sendler – Polish resistance member who smuggled 2,500 Jewish
children out of the Ghetto and helped to hide them, subject of the
film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler. Died in 2008.
Szmul Zygielbojm – Polish-
Jewish socialist politician. In 1943
committed suicide in London in an act of protest against the Allied
indifference to the death of the
Adam Czerniaków – Head of
Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944
Great Synagogue in
Warsaw – one of the largest synagogues in the
world, demolished in 1943
Grossaktion Warschau – the massive deportation to
Treblinka in 1942
Group 13 –
Jewish collaborationist secret police also known as
Jewish Gestapo, led by Abraham Gancwajch
Heinz Auerswald – Commissioner for the
Jewish residential district
Ludwig Hahn – Chief of the
Sicherheitspolizei and the
Sicherheitsdienst (KdS) for Warsaw
Hermann Höfle – Deputy to Globocnik
Jewish Ghetto Police –
Jewish collaborationist police force in
Warsaw Ghetto and elsewhere
Jürgen Stroop – Nazi commander during the suppression of the
Miła 18 – place of mass suicide of
Mordechai Anielewicz and other
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Mila 18 – book by Leon Uris
Muranów – a district in
Warsaw where the major part of the Ghetto
Odilo Globocnik – The Nazi leader responsible for the liquidation of
The Silver Sword
The Silver Sword – novel focused on a family from
Warsaw during the
Second World War
Treblinka extermination camp
Umschlagplatz – collection point for the deportations to
Warsaw concentration camp – established in the former Ghetto
Warschauer Kniefall – gesture by Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt
Żagiew – group of collaborators posing as a resistance group (see
Hotel Polski affair)
^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (May 11, 2012). "Holocaust History: Warsaw".
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. Archived from
the original on August 15, 2012.
^ a b c d e f Holocaust Encyclopedia (June 10, 2013) . "Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising". US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the
original on May 2, 2012.
^ Engelking, Barbara; Leociak, Jacek (2013) . Getto warszawskie.
Przewodnik po nieistniejącym mieście. Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie
Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów. p. 71.
^ a b c Philpott, Colin (2016). Relics of the Reich: The Buildings The
Nazis Left Behind. Pen and Sword. p. 122. ISBN 1473844258
– via Google Books.
^ Megargee, Geoffrey P. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. Volume II:
Ghettos in German-occupied Eastern Europe. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press. pp. 456–460.
^ a b Bains, Alisha (2016). World War II. A Political and Diplomatic
History of the Modern World Series. Encyclopædia Britannica.
pp. 190–200. ISBN 1680483528.
^ a b c d Gutman, Israel (1998). Resistance: The
Uprising. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 118–119, 200.
^ Shapiro, Robert Moses (1999). Holocaust Chronicles. Published by
KTAV Publishing. ISBN 0-88125-630-7 – via Google Books, 302
pages. 300,000 Jews murdered by bullet or gas.[page 35]
^ a b Yad Vashem. "
Treblinka Extermination Camp in the
Generalgouvernement" (PDF). Aktion Reinhard.
^ Dr. Marcin Urynowicz. "Gross Aktion – Zagłada Warszawskiego
Getta" [Gross Aktion – Annihilation of the
Warsaw Ghetto]. Biuletyn
Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, 7 /7 (2007) pp. 105–114 (in Polish).
Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) – via direct download.
Likwidacja getta warszawskiego wiosną 1943 r. oznaczała
natychmiastową lub chwilowo odwleczoną śmierć ok. 50 tys. osób.
Tymczasem Gross Aktion, tzw. Wielka Akcja, zakończyła się
wysłaniem do obozu zagłady w Treblince ok. 250 tys. osób. Zatem to
lato 1942 r., a nie wiosna 1943, było okresem faktycznej likwidacji
społeczności warszawskich Żydów.
^ Statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish
towns in Poland" Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. by
Museum of the History of the Polish Jews
Museum of the History of the Polish Jews (in
English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie" by Gedeon (in Polish)
and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at ARC.
^ a b c d e f Gawryszewski, Andrzej (2009). Ludność Warszawy w XX
wieku [Population of
Warsaw in the 20th Century] (PDF). Język,
narodowość, wyznanie. Warsaw: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego
Zagospodarowania PAN im. Stanisława Leszczyckiego. pp. 191, 193,
195, 202–203. ISBN 978-83-61590-96-5. ISSN 1643-2312 –
via direct download, 425 pages.
^ Melzer, Emanuel (1997). No way out: the politics of Polish Jewry,
1935–1939. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 132.
ISBN 0878204180 – via Google Books, 235 pages.
^ "Warsaw: Life and Death in the Ghetto during WWII". Dr. Peter K.
Gessner, Director. Polish Academic Information Center, University at
^ a b c Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Intelligenzaktion (PDF). Operacja
niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Warsaw: Instytut
Pamięci Narodowej Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi
Polskiemu. pp. 46, 51–55, 88–89 – via direct
^ a b c Berg, Mary; Pentlin, Susan Lee (2007) . The Diary of
Mary Berg: Growing up in the
Warsaw Ghetto. New York: L. B. Fischer
Publishing / Oxford: Oneworld Publications (2nd ed). pp. 2–5,
38. ISBN 1851684727. Hardcover. Chapter I:
Warsaw Besieged: ...
the roads were jammed, and gradually we were completely engulfed in
the slow but steady flow of humanity toward the capital. Mile after
mile it was the same ... as tens of thousands of provincials entered
Warsaw in the hope of finding shelter there.
^ a b c d e Bielawski, Krzysztof; Dylewski, Adam; Kraus, Anna;
Laskowska, Justyna. "Warszawa (part 7)". Virtual Shtetl. POLIN Museum
of the History of Polish Jews. [Also in:] "The
(part 2)". Translated by Magdalena Wójcik. Virtual Shtetl.
^ a b c Grzesik, Julian (2011). Holocaust – Zagłada Żydów
(1939–1945) [Holocaust – Destruction of the Jews (1939–1945)]
(PDF). Lublin, 3rd edition, revised. pp. 43–44, 54 – via
^ a b Trunk, Isaiah (1972). Judenrat: The
Jewish Councils in Eastern
Europe Under Nazi Occupation. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 191, 475,
543–544. ISBN 080329428X. The
Jewish police have learned how to
hit, to enforce order, and to send people to the labor camps, and they
are one of the contributing factors that keep people in line. —
Emanuel Ringelblum 
^ Czerniaków, Adam; Fuks, Marian. Adama Czerniakowa dziennik getta
warszawskiego 6 IX 1939 – 23 VII 1942. Opracowanie i przypisy Marian
Fuks. Warszawa 1983: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. p. 101 –
via Google Books.
^ a b Bergman, Eleonora. Ludność żydowska w Warszawie [Jewish
population of Warsaw]. Book excerpt: Nie masz bóżnicy powszechnej.
Synagogi i domy modlitwy w Warszawie od końca XVIII do początku XXI
wieku. Virtual Shtetl.
^ Levin, Itamar; Neiman, Rachel (2004). Walls Around: The Plunder of
Warsaw Jewry During
World War II
World War II and Its Aftermath. Greenwood
Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 0275976491.
^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2008). "
Warsaw Ghetto". United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Warsaw Ghetto. Local Life Warsaw, Guide.
^ Browning 1998, p. 41.
^ Chłodna Street. Warsaw: Google Maps. 2016. 52°14'13.0"N
^ Kajczyk, Agnieszka (January 24, 2015). "The bridge over Chłodna
Jewish Historical Institute.
^ John D Clare (2014), The
Warsaw Ghetto, 1940–43. Modern World
^ Gutman, Yisrael (1989). The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1943: Ghetto,
Underground, Revolt. Indiana University Press. pp. 50, 98.
^ Browning, Christopher (2005). "Before the "Final Solution": Nazi
Ghettoization Policy in Poland (1940–1941)" (PDF). Ghettos
1939–1945. New Research and Perspectives on Definition, Daily Life,
and Survival. Symposium Presentations, USHMM. 18 of 175 in PDF.
^ Yad Vashem. "Auerswald, Heinz" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The
International School for Holocaust Studies – via direct
download. [Also in:] Browning, Christopher (2005). "Ghettos
1939–1945. New Research and Perspectives on Definition, Daily Life,
and Survival" (PDF). Before the 'Final Solution'. United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. PDF file, direct download.
^ a b Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1975). The war against the Jews
1933–1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
^ Hilberg, Raul, et al. (editors). The
Warsaw diary of Adam
Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom (Stein & Day, NY, 1979).
^ Dr. Piotr M. A. Cywinski, Editor-in-chief (2004). "Adam Czerniakow".
Dia-pozytyw: People. Translated by Dr. Christina Manetti. Adam
Mickiewicz Institute. Archived from the original on August 22,
2004. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b Wdowiński, David (1963). And we are not saved. New York:
Philosophical Library pp. 222. ISBN 0-8022-2486-5. Note: Chariton
and Lazar are not co-authors of Wdowiński's memoir. Wdowiński is
considered the single author.
^ Roland, Charles G, "Scenes of Hunger and Starvation" (1992), pages
^ a b c Laqueur, Walter; Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. pp. 260–262.
^ Farbstein, Esther (2007). Hidden in Thunder: Perspectives on faith,
halachah and leadership during the Holocaust. 1. Feldheim Publishers.
p. 31. ISBN 9789657265055. Friedman sought to inform world
Jewry of the initial transports, he sent a telegram stating: 'Mr. Amos
kept his promise from the fifth-third.' This is an allusion to Amos
5:3: 'The city that goes out a thousand strong will have a hundred
left, and the one that goes out a hundred strong will have ten left to
the House of Israel'.
^ Frydman, A. Zisha (1986) . Wellsprings of Torah. Judaica
Press. pp. xii–xxiii. ISBN 0910818045 – via Google Books
^ Seidman, Hillel. "Alexander Zusia Friedman", in Wellsprings of
Torah: An Anthology of Biblical Commentaries, Vol. 1. Nison L. Alpert,
ed. The Judaica Press, Inc., 1974, pp. xii–xxiii.
^ a b Menszer, John (2015). "Tobbens' Shop in the
Background information to Survivor Stories. Holocaust Survivors:
^ a b Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów (2011). "Getto
Warszawskie". Workshops, with internal links to locations (in Polish).
^ Kurzman, Dan (2009). Tobbens Poniatow factories. The Bravest Battle:
The Twenty-eight Days Of The
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Da Capo Press.
p. 346. ISBN 0786748265.
^ Powell, Lawrence N. (2000). Troubled Memory. Univ of North Carolina
Press. p. 114. ISBN 0807825042.
^ Nicosia, Francis; Niewyk, Donald (2000). The Columbia Guide to the
Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 232.
ISBN 0231528787. The Jews of Poland were augmented by around
3,000 Slovakian and Austrian Jews (the camp elite) expelled to Poland
beforehand, and housed separately from the rest.
^ Lenarczyk, Wojciech; Libionka, Dariusz (2009). "Obóz pracy dla
Żydów w Trawnikach" (PDF / HTML). Erntefest 3–4 listopada 1943 –
zapomniany epizod Zagłady, pp. 183–210. Państwowe Muzeum na
Majdanku: 189–191. ISBN 978-83-925187-5-4. 'Transfer szopów
Schultza z getta warszawskiego'.
^ a b c Browning, Christopher R. (1998) . The August
Treblinka (PDF). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police
Battalion 101 and the
Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp.
88–96 (115–123 in PDF). Document size 7.91 MB complete. Also
as: PDF cache archived by WebCite.
^ Memorial Museums.org (2013). "
Treblinka Museum of Struggle and
Martyrdom". Remembrance. Uwe Neumärker (Director).
Portal to European
Sites of Remembrance.
^ Kopówka, Edward (February 4, 2010). The Memorial. Treblinka. Nigdy
wiecej, Siedlce 2002, pp. 5–54. Muzeum Walki i Męczeństwa w
Treblince. Oddział Muzeum Regionalnego w Siedlcach [Museum of
Struggle and Martyrdom at Treblinka. Division of the Regional Museum
in Siedlce]. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013 – via
^ a b Edelman, Marek. "The
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". Interpress
Publishers: 17–39. undated. [Also in:] Musial, Bogdan (2004).
Treblinka — ein Todeslager der "Aktion Reinhard"". "Aktion
Reinhard" — Die Vernichtung der Juden im Generalgouvernement.
Osnabrück: 257–281. [As well as:] "Operation Reinhard:
Treblinka Deportations". The Nizkor Project. 2008 .
[Source:] Court of Assizes in Düsseldorf, Germany. "Excerpts From
Judgments (Urteilsbegründung)". AZ-LG Düsseldorf: II 931638.
^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, p. 94.
^ Lifton, Betty Jean (2006). "
Janusz Korczak Biography". The King of
Children. American Academy Of Pediatrics. 1st edition.
ISBN 1581101848. [Also in:] "Janusz Korczak". Stockholm,
Sweden: Living Heritage Association.
^ Arad, Yitzhak. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press,
Bloomington, Indianapolis. pp. 97–99.
^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (10 June 2013). "Treblinka: Chronology".
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on
5 June 2012. Deportations from
Theresienstadt and Bulgarian-occupied
territory among others.
^ Robert Moses Shapiro & Tadeusz Epsztein, eds. (2009). The Warsaw
Ghetto Oyneg Shabes—Ringelblum Archive. Catalog and Guide.
Introduction by Samuel D. Kassow. Indiana University Press in
association with USHMM and the
Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw.
ISBN 978-0-253-35327-6 – via Academic Publications of the
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. For years, Oyneg Shabbos had
discreetly chronicled conditions and hid their photos, writings, and
short films in improvised time capsules. In May 1942, the Germans
began filming a propaganda movie titled "Das Ghetto" which was never
completed. Footage is shown in the 2010 documentary called "A Film
Unfinished" which concerns the making of "Das Ghetto" and correlates
scenes from the film with descriptions of them that Czerniakow
mentioned in his own diary. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
^ Seeman, Mary V. (August 25, 2013). "Review of Bohaterowie,
Hochsztaplerzy, Opisywacze, Wokol Żydowskiego Związku Wojskowego".
Heroes, Hucksters and Story-Tellers: On the
Jewish Military Union in
Warsaw Ghetto. Scholars for Peace in the Middle East (SPME).
^ Patt, Avinoam (2014). Henry, Patrick, ed. Resistance in the Warsaw
Jewish Resistance Against the Nazis. CUA Press.
pp. 414–425. ISBN 0813225892 – via Google Books.
^ Schoenberner, Gerhard (2004). The Yellow Star: The Persecution of
the Jews in Europe, 1933–1945. The first day of the Uprising.
Fordham Univ Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0823223906 – via
^ Gilbert, Martin (1986), The Holocaust, pages 522–523.
Jewish Virtual Library, Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg. Source:
Danny Dor (Ed.), Brave and Desperate. Israel Ghetto Fighters, 2003, p.
Jürgen Stroop (May 1943). "The
Warsaw Ghetto Is No More". The
Stroop Report – Translation of Document No. 1061-PS. Nazi
Conspriracy and Aggression Volume 3; The Avalon Project: Lillian
Goldman Law Library. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010
– via Internet Archive. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ Robert Mielcarek (2016). "Book review". Rafał Chwiszczuk, Ulica
Próżna i dzielnica żydowska w Warszawie, Warszawa: Austriackie
Forum Kultury, 2013. Forum Żydów Polskich.
^ a b UMSW (2016). "Miejsca historyczne związane z ludnością
żydowską w Warszawie" [Historic places connected to
Jewish people of
Warsaw]. Judaica. Urząd m.st. Warszawy (official website).
^ ""Controversy over
Adolf Hitler statue in
Warsaw ghetto"". The
Guardian. 2012-12-28. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
^ Libionka, Dariusz; Weinbaum, Laurence (June 22, 2007). "A legendary
Haaretz weekend. Though Apfelbaum is listed in many books
and articles devoted to the revolt in the
Warsaw Ghetto as one of the
commanders of the
Jewish Military Union (see: Moshe Arens, "The
Development of the Narrative of the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising," Israel
Affairs, Vol.14, No.1, January 2008), and a square was named for him
in Warsaw, historians
Dariusz Libionka and Laurence Weinbaum have cast
doubt about his existence.
^ Dariusz Libionka; Laurence Weinbaum (2011). Bohaterowie,
hochsztaplerzy, opisywacze: wokół Żydowskiego Związku Wojskowego
(in Polish). Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą
Żydów, Polish Academy of Sciences. pp. 534–535.
ISBN 9788393220281. Eisner's memoir, 'The Survivor'
(published in 1980) is challenged as not a reliable source of
^ Laurence Weinbaum, "Shaking the Dust Off" The Story of the Warsaw
Ghetto's Forgotten Chronicler,
Jewish Political Studies Review Vol. 22
No. 3-4 (Fall 2010).
Monroe News Star
Monroe News Star (January 31, 2009), "Businessman Sol Rosenthal
dies", Monroe, Louisiana.
^ Dariusz Libionka, Laurence Weinbaum (June 22, 2007). "A Legendary
Haaretz daily. Though he succeeded in convincing a number
of historians of the veracity of his story, according to new research
by a Polish-Israeli team of historians, Iwanski's unit never entered
the ghetto. See: Dariusz Libionka, Laurence Weinbaum: "Bohaterowie,
hochsztaplerzy, opisywacze – Wokół Żydowskiego Związku
Wojskowego", Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów,
Warsaw 2011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) [also in]
Joshua D. Zimmerman (2015). The Polish Underground and the Jews,
1939–1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 218.
Edelman, Marek (1994). The Ghetto Fights. London: Bookmarks.
Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Hilberg, Raul (1979). The
Warsaw diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to
Doom. et al. (editors). Stein & Day, NY.
Kopówka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011).
Treblinka II –
Obóz zagłady [Monograph, chapt. 3:
Treblinka II Death Camp] (PDF).
Dam im imię na wieki [I will give them an everlasting name. Isaiah
56:5] (in Polish). Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe [The Drohiczyn
Scientific Society]. ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1. With list of
Catholic rescuers of Jews from around Treblinka, selected testimonies,
bibliography, alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language
summaries, and forewords by Holocaust scholars. – via direct
download 20.2 MB.
Korczak, Janusz (2003). Ghetto Diary. Yale University Press.
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Warsaw Ghetto: The Journal
Of Emmanuel Ringelblum. Pickle Partners Publishing.
ISBN 1786257165 – via Google Books Preview.
Władysław Szpilman, The Pianist: The Extraordinary True Story of One
Man's Survival in Warsaw, 1939–1945, ISBN 0-312-31135-4
Wdowiński, Dawid. And We Are Not Saved. The
Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to
the Perished City. ISBN 978-0-300-11234-4.
ISBN 978-0-8022-2486-6 – via sample in Kindle. [permanent
Barbara Engelking & Jacek Leociak, The
Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to
the Perished City, ISBN 978-0-300-11234-4
Warsaw and Ghetto, Warsaw: B&M Potyralski, 2000,
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